T - Styles


TAE KWON DO
The five original Korean Kwans ("schools") were: Chung Do Kwan, Moo Duk Kwan (the art of Tang Soo Do), Yun Moo Kwan, Chang Moo Kwan, and Chi Do Kwan. These were founded in 1945 and 1946. Three more Kwans were founded in the early 1950's - Ji Do Kwan, Song Moo Kwan, and Oh Do Kwan.
After fifty years of occupation by Japan (which ended in 1945) and after the division of the nation and the Korean War, Korean nationalism spurred the creation of a national art in 1955, combining
the styles of the numerous kwans active within the country (with the exception of Moo Duk Kwan, which remained separate - therefore Tang Soo Do is still a separate art from TKD today). Gen. Hong Hi Choi was primarily responsible for the creation of this new national art, which
was named Tae Kwon Do to link it with Tae-Kyon (a native art). Earlier unification efforts had been called Kong Soo Do, Tae Soo Do, etc. Many masters had learned Japanese arts during the occupation, or had learned Chinese arts in Manchuria. Only a few had been lucky enough
to be trained by the few native martial artists who remained active when the Japanese banned all martial arts in Korea. Choi himself had taken Tae-Kyon (a Korean art) as a child, but had earned his 2nd dan in Shotokan Karate while a student in Japan.
Primarily a kicking art. There is often a greater emphasis on the sport aspect of the Art. Tae-Kwon-Do stylists tend to fight at an extended range, and keep opponents away with their feet. It is a hard/soft, external, fairly linear style. It is known for being very powerful.
Training tends to emphasize sparring, but has forms, and basics are important as well. There is a lot of competition work in many dojongs.
The World Taekwondo Federation is the governing body recognized by the International Olympic Committee, and as a result WTF schools usually emphasize Olympic-style full contact sparring. The WTF is represented in the U.S. by the U.S. Taekwondo Union (USTU).
The International Taekwondo Federation is an older organization founded by Hong Hi Choi and based out of Canada. It tends to emphasize a combination of self-defense and sparring, and uses forms slightly older than those used by the WTF.
The American Taekwondo Association is a smaller organization similar in some ways to the ITF. It is somewhat more insular than the ITF and WTF, and is somewhat unique in that it has copyrighted the forms of its organization so that they cannot be used in competition by non-members.
There are numerous other federations and organizations, many claiming to be national (AAU TKD has perhaps the best claim here) or international (although few are), but these three have the most members. All of these federations, however, use similar techniques (kicks, strikes, blocks, movement, etc.), as indeed does Tang Soo Do (another Korean art, founded by the Moo Duk Kwan, that remained independent during the unification/foundation of Tae Kwon Do).
TAE SOO DO
Tae Soo Do was created by Supreme Grandmaster Dr. Joo Bang Lee as an undergraduate program to Hwa Rang Do(r). Like Karate and Tae Kwon Do, Tae Soo Do(r) focuses on basic human motion. Techniques are simple yet effective. Students learn proper balance, speed, power and control. Students are also introduced to principles of sparring which are highly applicable to self-defense and martial sport tournaments settings.
In addition to empty handed techniques, Tae Soo Do students are instructed in basic weaponry. Beginning belts focus on San Jyel Bong (Twin Sticks with rope/chain), Intermediate students are taught Jung Bong (Staff) and Advanced students are taught Juk Do (Bamboo Sword) and Gum Do (Way of the one true sword). Students are taught weapon forms for each of these three weapons. These forms focus on study of technique, but are also are perfect for tournament competition.
As a traditional martial art, Tae Soo Do practitioners are instructed in breathing and meditation exercises. Tae Soo Do helps individuals to build a sense of self-confidence as well as physical and mental well being. As in Hwa Rang Do, an emphasis is placed on proper ethical conduct through discipline and respect.
Tae Soo Do is designed for those individuals who have less than one year or prior experience in a martial art, and are interested in increasing their level of physical fitness while learning effective self-defense techniques. Tae Soo Do is perfect for children and adults of all ages and abilities.
Upon completion of the Tae Soo Do program a student continues their education in the Hwa Rang Do program. A Tae Soo Do black belt begins their training in Hwa Rang Do as a yellow sash.
T'AI CHI CH'AUN (TAI JI QUAN)
One of the three orthodox "internal" styles of Chinese martial art (the other two being Hsing Yi Ch'uan and Pa Kua Chang). The term "T'ai Chi" refers to the ancient Chinese cosmological concept of the interplay between two opposite yet complementary forces (Yin and Yang) as being the foundation of creation. "Ch'uan" literaly means "fist" and denotes an unarmed method of combat. T'ai Chi Ch'uan as a martial art is based on the principle of the soft overcoming the hard.
The origins of T'ai Chi Ch'uan are often attributed to one Chang San Feng (a Taoist of either the 12th or 15th century depending on the source), of Chen Jia Gou, Wen County, Henan Province, China, who created the art after witnessing a fight between a snake and a crane. These stories were popularized in the early part of this century and were the result of misinformation and the desire to connect the art with a more famous and ancient personage. All of the various styles of T'ai Chi Ch'uan which are in existence today can be traced back to a single man, Chen Wang Ting, a general of the latter years of the Ming Dynasty. After the fall of the Ming and the establishment of the Ching Dynasty (1644), Chen Wang Ting returned to the Chen village and created his forms of boxing. Originally containing up to seven forms,only two forms of Chen Style T'ai Chi Ch'uan have survived into the present.
The Art was only taught to members of the Chen clan until a promising young outsider named Yang Lu Chan was accepted as a student in the early part of the 19th century. Yang Lu Chan (nicknamed "Yang without enemy" as he was reportedly a peerless fighter) modified the original Chen style and created the Yang style of T'ai Chi Ch'uan, the most popular form practiced in the world today. Wu Yu Hsiang leaned the Art from Yang Lu Chan and a variation of the original Chen form from Chen Ching Ping (who taught the "small frame" version of Chen T'ai Chi Ch'uan) and created the Wu style. A man named Hao Wei Chen learned the Wu style from Wu Yu Hsiang's nephew and taught the style to Sun Lu Tang, who in turn created the Sun style (Sun was already an established master of Hsing Yi Chuan and Pa Kua Chang when he learned T'ai Chi Ch'uan. He combined his knowledge of the other arts when creating his style). Yang Lu Chan had another student, a Manchu named Ch'uan You, who in turned taught the Art to his son, Wu Jian Ch'uan. Wu Chian Ch'uan popularized his variation of the Yang style, which is commonly refered to as the Wu Chian Ch'uan style. In recent times (this century) there have been many other variations and modifications of the Art, but all may be traced back through the above masters to
the original Chen family form.
