Q - Styles

Qigong (pronounced chee goong) is a Chinese system of physical training, philosophy, and preventive and therapeutic health care. Qi (or chi) means air, breath of life or vital essence. Gong means work, self-discipline, achievement or mastery. This art combines aerobic conditioning, isometrics, isotonics, meditation, and relaxation. Qigong is a discipline whose practice allows us to gain control over the life force that courses throughout our bodies. There are more than 3,000 varieties of qigong, and five major qigong traditions: the Taoist, Buddhist, Confucian, martial arts, and medical. Qigong is thus a soft form of a related set of disciplines that includes Taiji (Tai Chi Quan) and the hard form of Kung Fu

R - Styles

Ter Linden has blended the four systems of Soetji hati, Tjimande, Tjikalong and Serah into one system he calls ratu adil. Yet, he insists on some clarifications about his system, so as not to confuse his efforts with certain practices of which he does not approve. "This is not a watered-down system. You can't teach "express silat" because everything is inter-linked. In a combination, you may have to chain a move from djuru two with djuru fourteen with langka seven, and so on. Of course, you're not thinking about it you're just doing. Ratu adil is also not an eclectic blend of the systems. Most eclectics throw away thousands of years of experience and refinement, usually because they don't understand it. What ratu adil is, is the four systems taught as one. I teach all of the systems to the student, and the student ultimately learns to flow from system to system without thinking about it. For example, he may start out with a tjimande move, a soetji hati bridge and finish with a serah sweep. Or vice versa."
Unarmed fighting method from Bavaria (Germany)
German form of wrestling similar to Cornish Wrestling
ROSS Performance Enhancement System was formulated by SCOTT SONNON, USA National Team Coach, International Champion, International Hall of Fame inductee, Master of Sport, teamed with Nikolay Travkin, AARMACS President and AAIRFRMA General Director, and Sgt. Shawn Menard, Benjamin Brackbill, Scott Fabel and Lt. Michael Hults, AARMACS National Cadre Instructors. The ROSS Performance Enhancement System is a PROCESS of personal transformation through physical culture.
The ROSS Performance Enhancement System evolved from the Russian Martial Art R.O.S.S. - the Russian acronym for Rossijskaya Otechestvennaya Sistema Samozashchity. In English language, this can be translated as the "Russian Native System of Self-Defense". ROSS was developed by Gen. Alexander Ivanovich Retuinskih, President of the International and All-Russian Federation of Russian Martial Art, Vice-Chairman of the International Combat Sambo ("Unarmed Combat") Commission for FIAS (International Sambo Federation) and Chairman of the Russian Combat Sambo Committee, Honored Coach of Russia. ROSS is the training system of Russian Martial Art researched and formulated by the RETAL Center and endorsed and approved by the IRFRMA, which is sanctioned and authorized by the National Olympic Committee of Russia as the sole official representative of Russian Martial Art within Russia and worldwide.
At the present time in the RETAL Center, the training headquarters of the Russian Federation of Russian Martial Art, a method of training specialists is being developed and tested. The indicated method is determined as "Know-How" (registered with the State enterprise "Inform patent" Committee of the Russian Federation by patent and trademark of April 4, 1995).
The application of the indicated methods allow for the sufficient preparation of specialists or athletes for hand-to-hand combat in a relatively short span of time, and also for the use of latent reserves of the human being. ROSS is available for any age and health for people under any condition considering the least time and energy expenditure. Training is designed to imbed neuromuscular memory and imprint psychophysiology with the basic Survival preparation practiced exclusively by the trainers of the elite combat subdivisions of the Russian Spetsnaz Special Operation Units.
The training is designed to introduce a reeducation of biomechanical awareness and bio-energetic potential critical for the neutralization of even the highest intensity conflict of armed plural-assailant engagements and the rejuvenation and regeneration of the physical wellness and fortitude crucial to survival.
Development through ROSS occurs in 3 Phases:
1. Biomechanical - The mechanics of the living (Somatic) body, especially of the forces exerted by muscles and gravity on the skeletal structure.
2. Proprioceptive - The unconscious perception of movement and spatial orientation arising from stimuli within the body itself.
3. Psychophysiological - The relationship between physiological processes and thoughts, emotions, and behavior.
Each of these Phases as a Trinity of concentration. The basic level - Biomechanical - involves the reintegration of Breathing, Movement and Alignment.
The PROCESS of ROSS is a totally specific and utterly unique system of Somatic Engineering. NO other system is like ROSS, which is why it is trademarked protected.
Simply stated, ROSS can be understood this way:
Flow State refers to that Psychophysiological mode where the individual maximizes their Optimal Performance (in any aspect of Physical Culture). The level of integration of Biomechanical Efficiency ("Movement"), Structural Alignment ("Structure"), and Respiratory ("Breathing") Enhancement determines the individual's State. Fear-Reactivity DIS-integrates Movement, Structure and Breathing.
"Fear-Reactivity" a term coined by Scott Sonnon in his research to refer to those somatic ticks (in breathing, movement, or alignment) that have been conditioned (trained) through fear, anxiety, trauma, (as well as anger, sorrow, etc...) These are defensive mechanisms that involuntarily brace against the perceived threat. After years of sustained bracing, these mechanisms become embedded patterns of behavior, rooted into the individual's modus operandi. The longer and stronger the disintegration, the more difficult and more arduous the DECONDITIONING necessary at reclaiming optimal performance - or flow state.
