I am going to address your issues later, since I have to organize your statements so I can deal with them in a less random way. You certainly have provided a number of questions, but in my opinion, many skirt the major points I have made, and revolve around unimportant issues. You seem quite interested in the role of dependent and independent variables, the notion of proof, when not can exist, and the benefit of studying unrelated Chinese arts. These are all side issues. Since you have contributed so much time in participating here, maybe you could answers some questions. I would like to have your opinions on a number of issues, many that could never be proved.

Let me begin by making some statements. I request that you to specify which of these 12 statements you have concerns with.

1. For kata practiced as early as the late 19th century, there are no sources describing the actual developers of these kata.

2. Since there are no records on who developed the kata, there are no records on the original purpose of the movements.

3. Without actual records of developerís intent, all statements regarding the initial purpose of movements can never be proved.

4. There are a number of sources that describe the Chinese as being a major source of Okinawan karate movements

5. There are some sources that point to the role of some Chinese military personnel as having taught Okinawans.

6. There are some sources that point to the Chinese as being originators of at least some kata.

7. There are a number of sources that state that prior to the Meiji restoration, all training in Chinese arts in Okinawa was done in secret.

8. If there were records kept about aspects of the Chinese teaching of this art, they almost certainly perished in the bombardment of Okinawa in 1945.

9. There are a variety of sources that describe the criticality of Tribute trade to the Okinawan economy, especially in the years prior to the Satsuma invastion

10. There are sources that state that piracy was a severe and deadly problem regarding tribute trade

11. There is at least one source that states that on Okinawan tribute ships, the crew had the responsibility to defend the cargo and vessel during attack.

12. Tribute trade continued until 1870.

Do you take issue with any of these statements. Please let me know which you find issue with. Now, I would like to ask you to answer a number questions. I would like to understand how you might speculate on the following issues, for which no records exist.

1. Prior to the Satsuma invasion, did the Chinese have a vested interest in ensuring that tribute trade was successful.

2. Prior to the Satsuma invasion, would the Chinese have a desire that Okinawan crew members were able to successfully defend their ships. (Please note that Kerr speculates that Okinawans seafarers likely served on Chinese vessels).

3. Prior to the Satsuma invasion would the Chinese have taught Okinawan seafarers, and possibly Okinawan travelers to China, skills in defending a ship from piracy.

4. Would you agree that in 1400 and 1500, among the Chinese military, the spear was the most common weapon of warfare.

5. Would the Chinese have taught Okinawan seafarers spear arts.

6. Would it be likely that the training in these spear arts would include the practice of prearranged movements, in other words, kata?

7. After the Satsuma invasion, did the Japanese have a vested interest in ensuring the ongoing success of Okinawan tribute trade.

8. After the Satsuma invasion, would Okinawan seafarers have continued their training in military arts.

9. Would the practice of any such arts be important up until the point that firearms assumed a central role in the defense of tribute cargo.

10. At the point of the development of firearms, and the ending of tribute trade, would the practice of military arts for the purposes of defending of tribute ships have any further value in Okinawa?

11. Since this was a period still under the weapons ban, what motivation would an Okinawan seafarer have to practice military spear arts as spear arts.

I would be grateful if you would take the time to answer these questions.

Many thanks for your assistance.

-Mike Eschenbrenner