Complete T'ai Chi Ch'uan arts include basic exercises, stance keeping (Chan Chuang), repetitive single movement training, linked form training, power training (exercises which train the ability to issue energy in a ballistic pulse), weapons training (which includes straight sword, broadsword, staff and spear), and various two-person exercises and drills (including "push-hands" sensitivity drills). A hallmark of most styles of T'ai Chi Ch'uan is that the movements in the forms are done quite slowly, with one posture flowing into the next without interruption. Some forms (the old Chen forms for example) alternate between slow motion and explosive movements. Other styles divide the training into forms which are done slowly at an even tempo and separate forms which are performed at a more vigorous pace. The goal of moving slowly is to insure correct attention is paid to proper body mechanics and the maintenance of the prerequisite relaxation.
Training exercises can be divided into two broad categories: solo exercises, and drills which require a partner. A beginner will usually begin training with very basic exercises designed to teach proper structural alignment and correct methods of moving the body, shifting the weight, stepping, etc. All of the T'ai Chi Ch'uan arts have at their very foundation the necessity of complete physical relaxation and the idea that the intent leads and controls the motion of the body. The student will also be taught various stance keeping postures which serve as basic exercises in alignment and relaxation as well as a kind of mind calming standing meditation. A basic tenet of all "internal" martial arts is that correct motion is born of absolute stillness. Once the basics are understood, the student will progress to learning the formal patterns of movement ("forms") which contain the specific movement patterns and techniques inherent in the style.
Traditionally, single patterns of movement were learned and repeated over and over until mastered, only then was the next pattern taught. Once the student had mastered an entire sequence of movements individually, the movements were taught in a linked sequence (a "form"). The goal of training is to cultivate a kind of "whole body" power. This refers to the ability to generate power with the entire body, making full use of one's whole body mass in every movement. Power is always generated from "the bottom up," meaning the powerful muscles of the legs and hips serve as the seat of power. Using the strength of the relatively weaker arms and upper body is not emphasized. The entire body is held in a state of dynamic relaxation which allows the power of the whole body to flow out of the hands and into the opponent without obstruction.
The T'ai Chi Ch'uan arts have a variety of two person drills and exercises designed to cultivate a high degree of sensitivity in the practitioner. Using brute force or opposing anothers power with power directly is strictly discouraged. The goal of two person training is to develop sensitivty to the point that one may avoid the opponent's power and apply one's own whole body power wher the opponent is most vulnerable. One must cultivate the ability to "stick" to the opponent, smothering the others' power and destroying their balance. Finally, the formal combat techniques must be trained until they become a reflexive reaction.
Modified forms of T'ai Chi Ch'uan for health have become popular worldwide in recent times because the benefits of training have been found to be very conducive to calming the mind, relaxing the body, relieving stress, and improving one's health in general.
Modern vs. Traditional training methods
Traditionally, a beginning student of Tai Chi Chuan was first required to practice stance keeping in a few basic postures. After the basic body alignments had settled in, the student would progress to performing single movements from the form. These were performed repetitively on a line. After a sufficient degree of mastery had been obtained in the single movements, the student was taught to link the movements together in the familiar long form. Now, it is not uncommon for a student to be taught the long form immediately, with no time being spent on stance keeping or on basic movement exercises. Since the Long Form trains all of the qualities developed in the basic exercises, this does not really produce a dilution of resulting martial art. It does however make it more difficult for beginner to learn. The duration of the basic training depends on the student and the instructor; however, it would not be unusual for a relatively talented student, with good instruction, to be able to defend themselves effectively with Tai Chi after as little as a year of training.
Chen Wang Ting's original form of Chen style T'ai Chi Ch'uan is often refered to as the "Old Frame" (Lao Chia) and its second form as "Cannon Fist" (Pao Chui). In the latter part of the 18th century, a fifth generation decendant of Chen Wang Ting, Chen You Ben simplified the original forms into sets which have come to be known as the "New Style" (Hsin Chia). Chen You Ben's nephew, Chen Ching Ping, created a variation of the New Style which is known as the "Small Frame" (Hsiao Jia) or "Chao Pao" form. All of these styles have survived to the present.
The Yang style of T'ai Chi Ch'uan is a variation of the original Chen style. The forms which were passed down from the Yang style founder, Yang Lu Chan have undergone many modifications since his time. Yang Lu Chan's sons were very proficient martial artists and each, in turn, modified their father's art. The most commonly seen variation of the form found today comes from the version taught by Yang Lu Chan's grandson, Yang Cheng Fu. It was Yang Cheng Fu who first popularized his family's Art and taught it openly. Yang Chen Fu's form is characterizes by open and extended postures. Most of the modern variations of the Yang style, as well as the standardized Mainland Chinese versions of T'ai Chi Ch'uan are based on his variation of the Yang form.
Yang Lu Chan's student, Wu Yu Hsiang combined Yang's form with the Chao Bao form which he learned from Chen Ching Ping to create the Wu style. This style features higher stances and compact, circular movements. His nephew's student, Hao Wei Chen was a famous practitioner of the style, so the style is sometimes refered to as the Hao Style. Hao Wei Chen taught his style to Sun Lu Tang, who combined his knowledge of Hsing Yi Ch'uan and Pa Kua Chang to create his own
Yang Lu Chan had another student named Chuan You, who in turn taught the style to his son Wu Chian Ch'uan. This modification of the Yang style is usually refered to as the Wu Chian Chu'an style. This form's movements are smaller and the stance is higher than the popular Yang style.
In summary, the major styles of traditional T'ai Chi Ch'uan are the Chen, Yang, Wu, Wu Chian Ch'uan and Sun. All other "styles" are variations of the above.
Non-martial Tai Chi variants.
There are modified forms of Tai Chi which are devoted mostly to health enhancement and relaxation. The movements retain the flavor of Tai Chi Chuan, but are often simplified.
TAIDO
Taido is a scientific martial art which has taken the essence of the traditional Japanese martial arts and transformed it into one which can meet the needs of a modern society. In both Japanese print and television media Taido has been recognised as a martial art having "philosophical depth" and "creativity". It has been deemed as "the martial art of the 21st century".