Most people do not even realize the daily, micro-chronic disintegration of Movement, Structure and Breathing, and as a result, they do not understand why over time, as they age, their maximum net performance diminishes in potential. This is NOT due to age, but due to lack of understanding the process of ROSS, and due to lack of vigilance in Daily Personal Practice. One cannot compartmentalize the efficiency and the integration of Movement, Structure and Breathing. One cannot expect to maximize one's duration within flow state during an "intended" physical event such as martial art, while neglecting efficiency and integration in every other aspect and moment of one's life. That's oxymoronic. This is why ROSS is a LIFESTYLE SYSTEM, rather than a mere combat style... for the latter is incapable of truly helping the individual recapture and refine their true potential as an individual.
ROSS systematically, through incremental development manicures a specific Training Environment, to facilitate a specific Training Experience, to enable a specific Training Content to be created BY THE INDIVIDUAL.
There are those that read this and inappropriately assume this means the individual just chooses to "do anything." This couldn't be farther from the truth. Each individual, over time, conditions/trains to have a specific pattern of Fear-Reactivity. Most people believe that they are doing themselves some justice by fortifying their reactivity. Most people do not even realize how dangerously sapped their energy has become. Most people assume that as they continue to age that the reason their maximal performance diminishes is because they age, when it is THEIR SPECIFIC TRAINING HAS LED TO PERPETUAL CANNIBALIZATION OF THEIR POTENTIAL . . . They condition themselves into strengthening their Fear-Reactivity . . . and they do this every moment in their lives that they experience any stressor, until... life itself, every moment, is an experience of stress.
Fear-Reactivity is not merely the cancer of performance, it is the cancer of life itself. ROSS is the System of eradicating that cancer, and restoring one's natural abundant health, and unlocking one's unlimited potential.
ROSS is the SYSTEM of returning authority to the individual through becoming aware of one's unique pattern of Fear-Reactivity, and deconditioning that pattern. The Process of Deconditioning Fear-Reactivity is a simultaneous Process of Revealing Natural Talent. Through ROSS, one deconditions Fear-Reactivity and as a result one's true, abundant natural prowess and innate genius manifests. ROSS then continues to refine one's natural talents and cultivate one's personal genius.
Hand to hand combat style of Spetsnaz. A hard, direct version of Systema, often classified in special forces training as Combat Sambo.
RUSSIAN FOLK STYLES - (e.g. Buza, Skobar, Forest Warrior,Kozachiy Sploch, Fist fighting by Gruntovsky and many more)
In Russia each separate ethnic group, and even each republic, remains devoted to its own form of fighting and martial heritage. Some of the martial arts from this region which have survived over the years, and continue to be practiced today, are: Tverian Buza; Pshkovian Skobar; Ukrainian Spas and Kazak; Byelorussian Asilki; and, Russian Slavyano-Gortskaya Sor'ba.
The Indo-Turkic region, also the origin of the Russian language, gives us the martial practices of Tuvinian Kuresh, Kara-Kyuresh and Lama-Kyuresh; Azeri Gulesh and Gurassau; Kirghiz Koresh and Oodarch; Kazakhi Kures; Chuvashi Akatuj; Uzbeki Kurashe; Tatar Kovreche; Yakut Khapsogay; and Turkic Gushti-Gin, Gurech and Khiva. The non-Turkic Caucasus area gave life to such fighting arts as Georgian Chidaoba and Ankoumara; Armenian Koch; Moldovan Trinte Kunedika and Drespta; Serbian Rvanje and Lithuanian Ristines. Finally, from the Mongols who dominated Russia from 1227 until 1480 A.D., we have Buryat Buhe Barlidean, and Northern Mongolian Bokh, Hara Moriton, Cilnem and Kalkha, as well as Barilda.

S - Styles

Sado-mu-sool is an ancient Korean martial art that used stone weapons. Sado Mul Sool, of tribal martial arts are likely to be the first organized martial arts developed in order to provide food for the families, clans, of tribes the world over. Later, as agriculture developed, it became necessary to defend crops and territory. Since nature has a way of allowing the strong and skillful to survive, the honing of skills must have been the number one priority for all tribes. It is from these finely honed skills that Our art takes the many "empty hand" and simple weapons techniques.
Developed from drills and concepts formulated by Dr. Guillermo Lengson of the Karate Federation of the Philippines, Sagasa Kickboxing System has progressed into its present form through the efforts of Christopher Ricketts and senior members of Bakbakan. The intensive drills, known as SERIES, develops coordination, power and reflexes. Dr. Lengson, though no longer active, is regularly consulted for his expertise and in-depth knowledge of body mechanics and training methods. Many of the developments in other facets of Bakbakan's repertoire of fighting systems owe their structure and development to Dr. Lengson's timeless concepts.
Hagibis Combat System complements Sagasa as combat evolves from long and mid-range into close-quarters fighting. Developed primarily as throwing and tripping techniques, Hagibis also includes grappling and submission arts. Emphasis, however, is to throw or disable an opponent in such a way, that one is able to continue fighting multiple opponents which is the likely situation in a street confrontation.
Hagibis takes into consideration that a majority of street attacks are usually multiple and armed and therefore grappling, although studied and practiced, is only an option and the practitioner should always be wary of multiple armed assailants. Bakbakan's combination of Sagasa and Hagibis systems has qualified its members to participate and represent the Philippines in San Shou competitions internationally.
Saldu, a form of wrestling, is one of the prominent sports of the Nicobarese tribe. This game does not require a court, only vacant land. The field is divided by a line in the centre, and there are no boundary lines. The number of players is as desired, but each team is to comprise equal number of players. Usually, a maximum of 20 players are allowed in each team.
The raiders stand on one side of the centre line. One player from the team of raiders enters the area of the defenders and tries to touch them, and then get back to his side, crossing the centre line. If he succeeds in doing so, the raiders win a point. Each player touched is declared dead, and is consequently out of the game. If the raider is caught by the defenders in their court, the defenders win a point, and the raider is out of the game.
