We find reference to training tegumi/shima in the early 20th century in Morio Higaonna 'History of karate'. Chojun Miyagi was thaught Okinawan sumo wrestling(shima) by Soei Makishi a local champion. He also studied judo at highschool.

Shoshin Nagamine describes how Motobu Choki encounterd an Okinawan wrestler (tegumi) who stopped wrestling at age 30 and had a friendly bout with him (See tales of Okinawan Great Masters).

Morio Higaonna also describes in 'Traditional Karate volume I' how in China Kanryu Higashiaonna would train close fighting techniques and choking with partner in a large bamboo basket called Uki. The basket insists fighting in clinch wich will eventually end on the ground.