Dr. Seiken Shukumine, former Grand Master of the Japan Gensei-school of karate, realised the shortcomings of the unscientific approach taken by other martial arts and decided to develop a new martial art that was both scientific and relevant in the context of the modern world. For thirty years he underwent rigorous training and research in the theory of martial arts and based upon the results, in 1965, he created the three dimensional art which he called Taido.
Taido is not a martial art where punching or kicking techniques are executed along a one dimensional line. Rather Taido's techniques are delivered by changing the body axis and balance. It is also characterised by the use of elaborate footwork in changing the angle of attack and by the use of one's entire body in the martial art. Taido, moreover, is not simply a sport as many forms of karate have become, but also involves a special type of training which requires a tremendous amount of self-discipline in terms of spiritual concentration. The essence of Taido lies not in the techniques of the art itself but in the utilisation of the training acquired in Taido for the development and benefit of both self and society.
Taido's techniques are designed with a dual purpose in mind. Not only are they used for one's personal defence but they play an important role in keeping one's internal organs healthy. Based upon the theories applied in the medical art of acupuncture, Taido has studied the effect of the angle of body movement upon the internal organs. This is realised, in part, through the Hokei, which are systemised routines of techniques and movements. These improve the students' offensive and defensive techniques while promoting the development of their health. Taido also encompasses, and emphasises strongly, the breathing techniques. This is indeed another unique aspect of Taido as compared to other martial arts.
TAIHOJUTSU
Japanese police self-defense method
TAIJUTSU
Taijutsu, literally translated as "skill with the body," forms the basis for all understanding in the fighting arts of the ninja. By concentrating on developing natural responsive actions with the body during initial ninja training, on can then use the physical lessons as models for psychological and tactical training in advanced studies. The ninja's taijutsu is made up of methods for striking and grappling in unarmed fighting, tumbling and breaking falls, leaping and climbing, conditioning the body and maintaining health, as well as special ways of walking and running.
Some of the more popular [asian] martial arts and training systems attempt to mold the practitioner's ways of reacting and moving to fit a stylized set of predetermined movements. In effect, they are "adding to" the student's total personality. The taijutsu of Togakure ryu ninjutsu works in the opposite manner to naturalize all movements by stripping away the awkward or unnatural tendencies that may have been picked up unknowingly over the years.
As a fighting system, taijutsu relies on natural body strength and resiliency, speed of response and movement, and an understanding of the principles of nature for successful results in self-protection. The techniques take advantage of natural employment of body dynamics. The students need not imitate some sort of animal, nor distort or deform the natural body structure, in order to imply the taijutsu techniques for self-defense.
The principles of taijutsu also provide the foundation for combat with weapons in ninjutsu. The loose, adaptive body postures and movements readily fit the fighting tools employed in the ninja's art. Footwork, body balance, speed, energy application and strategy are identical for practitioners of ninjutsu, whether fighting with fist, blades or chains
The effectiveness of taijutsu as a total fighting system is based on the ninja's reliance on the harmony inherent in nature. Even the fundamental fighting postures and techniques model themselves after the manifestations of the elements in our environment; and the advanced training methods use the balances of the psychological as well as the physical ways.
The five physical elemental manifestations of the physical universe are the classifications of solid, liquid, combustious, gaseous and sub-atomic potential, which are the chi (earth), sui (water), ka (fire), fu (wind) and ku (emptiness) of [asian] metaphysics.
By increasing our observation and awareness of the interrelationships of these various levels of reality, we can develop the ability to see vast patterns of cause and effect that are unrecognized by other people around us. In this sense the practitioner of ninjutsu learns to use the natural progression of the universal cycles, and his body and intentions always adapt to the advances of any attacker. By coming into attunement with the scheme of totality, the ninja always knows the appropriate response for any given situation that confronts him.
This martial arts training is a comprehensive system of personal preparation for facing conflicts and confrontations that can arise in the course of daily living. The underlying principles that make up the training program provide a unified single system for handling dangerous situations.
Our self-protection method is a very ancient Japanese discipline of warrior skills forged in a dangerous time when brutal assailants felt that no type of attack was out of the question. Therefore, we and our spiritual ancestors have had to emphasize a total system of self-protection without the rule limits of the newer sport and recreation martial arts.
* We teach methods for dealing with:
* Grappling, throwing, and joint locking techniques.
* Striking, kicking, and bone breaking techniques
* Leaping, tumbling, and attack evading techniques
* Stick, blade, cord, and projectile combat tools
TAKENOUCHI RYU JUJUTSU
Form of jujutsu founded by Toichiro Takouchi (aka Hisamori Takenouchi) in the 16th century. He studied a number of different combat systems, from which he formed his own style, stressing immobilization techniques, as well as those of close combat with daggers. His style soon developed a large following and was taught for many generations.
T'AN T'UI
A Northern form of kung-fu from the Chang-Ch'uan Islamic style. This is actually not a system in itself, but the first form of Chang-ch'uan. T'an-Tui was adopted by several other northern systems in their basics. This Chinese boxing method is characterized by low kicking techniques and an emphasis on strong, yet mobile horse stances. Training stresses repeating movements left and right, always ending each move with a kick.

TANG-SOO-DO
Tang-soo-do " art of the knife hand" is a traditional Korean martial art that focuses on discipline and the practice of hyung (patterns) and self defense sequences. Although founder Hwang Kee claims to have created the art from ancient textbooks on Subak (an older Korean martial art) while living in Manchuria in the 1930s, the style may have been heavily influenced by Japanese karate and Chinese internal methods. In many respects, Tang-soo-do appears similar to Karate and Taekwondo, except it places very little emphasis on sporting competition and flashy maneuvers.
TANG LANG PAI
Tang Lang Pai is the boxing of the Praying Mantis. It has been created from Wong Long in the 17th century. This man observed the fighting methods of the terrible insect and combined them with movements of the monkeys. Master Kao Tao Shan is a well known representative of this style.
TAPADO
In 1960, Romeo Mamar founded the art of tapado which utilizes a forty-three inch staff held at one end with both hands. The art has only two movements in its repertoire, and they are simultaneously blocks and strikes. Mamar founded this art in Taloc, Bago City after having become disheartened by the limitations of the four methods of arnis, lagas, sinamak, layaw, and uhido, he previously learned. In 1963 the Samahan sa Arnis ng Pilipinas sponsored the First National Arnis Festival. This festival was important as it was the first time that the Filipino martial arts were televised for all to see. Various demonstrations of arnis were given by experts from Far Eastern University and the Tondo School of Arnis, which was founded by Jose Mena.