The team of defenders then assume the role of raiders, and thus the game continues. When the game reaches the pre - determined time limit or when all the players of one team have been sent out of the game, the game ends. The team scoring the maximum number of points at the game's end is the winner.
As there are no boundaries to the field, Saldu demands far more stamina, speed and endurance than Kabaddi. During a special festival of the Nicobarese tribe, women and men upto the age of 40 years participate with much gusto in this game.
A style of Karate that is based on a combination of other styles. Sanukai emphasises escaping techniques that are similar to Aikido
Ssireum is a form of Korean wrestling that is one of the most popular spectator sports in Korea. In ancient times, but its has develop into a major national sport for physical competition and entertainment. According to the literature, the contest of Ssireum was called various other names such as Gakjo, Gakhi, Sangbak, and Gakgi. The name Ssireum has been universally used since 1920. In the Ssireum, two contestants wrestle and, if any part of the opponent's body above the knee to touch the ground, the competitor wins the bout. Ssireum is practiced by grasping a strap that is tied around the waist and thigh and it requires considerable muscular strength and muscular endurance.
SAMBO is an acronym of Russian words "SAMozaschita Bez Orujiya" - "Self-Defence Without Weapon".
SAMBO was created in the 1930's. Official recognition of new art was in 1938. At first it was named "free-style wrestling", then "free wrestling," and in 1946 was renamed "SAMBO." This system is compilation of techniques from a number of martial arts including Japanese and Chinese martial arts; national martial arts of USSR area natives (Georgians, Armenians, Mongols, Russians etc.); French wrestling and other arts. At the time of the 2nd world war the system was widely "tested" by the Soviet army. "Special" techniques were added at the time, for example fighting in cells, quick-and-quiet sentry killing, and so on. Because of the number of criminals in the Soviet army at that time (during WWII each prisoner was "invited" to the front with each year at the front worth two or so years of their sentence) SAMBO experts acquired many lessons on criminal street
fighting, and a number of these techniques were included in SAMBO. SAMBO continues to accept new techniques and modify old ones.
Today, SAMBO is built from 3 parts: the sportive part (Olympic sport), the self-defense part, and the special or combat part.
The sportive part is similar to Judo but with some differences in allowed techniques. SAMBO allows leg locks were Judo does not, but Judo allows choking but SAMBO does not. There are somewhat more techniques in SAMBO than in Judo.
The self-defense part of SAMBO is similar in form to Aikijujutsu because it is intended to be entirely defensive. The founder of SAMBO said this about the self-defense part:
"We give defensive weapons to citizens. Some people say that this kind of martial art may be learned by criminals or hooligans and used against citizens. Don't worry! This art does not include even one attacking technique! If a hooligan will learn, he will be able to apply it only against another hooligan who will attack him, but never against a citizen."
There are many specific techniques for defending specific attacks, including escaping from grips and chokes, defenses against punches and kicks, defenses against weapons (knife, stick etc.), and
floor-fighting. The self-defense part of SAMBO is based on body movements and locks with a few punches and kicks. The object is to allow defense but not to injure the opponent more than necessary because this part was created for citizens. In the former Soviet Union the law was that if you injure your opponent more than needed in a self-defense situation you could receive a 5 year prison term. Some of the self-defense techniques are based on sportive SAMBO.
The third part - combat SAMBO - was created for the army and police. It is a very severe, and dangerous system. If the idea of sportive SAMBO is "Take points and win," and the idea of the self-defence part is "Don't allow to attacker injure you," the idea of combat SAMBO is "Survive, and if someone hinders you - injure or kill him." Combat SAMBO includes sportive and self- defence techniques, but uses them in different ways. For example, sportive SAMBO uses the traditional shoulder throw of Judo and Jujutsu. In combative SAMBO the throw is done with the opponents arm rotated up and locked at the elbow, and can be done to throw the opponent on his head. If the opponent attempts to counter by lowering his center of gravity and pulling backwards (as is taught in sportive SAMBO) the arm will be broken. Combative SAMBO teaches shoulder throw counters that might be able to deal with a locked arm like kicking out the opponents knee and pulling back by the hair or eye sockets.
In addition to modified sportive and self-defence techniques, combat SAMBO includes kicks, punches, "dangerous throwing" (throws that can't be include into sportive part because they cause injury), locks on the spine, things that are prohibited in sportive wrestling (biting, for example), many "sadistic dirty things," working against weapons (with or without a weapon of your own), tricks like putting your coat on your opponents head (works nicely), floor fighting (very strong), fighting in closed space (small room, pit, stairs), quick-and-quiet sentry killing, and so forth. Students also learn strategy and tactics of fighting alone or in groups against single or multiple opponents. SAMBO is less popular today in Russia because the influx of oriental martial arts in recent years. But, the development of SAMBO has continued and elements of it are incorporated into other modern combat systems.
Sanda is a popular form of Chinese kickboxing. It is performed on a platform. A participant is awarded 5 points for forcing his opponent off the platform. No groin or throat strikes are permitted but about everything else is permitted.
In Kung Fu the agonistic combat it is called Sanda and it has roots in the antiquity (700-211 a.c.) when skillful fighters defied themselves on a raised spring-board. In 1979, in order to develop the martial art movement, the national Commission of the sport has begun to organize course of sanda arbitrage to following " activity and stability " politics. In 1989 it become a world-wide level competition. At the first Beijing international martial arts championship in 1991, organized from the Chinese martial arts Association (employee from the international martial arts Federation), the sanda has been officially inserted in contest events, therefore like in 1992 in south Korea and in 1993 in Malaysia.
The Sanda is based on hand techniques (fists and catches), leg techniques (kicks, swept, losses of balance) and projections(that concur the knocking down of the adversary). The combat carries out on a raised spring-board (8m.x8m. of 60cm.). The challengers must wear an helmet, teeth protection, a corpetto, a shell, gloves and paratibia.In the score are mainly rewarded kicks projection and all those that demand a sure ability. Instead are penalized (also with the expulsion) technical forbidden, incorrect attitudes with adversary or the arbitrator. The victory happens for sum of points, k.o. or abandonment.
