The Study of Kuzushi
By Neil Ohlenkamp
I was teaching my Judo class the other day, and I tried to explain the
principal of kuzushi, or breaking balance. The reason I was explaining
kuzushi is because during practice that evening most of the students were
focusing on how to get their bodies into the proper position to apply
the technique we were studying. Very little attention was being focused
on placing the partner's body into the proper position. As I explained
the importance of breaking the opponent's balance I could see that everyone
understood that it is easier to knock down another person when he or she
is off-balance. In fact I've noticed that is quite common for the principles
of Judo to be understood long before they can be applied effectively.
It is obvious, even to someone who has never studied Judo, that a throw
will be more effective and require less strength when applied to an opponent
who is in a weakened state of balance.
© 1992 Oscar Ratti
In this classical example of kuzushi being applied
for the throw taiotoshi, tori's hands bring uke into a state of
unbalance while tori remains in a strong, stable position ready
to apply the throwing action.
© 1992 Oscar Ratti
From this position very little strength or energy
is required for tori to complete the throw. Taiotoshi is classified
by the Kodokan as a hand throw and it is easy to see how the hands
pull uke off balance. Additional power is brought to the kuzushi
during the pivoting action (taisabaki) as tori gets into position
for the throw.
One of the things that distinguishes a beginner from a more advanced
student is the ability to focus attention on your opponent's balance.
It is one of the differences between learning a throw, and being able
to effectively apply a throw. Many martial artists tell me that they know
how to do basic Judo throws like seoinage (one arm shoulder throw) or
osotogari (leg outer reaping throw) for example. However, learning to
get your body into the proper position to effectively apply your strength
is only part of learning a Judo throw. The real trick to making Judo techniques
work easily is to find a way to catch your opponent off-balance or to
force your opponent off-balance.
Most people do a fine job of getting off-balance by themselves. One way
to apply Judo throws is simply to catch the opponent at every opportunity
that he or she gives you. It is just not possible to move without some
degree of imbalance. It is certainly not easy for your opponent to attack
you without a force and movement that makes him or her vulnerable to your
counter attack. However learning to take advantage of your opponent's
imbalance requires a finely tuned sense of timing. In order to be at the
right place at the right time, you generally have to anticipate the opponent's
movements, a skill that requires a great deal of experience.
Another way to apply kuzushi is to set up or force your opponent into
a weak position. There are many ways of moving that will result in your
opponent responding in a predictable way so that you can anticipate it
and take advantage of it. It can be as simple as stepping forward and
pushing on your opponent, which usually results in the opponent stepping
back, bracing, and pushing back. This in turn gives you the opportunity
to throw them forward in the direction of their push. The most common
way to force your opponent off-balance is to use combination throws, where
the first throw attempted puts the opponent into an unstable position
so that a subsequent attack can be successful.
Kuzushi is very often thought of as simply pushing or pulling. At more
advanced levels however it is much more than that. For example, kuzushi
can also be achieved by breaking the opponent's rhythm, fake attacks,
strikes, changes of body position or grip, kiai (a shout), or a sudden
change in speed or tempo. A critical element in kuzushi is that it should
disrupt more than the body. Kuzushi is very much a mental thing. Kuzushi
should always disrupt the opponent's concentration, resulting in a momentary
opportunity for an attack. This is one of the reasons confidence is such
an important factor in Judo. A strong and positive mental attitude can
often dominate a weaker state of mind, resulting in effective kuzushi.
Regardless of the physical size and strength of the opponent, kuzushi
will always make a throw work more efficiently. Of course the same principle
applies to any technique, including grappling techniques such as chokes
and joint locks. Jigoro Kano, the founder of Judo, made the principle
of kuzushi one of the fundamental elements of Judo, distinguishing it
from old schools of jujitsu. The principle of kuzushi is still considered
to be one of his major contributions to the study of martial arts. Don't
neglect it in your study of Judo.
"The Study of Kuzushi" is copyright © 2000 by Neil Ohlenkamp,
JudoInfo.com, California, USA. All rights reserved. Published August 1,
2000. Reproduced with permission.
Drawings by Oscar Ratti - Reproduced with permission of the artist.
About The Author:
Ohlenkamp is a martial arts writer and founder of www.judoinfo.com.
He is a certified United States Judo Association instructor, referee,
master rank examiner, and master coach (the highest level of certification),
and he was awarded United States Judo Coach of the Year for 1999. He holds
a fifth degree black belt in Judo and a sixth degree black belt in jujitsu
and has over 31 years of training and experience in various martial arts
as a competitor, instructor, team coach, and tournament official.