TEGUMI
Tegumi Renzokugeiko: an ancient series of brilliant flow drills which range from checking, trapping, & blocking, to locking joints, twisting bones, seizing cavities & impacting specific pressure points.
TENJIN SHINYO RYU
School of jujutsu founded by Iso Matsemon (also known as Masatarl Yanagl). It is particularly famous for its vital-point attacks (ateml-waza), immobilization methods (torae), and strangleholds (chime). It is generally considered to have been the result of a fusion of two ancient schools, the Yoshin ryu and the Shin-no-Shindo. Jlgoro Kano, founder of modern judo, began his martial arts training by studying tenjin shinyo ryu in 1877.
TESSEN JUTSU
In addition to the daisho, Japanese samurai often carried many other specialized and easily concealable weapons. These were used when otherwise unarmed or, in some cases, when it was preferable not to kill or seriously maim an attacker. The various martial arts ryuha (schools) during the Tokugawa Era frequently taught a wide range of specialized short arms specifically designed for self-defense and which could be hidden within everyday clothing.
Both samurai and commoners alike considered the folding hand fan or sensu an important accessory. Customarily carried in the hands or tucked in the obi (belt), the folding fan also played a significant role in Japanese etiquette, especially on formal occasions, and was rarely ever out of a samurai's possession.
Perhaps because it was considered such an ordinary item, it was easily employed as a suitable side arm with only minor modifications. These weapons, called tessen, literally meaning "iron fan," were constructed of either an actual folding fan with metal ribs or a non-folding solid bar of either iron or wood and shaped like a folded fan. During the Edo Period, the tessen was often considered a common self-defense weapon for extraordinary situations.
There were many situations in which a samurai would not have access to his sword. For example, if visiting another person's home, especially one belonging to a superior, a warrior was generally required to leave one or both swords with an attendant at the door. To prevent violence, obvious weapons such as swords, daggers, and spears were also strictly prohibited within the small confines of the pleasure districts such as Yoshiwara in Edo. A tessen, though, was acceptable in any situation, thus leaving the samurai always armed with at least one very effective defensive weapon.
THANG-TA & SARIT-SARAK
The history of Thang - ta and Sarit - Sarak can be traced to the 17th century. Thang - ta involves using a sword or spear against one or more opponents. Sarit - Sarak is the technique of fighting against armed or unarmed opponents, but on many occasions there is a combined approach to the training of these martial arts. These martial arts were used with great success by the Manipuri kings to fight against the British for a long time. With the British occupation of the region, martial arts were banned, but post - 1950s saw the resurgence of these arts.
Thang - ta is practiced in three different ways. The first way is absolutely ritual in nature, related to the tantric practices. The second way consists of a spectacular performance involving sword and spear dances. These dances can be converted into actual fighting practices. The third way is the actual fighting technique.
The Sarit - Sarak art of unarmed combat, is quite distinct from other martial art forms. It is simply flawless in its evasive and offensive action, as compared to any other existing martial art of the same school.
Legend has it that Lainingthou Pakhangba, the dragon god - king, ordained King Mungyamba, to kill the demon Moydana of Khagi with a spear and sword, which he presented to the king. According to another such legend, God made the spear and sword with creation of the world. This amazing wealth of Manipuri martial arts has been well preserved, since the days of god king Nongda Lairel Pakhangba. The fascinating Manipuri dance also traces its origin from these martial arts.
THODA
Thoda, the impressive martial art form of Himachal Pradesh, relies on one's archery prowess, dating back to the days of the Mahabharata, when bows and arrows were used in the epic battles, between the Pandavas and the Kauravas, residing in the picturesque valleys of Kulu and Manali. Thus, this martial art has its origin in Kulu. Thoda, the name is derived, from the round piece of wood fixed to the head of the arrow, which is used to blunt its wounding potential.
The equipment required for this game are bows and arrows. Wooden bows measuring 1.5m to 2m, to suit the height of the archer and wooden arrows in proportion to the length of the bow, are prepared by skilled and traditional artisans.
In Himachal Pradesh, in earlier days, the game of Thoda was organised in a very interesting way. A handful of village folk would go to another village, and would throw tree leaves into the village well, before sun rise. They would, then, hide in the bushes nearby, just outside the boundary of that village. As soon as the villagers came to draw water, the youths would shout, and throw challenges to them for a fight. This would spark the preparations for an encounter.
The competition is a mixture of martial arts, culture and sport, and is held on Baisakhi Day, April 13 and 14, and community prayers are organised to invoke the blessings of the principal deities, Goddesses Mashoo and Durga.
How the game is played
Each group consists of roughly 500 people, but most of them are just dancers, who come along to boost the morale of their team. The archers are divided into parties, just before the competition takes place. One team is called Saathi, and the other Pashi. It is believed that Pashis and Saathis, are descendants of the Pandavas and Kauravas. The target in this game is the region of the leg, below the knee, where the opponent should aim his arrow.
The moment the two contesting groups reach the village fairground, both the parties dance on either side of the ground, waving their swords, aglitter in the sun, and sing and dance to the stirring martial music. The Pashi group forms a 'chakravyuh', and blocks the Saathi group, who in turn begin to penetrate their defences. After the initial resistance, the Saathis reach the centre of the ground. Both the opponents face each other at a distance of about 10 metres, and prepare to attack. The defenders start shaking, kicking their legs to and fro with brisk movements, to thwart the accurate aim of their adversaries.
Lightning movements and agility are the sole methods of defence. The whole competition is conducted to the lively, virile rhythm of war dance, with one side furiously side-stepping, legs kicking in all directions, and other side doing its best to place an arrow on the target. There are minus points for a strike on the wrong parts of the leg.
At present, the game is played in a marked court, which ensures that a certain degree of discipline is maintained in Thoda - a happy blend of culture and sport. This game is popular in Theog Division (Shimla district), Narkanda block, Chopal Division, district Sirmaur and Solan
THUGGEE
The Thuggee style is a deadly variant of Kalaripayit, which uses the required knowledge of the vital points to hurt rather than heal. The Thuggee style is a secret of the Cult of Thuggee, and one must become a member to learn it.
Thuggee was an Indian cult worshipping Kali whose members were known as Thugs. It was allegedly a hereditary cult with both Muslim and Hindu members that practiced large-scale robbery and murder of travellers by strangulation. It was suppressed by the British rulers of India in the 1830s. A police organisation known as the Thuggee and Dacoity Department was established within the Government of India and remained in existence until 1904 when it was replaced by the Central Criminal Intelligence Department.