Nothern style of kung-fu that originated in the Three Kingdoms period. Its name literally means 'cannon fist'. This style is also known as hsing-kung-ch'uan and is still practiced in Peking
The art of SAN-JITSU refers to the 3 ways of "body, mind and spirit". It is a jiu-jitsu system which also incorporates elements of karate, judo, jing jow pai kung-fu, wrestling, boxing and street fighting. It is Guam's first internationally recognized Martial Art System encompassing striking, kicking, throwing, grappling, pressure points, acupressure and resuscitation arts. Formulated in the Village of Toto, Guam by Professor Frank E. Sanchez in 1971, it includes unique rolling movements to take advantage of momentum that will help destroy the limbs of one's opponent.
SANKUKAI karate was created with combining of principles and techniques of aikido, judo, shito ryu karate and shukokai karate. Its symbol are three circles: two red and one white. They represent Earth, Moon, and Son, three elements always harmonically involved in their cosmic dance. This symbol also represents the main idea of SANKUKAI karate, which is establishing harmonic relationship with the enemy and usage of enemy's force against himself by the means of escapes, round blocks, punches and kicks. This is the idea of most other martial arts, but is often neglected in practice because of its difficulty. The quality of SANKUKAI karate is that this idea is represented and feasible for most students already after some years of study. Unlike shukokai, SANKUKAI is not mainly intended for kumite. Techniques for self-defence and for a real combat are strongly emphasized. Stances in SANKUKAI are high and short with the hands in kaisho, like in shito ryu and shukokai. Blows are performed with the principle of shock with single or double hip swing. At practicing and fighting round blows are often used. In defense they are used in the combination with escape and round block. In attack they are used in series of blows or at changing of attack direction. Another property of SANKUKAI karate is also a practice with partner. Techniques are not performed individually like in most styles. Working in pairs is what students are encouraged to do from their very beginning of practicing SANKUKAI karate. This way we are learning how to adapt ourselves to the enemy and how to use his force and power.
In Chinese, San Shou (loose hands) refers to the free application of all the realistic hand-to-hand combat skills of Kung Fu. It is divided into three categories: Sport San Shou (Chinese Kickboxing), Civilian San Shou, and Military San Shou (AKA Chin Na Ge Dou).
After fighting directly with the superior American forces during the Korean War, the Chinese government realized that new scientific R&D is important for its military forces. Army chief Peng De Huai directed a great military training campaign (Da Be Wu) after the war. Martial
arts masters from each of China's 92 provinces were brought together with medical experts to compare and evaluate their techniques. A new hand-to-hand combat system was developed based on three criteria: simplicity, directness, and effectiveness against a larger, stronger opponent. This system of fighting was thoroughly tested in training camps throughout China, and in border conflicts with Soviet troops. The Chinese military published manuals on San Shou in 1963 and 1972.
Besides military San Shou, civilian San Shou continued to be developed by underground martial arts schools and individual martial artists in communist China. Civilian San Shou warriors sharpened their skills by street championships where they challenged each other. These kinds of
challenges were very popular during the cultural revolution (1966-76) and usually ended by being broken up by the police.
In recent years, sport San Shou has been developed and promoted by the Chinese government. In the early years (1980s), there were no formal championships for San Shou. Only demonstrations were available on national T.V. Most of the San Shou participants were military and police men. Therefore, sport San Shou kept its flavour of military kickboxing and wrestling. Lately, the Chinese government have promoted San Shou into a nation-wide sport and held formal national
and international championships every year.
The San Shou as practiced by the Chinese military is based on the Chinese Art of War, physics, anatomy, bio-mechanics, and human physiology. It is a complete system of realistic unarmed combat covering the skills of striking, grappling, wrestling, groundfighting, and weapon defenses taken from various Chinese and foreign martial arts and hand-to-hand combat styles. It focuses on applying the principles of combat rather than on techniques. The various divisions of the military and police force have slight differences in technique, but they all employ the same principles.
Because of the increase of violent crimes in China, civilian San Shou was created by the Chinese government so that Chinese civilians can learn self defense skills. It is also a complete system of striking and grappling, but without the lethal techniques that are required in the military. Many "underground" martial artists also developed San Shou fighting skills.
The sport of San Shou is rising in popularity all over the world. It is a kickboxing style that is fought on a platform called a "Lei Tai". Fighters wear boxing gloves, headgear, and body protectors. It is full contact kicking and punching with throws and sweeps allowed. Knees, elbows, headbutts, joint manipulation and chokes are not allowed, but fighters can be thrown off the platform.
Military and civilian San Shou training involves many punching, kicking, grappling, wrestling, groundfighting, and weapon defense drills with a partner. Contact sparring with protective gear is also emphasized. This is where the different skills are blended together into one fluid art. There are no forms or formal stances, and no chi-kung exercises.
Sport San Shou training is similar to kickboxing training, except that throws and sweeps are also drilled extensively. Physical conditioning is also important in sport full-contact fighting.
Military San Shou (AKA Chin Na Ge Dou)
Civilian San Shou
Sport San Shou (Chinese Kickboxing)
Old Japanese system of attacking weak areas of the body so as to disable an attacker. These methods were taught in the old jujutsu systems, handed down by word of mouth from master to pupil in sworn secrecy.
Founded in the 1970s, it is more popularly known as the art of street fighting. Sari-an is the acronym for Sariling Pamamaraan, which caters to the needs of each and every individual. Its goal was to cover all facet of fighting, ranging from striking, grappling and incorporating the different systems of arnis, kali, eskrima and knife fighting.