TI T'AND
Northern Chinese boxing system; techniques of fighting while falling or lying on the ground. Emphasis is on kicking and falling techniques. Balance is considered from three standpoints: keeping comfortable balance; using difficult movesments, yet maintaining balance; and breaking balance, falling, and yet maintaining composure. This training is seen as proactical in circumstances in which on cannot follow the usual methods of fighting, when injured or taken off guard, for example. Also known as Ti-Kung, and Bai-Ma-Sya-Shan
TJAKALELE
Tjakalele is practically just a war dance originated in the Mollucas. It uses spears and shields.
TJIKALONG
A form of Silat. This system is the "icing on the cake." It revolves around the knowledge of anatomy developed in ancient times which, in some cases, surpasses modern medicine. The emphasis is on nerve destruction.
TJIMANDE
A Silat style. A more defensive, more long-range system, tjimande is the "hard/soft" style of Indonesia. Tjimande people flow with opponents, similar to Filipino martial artists. In the beginning, students learn the hard kickboxing like moves, then, as training progresses, they are trained in soft, tai chi-like applications.
TJIMATCHAN
Javanese Tiger style, fights upright with long sweeping movements; skin attacks, long bone traps, precision striking, ferocity.
TJINGKRIK
Brother art, springing, evasion, siloh, monkey hands, started by woman observing monkeys fighting.
TJIOELER
Snake Style, nerve center attacks, muscle splitters, organ attacks, bone displacements, evasion.
TJIPADANG
A horse style emphasizing a multitude of kicks, stomps, rakes, toekicks, heeling, etc.
TJIWARINGEN
Brother art to Tjimande, emphasizes long-arm techniques and exquisite balancing as a martial technique.
TOIDE
Toide or 'taking hand' is the throwing & grappling aspect of Karate-jutsu. Yes, Karate-jutsu in its fullest and original form has a complete system that entails high-level aerial breakfalls (ukemi-waza), Samurai knee-walking (shinki-waza), joint and wrist locks (kansetsu-waza) and one of the most comprehensive methods of (nage-waza) body throwing techniques. Toide techniques are effectively executed from any type of attack including fist and kick combinations as well as weapons assaults. The art's devistating strikes that precede the throwing techniques are integral to Toide. This creates the essential off-balancing methods (kuzushi) that are necessary to complete the Toide throws efficiently.
TROPA - "THE PATH"
Ancient system with not only physical contact but the use of psychic energy as well
TSUI PA HSIEN KUNG FU
This is the style of the drunk man. It has been created from Li Po. The goal of this style is to have reactions that are totally unforeseeable. The expert falls to the ground, hesitates, rolls changes his rhythm, and so on. Some experts practise holding a glas full of water in the hands.
TUKONG MOOSUL
Tukong Moosul gets its name from the elite Tu Kong (Special Combat) commando unit of the South Korean Army. The originators of Tukong Moosul took the best of other martial arts and brought the techniques together into combat-oriented, effective training. Tukong incorporates techniques from other Korean martial arts like Tae Kwon Do and Hapkido, as well as Judo and Kung Fu.
General Chang K. Oe, commander of the Tu Kong unit, enlisted Won Ik Yi from army headquarters and several top fighters from within the Tu Kong unit to develop the training. Won Ik Yi was trained in Shaolin-style martial arts as a child and incorporated many Kung Fu techniques in the original Tukong Moosul curriculum. Others, including Tukong Moosul Association Grandmaster In Ki Kim, one of the Tu Kong unit masters, have added techniques in more recent years.
Tukong Moosul, like other military martial arts, is all about taking out the enemy. Some of the Tukong Moosul organizations specifically prohibit children from learning Tukong Moosul, instead recommending that they study the sport-oriented Tae Kwon Do.
TURKISH OIL WRESTLING
Almost annually since 1640 hordes of Turkey's finest grappling athletes have gathered in Erdine Turkey for the Kirkpinar, the championship of Turkish oil wrestling. The grapplers oil their bodies, which make them very difficult to grasp. Sometimes in order to secure leverage for a throw, a wrestler is permitted to thrust his hand into his opponent's leather trousers. There are no draws and the match continues until one grappler wins. Many forms of Asian wrestling use belts as a means to grip the opponent and lift and throw him (such as in sumo). There was usually no ground fighting, except in the far east. Competitions took place in a special yard, smoothed for wrestling. Names for most Middle-Asia kinds of wrestling originate from the Turkish word "kurash", such as Uzbek kurash, tatarian kuresh, kazakh kures, and azerbaidjan gurassu. Techniques and rules are very similar to each other. The fight is finished when opponent is thrown to the ground.
As for the wrestlers' costume, just only heavy leather trousers. It made of water buffalo leather with 58 meters of hand stitching. The weight becomes 13Kg for the advanced wrestler.
Olive oil is poured as much as to drip from the whole body. It isn't painted. It is poured.



U - Styles

UCHIDA RYU TANJOJUTSU (SUTTEKI JUTSU)
Uchida Ryu Tanjojutsu or "Sutteki-jutsu" as the word stick is pronounced in Japanese is known as the walking stick art and emerged during the Meiji era when walking canes wear in vogue. Uchida, Ryogoro included "sutteki-jutsu" into the Shindo Muso Ryu
UECHIRYU KARATE
A traditional Okinawan, Zen based style founded by Uechi Kanbum. He combined elements of the Pangai Noon style with the techniques of the Phoenix Eye school. The style incorporates the characteristics of the Wushu animals. It uses circular motions and uses the Phoenix Eye single knuckle punch. Unlike most Karate styles, it uses grappling techniques.
UJUNGAN
Ujungan is occasionally incorporated into various Pencak Silat styles or other systems that are closely related to Indonesian culture like the Filippino martial arts. It is the application of stick and blade.


V - Styles

VALE TUDO (a.k.a. LUTA-LIVRE), NO HOLDS BARRED, FREESTYLE FIGHTING
Blends striking with various locking & choking submissions creating a very effective unarmed martial art as well as a very challenging sport. Initially the No Holds Barred type of fighting was dominated by traditional Brazilian Jiu-jitsu fighters, but over time it has evolved to the point where NHB Fighters will work Boxing for their hands, Muay Thai for their kicking and kneeing, Greco-Roman Wrestling for their take-downs, and Brazilian Jiu-jitsu for their ground control & submissions. Most fighters do a little bit of everything today in order to be "well rounded". The No Holds Barred fighters generally seem to blend aspects from the following arts: Brazilian Jiu-jitsu, Greco-Roman & Catch Wrestling, Muay Thai, Western Boxing, Judo, Jujutsu. There are various promoters and organizations for No Holds Barred type fighting with varying rules. Some of the more popular no holds barred organizations are: UFC, Pancrase, Shooto, and Pride to name a few of the big ones. Some organizations allow all striking (punching, elbows, headbutts, kicks, knees) standing and on the ground. Some events limit the striking to open handed (no fists), no elbows, headbutts... it generally depends on the boxing commissions of the area (at least in the US). Generally most Judo/Jiu-jitsu types submissions are allowed including: Armbars, Triangle Chokes (Leg Choke), Rear Chokes, Ankle Locks, Knee Bars, shoulder locks...and numerous other types of submissions. The only attacks that are prohibited across the board in sanctioned No Holds Barred competitions are: attacking the eyes, fishhooking, striking the groin, throat, spine or knee cap. No Holds Barred type fighting has had it's share of problems, most stemming from bad press and sensationalism in the media about this type of competition. Over the last few years there's been a continues to flourish today thanks to huge events such as UFC and Pride on Pay-Per-View Cable making it a much more main-stream type of sporting event.
VARMA CUTTIRAM
Indian style of martial art similar to Tai Chi and Dim Mak
VERUM KAYTHATRI
Bare handed combat is a post graduate course in Kalari. Here an unarmed combatant fights with an armed enemy and puts him down. Various maneuvers like ozhivukal (skipping), irrakkam (stepping back), kayattam (stepping forward), thada (blocking), pidutham (catching) and attacks to vital body points are the main features to this practice.
VIET VO DAO
Many martial arts were created during XVI-XVIII centuries, when Vietnam was separated in several states. It was a good situation for the developing of martial arts. Many martial arts surfaced during the Tay Son Rebellion (1771-1788), the first serious attempt for unifying the country. The rebel's base was in Binh Dinh Province which still is a place with many martial arts.
The country was finally united at the beginning of XIX century. But during the period of 1858-1884 Vietnam was conquerred by France and became its colony. During the colonisation martial arts had to be kept underground and were transferred in family schools only, from father to son. Studying was kept secret, students sweared to never use their martial art without serious reason and to not divulge its secrets.
The revival of the tradition in Vietnamese martial arts is connected with Nguyen Loc (1912-1960). He was born in Son Tay (Ha Tay Province, near Hanoi). In 1938, he founded the first club of Vo Thuat for all interested people (including foreigners!). He named his school Vovinam Viet Vo Dao (often referred to as "the best from Vietnamese martial arts").
In 1945, a first public demonstration of Vovinam Viet Vo Dao took place in Hanoi and subsequently Viet Vo Dao clubs arised in all regions of nothern and central Vietnam. After the death of Nguyen Loc, his successor - Le Sang - organized a big meeting of masters in Saigon for fostering the plan of spreading vietnamese martial arts worldwide. In 1972, the European Viet Vo Dao Federation was established and in 1980 the corresponding World Federation followed (president: Phan Hoang).
Now 90% clubs of World Viet Vo Dao Federation practice Vovinam. Others are Thanh Long (strong dragon), Han Bai (white crane), Tran Minh Long and Nguyen Trung Hoa (family schools).
In Vietnam the most popular schools are Vovinam, Kim Ke and Vo Binh Dinh. Also there exist about 30 schools, which are not so well known. In addition, there exist numerous so-called Sino-vietnamese styles.
Nguyen Loc created his school on the base of local schools of Shontei Province and other Vietnamese styles which he studied during extensive travelling as well as on the base of the "Linh Nam Vo Kinh" treatise. Vovinam is famous for its various kicks - sweeps, blocks, "scissors" on different levels, jumping kicks, attacks with final jumping on the opponent.
VIVODO
Vivodo is the eclectic martial arts, which draws on different styles to build a strong foundation. This comprehensive system hones competitive skills, like the use empty-hands and weapons styles into a fine art. Systemactic action and counteractinng movements of hands, arms, legs, feet, knees and elbows enables the student to gain maximum intellectual awareness, internal power, physical strengh with the least amount of effort. The simple benefit of practicing all of the above is greater vitality and longevity.
The Vivodo art of systematic action and counteraction is a series of acrobatic arm and foot movements from Vietnamese traditional arts which seeks to avoid dangerous in competition, simplify practice routines in open forms, which are easy to apply and effective for good health and self-defence.
Deep Breath exercises are undertaken to restore energy for internal and external body before training Vivodo arts. Forms were incorporated with hard and soft techniques to achieve flexibility and to concord lively body movements, all this makes ViVoDo a sporting Martial Art, directed towards both the physical and mental culture and oriented to health and self-defence.
VO BINH DINH
Vo Binh Dinh is a very old Vietnamese style that originated in Binh Dinh (today Ngia Binh) Province. It is based on the assumption that the opponent is non-vietnamese and therefore likely taller and heavier. Hence a Vo Binh Dinh fighter constantly moves, changes positions, changes the directions of movement, uses counter-strikes to attacking arm or leg.


W - Styles

WADO-RYU KARATE
Wado-ryu "school of the way of harmony" was founded by Otsuka Hidenori, one of Funakoshi Gichin's students. It combines Jujitsu with a strong focus on evasion through body shifting. style has higher stances and shorter punches than Shotokan. Training stresses spiritual discipline.
WAH KUEN PAI KUNG FU
This is probably one of the most spectacular styles of Kung Fu. It includes jumps, leg attacks to the head, projections and some kind of self-defence techniques like in Ju-Jitsu. Nothern Chinese style of boxing emphasizing high kicks and long-range hand techniques. Students learn to close the gap quickly. Besides kicking and striking, the system also adopts joint locks and throwing techniques. Forms are practiced alone or in two-man sets.
WALL FIGHTING
Wall fighters" very often used knife, flail or short club. Of course, it was infringement of fisticuffs ethics, but - usual infringement. Opponent had chance only if he had similar weapon. There was no possibility for barehand resisting. Even "insets" - hidden inside mitten or fist weight like copper coins, lead bullets or iron pivots - were enough for big advantage. Dal' in his "Explanatory dictionary" described examples of using flails in "wall vs wall" fights, and wrote that "it is impossible to resist such a man in fisticuffs".