Sarian means, literally, "Different Kinds", But it best means "Anything goes" This is not to be confused with Sikaran, above. Sarian is an application of Bruce Lee's Jeet Kune Do theory to Martial Arts in the Philippines. It combines Kickboxing and an entire slew of other Martial Arts, including some kicking techniques from Sikaran. All in all, Sarian is a street brawling style ideal for use in very rough neighborhoods, such as the Tondo slums of Manila City, where Sarian first turned up.
Savate is a French style of foot and fist fighting. Systematized in post-Napoleonic France, savate is the only martial arts native to Europe that still exists in both sport and combative forms.
The precise origin of the art is unknown, and puzzled even its earliest practitioners. It is known that 17th-century sailors of Marseilles were required to practice stretch-kicks to keep them in condition for ocean voyages. Some historians speculate that these sailors were influenced by contact with the Asian martial arts during their occasional visits to Burma, Thailand, and China. Certainly, street fighting in the barrooms and alleys of French seaports did begin to feature crescent kicks to the head, body, and legs-though they lacked power and often missed the opponent altogether. Sailors called this form of foot-fighting "chausson," or "slipper," in reference to the felt slippers they wore when practicing stretch-kicks.
Meanwhile, perhaps influenced by chausson, the soldiers in Napoleon's army developed an unofficial punishment for regimental misfits. A group of soldiers would hold the offender in place while another kicked him severely in the buttocks. The punishment was called "la savate," literally "old shoe," but might be best translated as "booting." Perhaps Parisian soldiers introduced savate to the public, booting undesirables in the shins or confronting the disorderly with a leg kick. Whatever the case, by the beginning of the 19th century the ruffian elements of Paris brawled with their feet rather than their fists, and their kick-fighting was popularly called savate.
Eventually, a young man named Michael Casseuse sought out the better street fighters and observed and categorized their techniques. The result was a refined fighting system. His offensive techniques emphasized front, side, and round kicks to the knee, shin, or instep. The hands were held low and open to defend against groin attacks. Palm heel strikes were used to attack the face,
nose, and eyes.
In 1824 Casseuse authored a pamphlet on savate that caught the attention of Parisian polite society. Almost overnight he became the country's most sought after master of self-defense. His clientele ranged from the wealthy to the noble and included both Lord Seymour and the Duke of Orleans (heir to the French throne). Street fighters throughout Paris and across France, many of them chausson practitioners, regularly descended upon his school to challenge his mastery. Fortunately, Casseuse, himself an excellent fighter, always rose to the occasion. But as a result of these encounters with chausson, savate came to include both mid-level and high-level kicks, in addition to Casseuse's low kicks.
Later, Charles Lecour, one of Casseuse's best students, journeyed to London to study bare-knuckle boxing from England's most respected teachers Adams and Smith. Upon his return to Paris in 1832, he synthesized English boxing and Casseuse's savate to create "la boxe Francaise," or "French boxing." Lecour also introduced the use of boxing gloves for training, which minimized accidents and increased the art's popularity. Again, France's elite took notice and Lecour became a sought after fight master.
Lecour and other major teachers regularly opened their schools for public viewing of full-contact competition patterned after the London Prize Ring rules. And in 1850, Louis Vignezon, nicknamed the "Cannonman," emerged as savate's first major ring champion. Vignezon carried a cannon on his shoulders as he made his way into the ring, to dishearten his opponents. His greatest fame came from knocking out the giant wrestler "Arpin the Terrible" with only four kicks.
One of the few men who could stay in the ring with Vignezon, and thus serve as an adequate sparring partner, was his best student, Joseph Charlemont. In 1862 Charlemont toured Europe challenging fighters of all stylistic persuasions. He was undefeated in the ring: When Charlemont returned to France he introduced fencing theory and footwork, added wrestling techniques, and improved kicking and punching techniques. He was the first to prove the value of high kicks. He is still considered the greatest savateur of all time.
Charlemont's fighting system used the same fighting stance found in modern fencing. His punches were based on a forward lunge and included straights, swings, and uppercuts. His kicks, on the other hand stressed speed and accuracy above power. The leg was lifted straight from the floor to the target with little preparatory recoil.
Characteristic of these kicks, again influenced by fencing, was a peculiar counterbalancing movement of the arms to improve accuracy.
Charlemont taught his system around the concept of four ranges. The first range, for the cane, is derived from fencing. (The sword itself had been forbidden by law; its role as part of the dress of the fashionable French gentleman was replaced by the cane.) Charlemont could deliver 140 cane blows in 80 seconds. The cane, or "la canne," is still taught to savate students. The second range deals with long-distance techniques, such as kicking. The third range is a medium-distance, with hand techniques. And the last range consists of wrestling techniques.
By the turn of the 1 9th century, inspired by the example of Joseph Charlemont, savateurs throughout France began to make an effort to promote their art around the world. The great John L. Sullivan was once staggered, and then knocked to the ground by the kicks of a savateur. Charlemont's son, Charles, fought a world-class British prize fighter named Jerry Driscoll and won by knockout in the 6th round. Georges Carpentier, who challenged Jack Dempsey for the world heavyweight boxing championship, was also a savateur.
During the two world wars, thousands of savateurs were killed, and the art was threatened with extinction. In 1945 Count Pierre Baruzy, a student of Charles Charlemont and an eleven-time French national champion, attempted to revive savate. Since the Count was also a black belt in judo, and had some exposure to karate, he solicited help from the growing numbers of post-war French judo instructors. By the mid-1969s there were enough savate schools to justify the creation of a national organization. The Count became its founder and first president.
A savate club was started in Genoa, Italy, as long ago as 1830. Today, there is a modern French boxing/savate center in Milan. The art was established in Belgium when Joseph Charlemont traveled there in the 1880s and taught the novelist Alexandre Dumas.
To practice savate today, one wears a T-shirt, gym tights or track-quit trousers, sneaker like
boots, and special boxing gloves (usually 16 oz). The wrist of the savate glove extends half-way up the forearm and is used for blocking.
Since World War II, savate has had a grading system: grade is indicated by an inch-wide colored band around the glove's wrist; these grades are called "gloves."
The first grade is purple glove, followed by blue, green, red, white, and yellow. The average student reaches yellow glove in about two years. Above this, there is the silver glove of the instructor, and the golden glove of the "professeur."
Today's savate incorporates all of the innovations of the 20th century boxing ring, from Jack
Dempsey to Muhammad Ali. Kicking techniques have been designed that are compatible with a boxer's hand techniques. And the unusual counterbalancing actions of the arms have been eliminated from ring use.
Competitively, sport savate uses full-contact rules and emphasizes fast kicking combinations. As a self-defense system, open-hand and bare-knuckle techniques are still taught, and combined with weapons skills (cane). (PAUL MASLAK) See also Europe, history of
karate in. Further reading: Black Belt Magazine, March 1967.
BOXE, FRANCAIS Francais Boxe, or French boxing, is a regional style of combat in which both gloved fists and feet are employed. Derived from savate and chausson, it is performed, like boxing, in a roped ring. It is now little more than an exhibition sport.
Indian unarmed fighting method, using hand and foot
Swiss style wrestling takes first place when you consider that it is one of the oldest sports. Wherever there is any Swiss Style Wrestling, (Schwingen) there are bound to be a number of Swiss in the area.
From history, we know that already in early Greece before AD, there were matches between individuals to test the capabilities of individuals. How and when Swiss Style wrestling came to Switzerland is not known. We know that there were Schwingfest (Swiss Style wrestling matches) in the mountainous valleys of the Berner Oberland, Emmenthal, Entlebuch and in Central Switzerland for hundreds of years. It is also easily understandable why the Schwingen started in the Mountain Valleys, since the Sennen were pretty much in the their own element and they enjoyed determining who was the strongest of a group of mountain farmers.
From this simple wrestling match, we now have the Schwingen with the many holds, moves and rules. Even today several of the moves have names from their origin like the Brienzer. Historical Schwingfest locations like Napf, Luedern, Rigi, Bruenig are still maintained today.
Approximately in the year 1750 began the famous Easter Monday Schwingfests in Bern where the best wrestlers from the Emmenthal, Oberland, Entlebuch and Central Switzerland (Innerschweiz) came to interesting matches to determine the champion. Historical notes have given us an insight on the importance of these matches.
Two historical Schwingfests occurred in the year 1805 and 1808 in Unspunnen by Interlaken. Representatives of foreign governments, kings, queens, writers and all types of important people were invited to participate in the renewal of nationalism of Switzerland. It became a cornerstone of Switzerland's independence. From this Schwingfest also came the 167 Pfund (367.4 Pound) Unspunnenstein (Rock) that to this date is still used at all Eidgenoessischen Schwing- and Aelplerfests.
In the year 1864, the first Swiss Style Wrestling teaching book was published. With this book, the Turners (Gymnast) in the flat lands of Switzerland began to participate in the National sport. Soon the Turners were as good as the Sennen (Farmers). Without a doubt, Swiss style wrestling has won through this expansion.
Even today, it becomes a tremendous achievement and a great crowd pleaser when a wrestler exhibits outstanding sportsmanship and technical knowledge of the many moves, tricks and defenses. It is the responsibility of each wrestler, as carrier of one of the oldest National games, to act in a sportsmanship manner in all aspects of clothing and behavior.
Scottish Highlander Fighting is a vigorous form of what is best described as regimented brawling. It is a fair bit faster than ordinary wrestling style due to its even focus between grabbing and striking with the arms, legs, anything. Scottish Highlander is also a fairly comic style - it has several innovators in its stable who love nothing better than to work out real-life applications to implausible and sometimes ridiculous maneuvers seen in fiction or lucky serendipity. Anyone expecting discipline is apt to be disappointed when learning SHF. Most Highlanders act like terrible sods throughout their training and career, getting drunk, staying up late at night, starting fights at the slightest of insults

Seifukujutsu is the art of healing developed and propagated in Japan as much as 1200 to 1600 years ago. The origins of the art are rooted in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Seifukujutsu literally means to 'restore and replace' and consists of herbal medicine, of Nihon Kaifuku Anma (amma) (Japanese restoration massage), Sekotsu (bone setting) techniques, Sotai (whole body movement (kinesiology), hydro-therapy, acupressure, auricular therapy and reflexology. The Doctor of Seifukujutsu is trained in breathing techniques as well as exercises to effect muscle balance and restore tone.
To become a Dr. (Isha) of Seifukujutsu is a process of learning all of the above as well as diagnostic techniques including tongue (Zetsu Shin), pulse, abdominal, back and meridian (Setsu Shin), facial, visual (Bo Shin), among others. Just as in the martial side of the arts, an in depth understanding of anatomy, physiology, and pathology is required. The usual number of hours to reach 'Isha' (Dr., Practitioner, Physician) is generally 2000 hrs. When one trains in the martial arts, the training never stops. A concept lost to the martial artist in the west.
Tradition of training is based on being mentored by a Master or small group of Masters in a personal format. This system has been used for hundreds of years and is still in practice today in parts Japan and surrounding areas.
There are many forms of Japanese healing, but none are as in depth or complete as Seifukujutsu, the other side of Jujutsu.