Two conclusions are possible. At Dal's time (or not long time before) "wall vs wall" fights used not only fists. Flail is good weapon, but there exist many countermethods against flail - more than against knife. And if "it is impossible to resist" - hence there weren't methods of counter-weapon defence.
There exist sole fightings besides "wall formation", but they are more typical for wrestling, not for fist-fighting. Representatives of all estates participate in such fights, low estates usually don't give in more noble ones. Sole fights in fisticuffs are an addition to the "wall", more experienced fighters compare their force before common battle. Besides forefist, bottom of the fist and inner side of the fist also were used in strikes. Kicks to the legs and leg's hooks were used as in wrestling as infist-fighting. There are not many such methods, but this skill is considered as top-level skill, not accessible to usual fighter. High accuracy of a strike also is considered as high skill. As before, main factors are muscle force and endurance.
WING CHUN
One of the most popular forms of Kung Fu. Wing Chun was an obscure and little known art until the mid twentieth century. While multiple histories of the art do exist (some with only minor discrepancies), the generally accepted version is thus:
The style traces its roots back over 250 years ago to the Southern Shaolin Temple. At that time, the temple a was sanctuary to the Chinese revolution that was trying to overthrow the ruling Manchu. A classical martial arts system was taught in the temple which took 15-20 years to produce an efficient fighter.
Realizing they needed to produce efficent fighters at a faster pace, five of China's Grandmasters met to discuss the merits of each of the various forms of kung fu. They chose the most efficient techniques, theories and principles from the various styles and proceeded to develop a training program that produced an efficent fighter in 5-7 years.
Before the program was put into practice, the Southern temple was raided and destroyed. A lone nun, Ng Mui, was the only survivor who knew the full system. She wandered the countryside, finally taking in a young orphan girl and training her in the system. She named the girl Yimm Wing Chun (which has been translated to mean Beautiful
Springtime, or Hope for the Future), and the two women set out refining the system.
The system was passed down through the years, and eventually became known as Wing Chun, in honor of the founder. The veil of secrecy around the art was finally broken in the early 1950's when Grandmaster Yip Man began teaching publicly in Hong Kong, and his students began gaining noteriety for besting many systems and experienced opponents in streetfights and "friendly" competitions. The art enjoyed even more popularity when one of its students, Bruce Lee, began to enjoy world wide fame.
Most important is the concept of not using force against force, which allows a weak fighter to overcome stronger opponents. Generally, a Wing Chun practitioner will seek to use his opponent's own force against him. A great deal of training is put in to this area, and is done with the cultivation of a concept called Contact Reflexes.
Also of importance are the use of several targeting ideas in Wing Chun. The Mother Line is an imaginary pole running vertically through the center of your body. From the Mother Line emanates the Center Line, which is a vertical 3D grid that divides the body in to a right half and a left half. Most of the vital points of the body are along the Center Line, and it is this area that the Wing Chun student learns to protect as well as work off of in his own offensive techniques.
Also emanating from the Mother Line is the Central Line. The Central Line is seen as the shortest path between you and your opponent, which is generally where most of the exchange is going to take place. Because of this linear concept, most of the techniques seek to occupy one of the two lines and take on a linear nature.
This leads to the expression of another very important concept in Wing Chun: "Economy of Motion". The analogy of a mobile tank with a turret (that of course shoots straight out of the cannon) is often used to describe the linear concept.
Only two weapons are taught in the system, the Dragon Pole and the Butterfly swords. These are generally taught only once the student has a firm foundation in the system.
The way the art produces efficent and adaptble fighters in a relatively short time is by sticking to several core principles and constantly drilling them in to the student, as well as taking a very
generic approach to techniques. Instead of training a response to a specific technique, the student practices guarding various zones about the body and dealing genericly with whatever happens to be in that zone. This allows for a minimum of technique for a maximum of application, and for the use of automatic or "subconcious" responses.
Much training time is spent cultivating "Contact Reflexes". The idea is that at the moment you contact or "touch" your opponent, your body automaticaly reads the direction, force, and often intent of the part of the opponent's body you are contacting with and automatically (subconciously) deals with it accordingly. This again lends itself to the generic concept of zoning.
Contact Reflexes and the concept of not using force against force are taught and cultivated through unique two man sensitivity drills called Chi Sao.
The concepts of guarding and working off of these lines and zones are learned throught the practice of the three forms Wing Chun students learn, and which contain the techniques of the system: Shil Lum Tao, Chum Kil, and Bil Jee.
Another unique aspect of the system is the use of the Mook Jong, or wooden dummy, a wood log on a frame that has three "arms" and a "leg" to simulate various possible positions of an opponent's limbs. A wooden dummy form is taught to the student, that consists of 108 movements and is meant to introduce the student to various applications of the system. It also serves to help the student perfect his own skills.
Weapons training drills off the same generic ideas and concepts as the open hand system (including the use of Contact Reflexes). Many of the weapon movements are built off of or mimic the open hand moves (which is the reverse process of Kali/Escrima/Arnis, where weapon movements come first and open hand movements mimic these).
Currently, there exist several known substyles of Wing Chun. Separate from Yip Man are the various other lineages that descended from one of Yip Man's teachers, Chan Wah Shun. These stem from the 11 or so other disciples that Chan Wah Shun had before Yip Man.
Pan Nam Wing Chun (currently discussed here and in the martial arts magazines) is currently up for debate, with some saying a totally separate lineage, and others saying he's from Chan Wah Shun's lineage.
Red Boat Wing Chun is a form dating back from when the art resided on the infamous Red Boat Opera Troup boat. Little is known about the history of this art or its validity.
At the time of Yip Man's death in 1972, his lineage splintered in to many sub-styles and lineages. Politics played into this splintering a great deal, and provided much news in the martial arts community throughout the 70's and 80's. By the time the late 80's/early 90's rolled around, there were several main families in Yip Man's lineage. To differentiate each lineage's unique style of the art, various spellings or wordings of the art were copyrighted and trademarked (phonetically, Wing Chun can be spelled either as Wing Chun, Wing Tsun, Ving Tsun, or Ving Chun). These main families and spellings are:
Wing Tsun -- Copyrighted and Trademarked by Grandmaster Leung Ting. Used to describe the system he learned as Grandmaster Yip Man's last direct student before his death. Governing body is the International Wing Tsun Martial Arts Association, and the American Wing Tsun Organization in the U.S.