Sekiguchi ryu originated in 17th century Japan where the stern Jushin Seklguchl, a teacher of warriors, is said to have excelled in the martial virtues of honesty and objectivity-virtues he seems to have successfully transmitted to his sons along with the techniques of his school. The words of his eldest son, Rohaku, to a powerful baron in Edo in 1716 were recorded and indicate the son's contempt for martial arts masters who "threw dust in people's eyes" by performing tricks to advertise their schools, thus debasing bulutsu as a whole and bringing dishonor upon the "real" masters.
From India, a hill-country kind of staff fighting
This style is one of the most practical and scientific arts in which I have trained. Serak is a martial art for one who has patience. But once the understanding has been achieved, the art works like "magic".
In the Serak Silat system, there is a basic or external side, and an advanced or internal side. The basic study of Serak takes approximately seven years of practice at at least three hours a day, three times a week.
The basic Pukulan Serak consists of: physics, physiology, anatomy, 18 jurus, basic lankah, intermediate lankah, advanced lankah, and system change (guarding system).
And basic Serak platforms consist of lankah:
* Tiga Luar
* Silwa Luar
* Sekurum Luar
* Pancah Luar
* Lima
The basic technical aspects of Serak are the one point, two point and three point system.
The basic major Serak Lankahs are:
* Lankah Juru Sepak
* Lankah Juru Combinasi
The basic schedule or external system can possibly be learned in 3 years. De Thouars can count on one hand the number of students who have completed the basics.
The intermixing of pencak and silat training is possible, but it still takes approximately seven years of diligent training to accomplish this goal.
As far as the advanced side or internal system of Serak, only de Thouars and his first student and disciple, maha guru Victor de Thouars, have completed the system. No one else in the United States has the knowledge of the internal Pukulan Serak. And it will stay that way until someone has the skill and endurance to complete the basic side. To understand the platforms and to know the platforms are two different things. To perform the lankahs and jurus is nothing, but what really matters is to understand
what the lankah teaches. In other words, there are no guessing games.
The basic lankah Tiga teaches the adoption of torque and proper position of the space you encompass. The basic Lankah Silwa teaches the concept of accepting total elusiveness. The basic Lankah Sekurum teaches the concept of 360 degree vision. Basic Lankah Pancar teaches the concept of constant change and awareness. Since Serak takes seven years to learn and takes a great deal of patience, de Thouars has created the Bukhti Negara and Tongat styles as sub-systems. When it comes to understanding the weakness of the human anatomy, nerve point hitting, takedowns, foot sweeps, throws, and elbow and knee strikes, very few systems can match the sophistication of this art.
The art was developed by the Badui people of Java. The Badui have maintained their isolation from the outside world and are held in awe by the Indonesian Javanese for their mystic and clairvoyant powers.
The founder of the system was from the Badui tribe, a man by the name of Pak Serak. Pak Serak had only one arm and a crippled foot. He was familiar with nine style and proficient in three. He could see the weaknesses and strengths of many styles and formulated his system of fighting. His number one student was Mas Djut, and with his help Pak Serak organized his system into a format ranging from beginning to advanced levels of learning. It was from Mas Djut that Johan de Vries learned the art of Serak. Because of his good nature and concern for the Indonesian people, he was taught the fighting system of Serak. Mas Djut offered Johan the leadership of the Serak system after Mas Djut had retired or died. But Johan declined; he did not want to dishonor or bring disgrace to the art by having novice or underling students change the style.

Shaolin Ch'uan Fa * means "The way of the Shaolin fist", and stands for an ancient Chinese defense method.
Shaolin Ch'uan Fa originated in India about 5000 years ago. It is said that Buddha was so impressed by this martial art, that it was adopted by the Buddhists. Although Buddhism preaches love and serenity, it also needed to protect it's laws, which couldn't always be done with words.
In the 6th century, a monk named Bodhidharma brought Buddhism to China. China was divided in several small kingdoms in those days. Since Bodhidharma's ideas about Buddhism differed quite a lot from Chinese traditional Buddhism, he wasn't welcome in most kingdoms. Finally he was accepted in the kingdom of Wei, and he settled in Shaolin-ssu, a small monastery in what is now called the province of Honan (Henan).
There he preached meditation and unique exercises to keep the body in shape and the mind pure. These exercises evolved to very efficient fighting techniques, later called "Shaolin Ch'uan Fa". It proved very useful in later centuries, as the monastery was attacked several times. In the beginning the techniques where secret, but soon the monks became famous as the best fighters in China, and the monks started to train the farmers, who where suppressed by the emperor. In later centuries Shaolin Ch'uan Fa (also referred to as Shaolin Kung-Fu) became the national martial art of China, and several different styles evolved throughout the country.
In the beginning of the 20th century Shaolin Ch'uan Fa was brought to Japan by Kung-Fu master Doshin So. He traveled through China, and combined all different styles in one method: Shaolin Kempo. Kempo is the Japanese expression for martial-arts, or fighting skills. From there Shaolin Kempo spread all over the world.
This style was created in Tky in 1981 from Yoshiji Soeno. He studied Karate with Masutatsu Oyama. Yoshiji Soeno was second at the All Japan Kyokushinkai Karate Championships in 1969 and won a Muay-Thai fight against Kannan Pai. In his whole life he won more than 10 Muay-Thai championships
Early school of jujutsu believed to have been founded by Yamamoto Tamizeemon, of the Osaka police, during theTokugawa era (1600-1867); headded other techniques, especially those of immobilization, to the repertoire of the yoshin ryu school. Shin-no-shindo is one of the two arts combined to form the tenilnshinyo school of jujutsu.
Since it's inception, little has been known about the style of Shinto Yoshin Ryu Jiu-Jitsu except by its' members and instructors. Its history is still shrouded in mystery being that in keeping with tradition the style has been passed down from instructor to student without any formal writings.