Traditional Wing Chun -- Copyrighted and Trademarked by Grandmaster William Cheung. Used to describe a very different version of Wing Chun he learned while living with Yip Man in the 1950's. Includes different history of lineage as well. Governing body is the World Wing Chun Kung Fu Association.
Ving Tsun - Used by other students of Yip Man, such as Moy Yat. This spelling was considered the main one used by Grandmaster Yip Man as well. It is also used by many of the other students, and was adopted for use in one of the main Wing Chun associations in Hong Kong - The Ving Tsun Athletic Organization.
Wing Chun - General spelling used by just about all practitioners of the art.
WOODLAND INDIAN WRESTLING
The Woodland Indians also used wrestling as a way of settling personal disputes, especially those involving women or goods. Woodland Indian wrestling had no recorded rules except prohibitions against hair-pulling, and it was left to Protestant missionaries to introduce prohibitions against choking and bone-breaking during the 1840s. Victory in Woodland Indian wrestling consisted of using upper body strength to throw the opponent to the ground
WRESTLING - FOLKSTYLE, FREESTYLE AND GRECO - ROMAN
As the name implies, American folkstyle - also referred to as "Scholastic" or "Collegiate" - is a style that is unique to the United States (although mud wrestling is also popular). Both Freestyle and Greco can be found in just about any country in the world. Those two styles are the only styles of wrestling found on the international level. For that reason, you often hear of them referred to as "the international styles." On a philosophical level, the primary difference between Folkstyle and the "International Styles" (I'll lump them together for the time being) is evident in the scoring systems. Folkstyle is primarily concerned with the issue of DOMINANCE. The International Styles are primarily concerned with the issue of RISK.
A scoring philosophy based on dominance is primarily concerned with who is controlling who, who is maintaining dominant position on who, etc. You score points by DOMINATING your opponent. The international concept of "risk" is defined as turning your opponent's back toward the mat ("exposing" his back to the mat, or simply referred to as "exposure") and by how you take him down. For example, you get more points in International styles for throwing your opponent than for simply getting a "normal" takedown.
In freestyle, for example, takedowns are scored like this:
1 point - taking opponent down from feet or knees to the ground
2 points - taking opponent from knees to his back or across his back (i.e. - "exposing" his back to the mat on the way down)
3 points - taking opponent from his feet to his back or across his back
5 points - "high amplitude throw" - throwing opponent so that his entire body comes higher than your hips and taking him to his back, with his feet or head - whichever end is up - making an arcing motion through the air (such as a back arch, or a nice throw from a back step).
As you can see, how you take your opponent down is very important in freestyle (and in greco as well). Let's contrast this with how takedowns are scored in folkstyle:
2 points - taking opponent down from feet or knees
2 points - taking opponent from feet to back
2 points - high amplitude throw
2 points - spinning opponent on your finger like a basketball, then taking him to his back.
So in folkstyle, a takedown is 2 points, PERIOD. In folkstyle, only the 'ends' are relevant; which 'means' you choose is your affair. Folkstyle tells you, "We don't care how you dominate him, just dominate him! Take him down and pummel him, control him, dominate him!" In the international styles, the 'means' is just as important as the 'ends.' The international styles tell you, "Take him down and dominate him, BUT if you can pull off some impressive, risky technique while you do it, we'll reward you for it!"
For the reasons above, Folkstyle tends to be much more "no-nonsense" - since you are not rewarded for trying "fancy" moves, guys tend to stick with more high-percentage, low-risk types of attacks (e.g. - singles, doubles, front head locks, etc). International styles reward you for trying moves that might be a little riskier (e.g. - upper body work, throws, trips, etc.) so people tend to wrestle less conservatively in international styles.
Perhaps the biggest difference between the two styles is the mat work (i.e. - ground work). Since folkstyle is primarily concerned with the issue of dominance (who is controlling who) the bottom guy keeps fighting and scrambling to get off the bottom. The top man is trying to turn him toward his back, of course, but he has the added effort of keeping him down before he can turn him. The bottom man has incentives to fight off the bottom and escape - he will be rewarded with 1 point for escape (because he broke his opponent's dominance over him).
Mat wrestling in the International styles is very different. If I get taken down in International style competition, I don't have much incentive to escape - I don't get any points for breaking his dominance on me. So I just flatten out to avoid getting turned toward my back.
If the top guy fails in turning me over after about 10 or 15 seconds, the ref blows the whistle and brings us back to our feet again. In folkstyle, the top man is free to beat on me until I get out.
Another thing that helps illustrate the "dominance" vs. "risk" philosophy is how back points are scored ("back points" are scored by exposing your opponent's back to the mat). In International Styles, all I need to do is expose his back to the mat for a split second. I don't even have to have a takedown yet to score the back points! His back must turn more than 90 degrees toward the mat, and only for a short period of time, and I've got 2 points. I have succeeded in putting him at risk.
In folkstyle, I must expose him to this risk, but I must control him while doing it. First of all, I need to have established control (gotten the takedown). Then, I need to bring his back down to a 45 degree angle (not just a 90 degree angle) toward the mat. Also, I can't score back points with a split second exposure. I must hold him there for at least 2 seconds to get 2 back points; if I hold him there for 5 seconds or more, I get 3 back points (because I demonstrated a greater degree of dominance over him).
This also makes me a little less concerned about where my own back is in folkstyle. Since he can't score back points on me nearly as easily, I will be a little more relaxed in a scramble situation about where my back is. This is one aspect where freestyle or Greco is a little more conservative than folkstyle. In the international styles, you must constantly be aware of where your back is!
In Greco, you can't use legs. That's basically it. Greco is scored identically to freestyle, however, leg attacks are barred. You can't shoot to his legs or do any trips or anything. Down on the mat, you can't try to turn him with something like a leg lace, or spur him into a
WU CHIEN PAI
Wu Chien Pai, meaning "spaceless style," is a system which promotes an awareness that there is no separateness. The Wu Chien Pai martial arts develop a sense of harmony with nature and the self. The guiding principle of our system is Chi Tao, the Ultimate Way. Chi Tao is built on six principles: peace, love, freedom, happiness, health, and progress. These principles, when present in one's inner state, will be manifested externally
WU KUNG
The 'strong warrior' art of Shaolin and others. It conditions the body to war and privation, the mind to stress and the spirit to the power that war requires of the participant.
_________________________
A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.

Ken