We do know that the founder of Shinto Yoshin Ryu was Master Ishijima. His father, Matsuoka, was a subject of the Tokugawa shogunate and had learned Jiu-Jitsu in the martial arts school of the shogunate. Matsuoka was famous as a martial arts instructor in Asakusa, Edo which is now known as Tokyo. His son Ishijima learned the martial arts from him and created what we know as Shinto Yoshin Ryu. Master Ishijina was then followed by Master Inose. Not much is known about Master Inose except that he continued the art and passed it on to Master Nakayama.
Master Shizaburo Nakayama's top student was Hironori Otsuka. Master Otsuka entered Nakayama's school in 1898 at the age of 6. There he stayed until the age of 30 with Nakayama passing on all or most of his knowledge to him. At this time Master Otsuka was introduced to karate by Master Gichin Funakoshi. Master Funakoshi taught karate which was a fairly unknown martial art at that time. Master Otsuka began combining his Jiu-Jitsu techniques and ideas with the karate and katas he was learning.
Master Otsuka became one of Master Funakoshi's top students but eventually traveled to Okinawa to learn from the Masters who taught Funakoshi. Master Otsuka combined his new knowledge of karate with knowledge of Jiu-Jitsu to form a new style, Wado Kai. This was in 1939 and it became one of the four major styles of Japanese karate.
The Budo-Kai requested a name for each style of the martial arts in 1940 so it was officially named Wado Kai and then later renamed Wado Ryu style of karate.
The Shinto Yoshin Ryu style lay dormant for quite awhile until Mr. Uke Takeski, a student of Master Otsuka continued to practice the style within his dojo. In 1942 Douglas Grose studied the Shinto Yoshin Ryu style while in the Air Force under the direction of Mr. Takeski's chief instructor and then later from Mr. Takeski himself. Mr. Grose has continued since, to practice , teach and further the art of Shinto Yoshin Ryu Jiu-Jitsu.
The American Jiu-Jitsu Association was founded in 1945 and later changed its name to The American Jiu-Jitsu & Karate Association thus encompassing not only Jiu-Jitsu but Okinawan style karate.
Some facts about Shinto Yoshin Ryu style of Jiu-Jitsu:
Traditional Japanese martial art from which modern Judo was derived.
Unusual in that most styles of Jiu-Jitsu stress throwing and ground work along with different bars and locks, Shinto Yoshin Ryu emphasizes not only these but especially striking and kicking techniques.
Shinto Yoshin Ryu Jiu-Jitsu has kept with the original spelling of Jiu-Jitsu while other styles have changed theirs to jujutsu or Jujitsu.
The Shobayashi-Ry was created in Okinawa from Chotoku Kyan (1870-1945). Kyan Chotoku was the son of Kyan Chofu, a high-ranked official in the Okinawan royal court. When he was young Kyan Chotoku received a remarkable Martial Arts education from some of Okinawas most prominent Martial Artists.

Shoot fighting is a modern Japanese eclectic martial sport. Its techniques were greatly influenced by the submission grappling skills taught by the legendary American wrestler Karl Gotch when he visited Japan. A shoot is a fighting contest between two opponents. Variations include Shoot Wrestling, Shoot Boxing, and Pancrase. All are taught primarily as ring sports, and their matches frequently draw large crowds in Japan. Rules permit kicks, hand strikes, takedowns, throws, and ground grappling.
The martial art/sport of shootfighting is a recent creation. It has its genesis less than 25 years ago when a famous German wrestler taught the art of real wrestling, or "shooting", to a group of top Japanese martial artists. The wrestling they learned bore only a superficial resemblance to today's professional wrestling. Two of these Japanese martial artists, Masami Soranaka, a practitioner of karate, judo and sumo, and Yoshiaki Fujiwara, a muay Thai kick boxing champion and judo expert, combined their knowledge of these diverse styles and created what has come to be known in Japan as UWF wrestling or the hard style. Official matches have been held for almost 10 years and the sport's popularity has grown till it is now the third most popular spectator sport in Japan behind baseball and sumo. Vale, who coined the term shootfighting to describe the style, combined the wrestling and Muay Thai techniques he learned in Japan with his experience in American karate and kick boxing to advance the sport even further.
Shogerijutsu deals with the concept of the dynamic martial artist. Each student learns the basics, and from there they build on their own foundation. Shogerijutsu combines many facets of learning from the martial arts. Shogerijutsu takes the basic self-defense techniques of jujutsu, karate-do, kung fu, and kick boxing, then combines it with the philosophy of styles that represent the fundamental approach toward self-defense and combat such as kenpo, jeet kune do, aikijutsu,
and gung fu. Shogerijutsu means "the essence in kicking technique", but the name itself does not define the techniques or philosophy of living that goes on within a system. The word "kicking" can be replaced with any of a multitude of strikes.
The basics are taught at first. As the student progresses so does their knowledge of control, joint locks, throws, combat philosophy, ranges, kata, and body positioning. Each phase of learning focuses on a breakup of the latter, with emphasis on implementing kata technique into applicable use on the street. This style is ideal for people who want to learn martial art basics. The philosophy of this style blends well with any style whose purpose is self-defense with focus on
Shorin Ryu is an Okinawan soft style. Known for its light, quick, and agile techniques that are suitable for a person of light body structure. Because of its strict spiritual aspects it is considered a religious sect.
Shorinji Kempo is a Japanese Karate style that is deeply rooted in Zen meditation. It was created by So Doshin who says it is based on traditional Shaolin teachings. In the 1970's, the Japanese courts forced So Doshin to the change the name of his school to Nippon Shorinji Kempo. It stresses being calm in action. Students first learn its deep spirituality, then learn the fighting techniques. Because of its combination of Buddhism, philosophy, and martial arts, many consider Shorinji Kempo a religious sect.
Shorei Ryu is an Okinawan hard style. Know for its heavy, powerful techniques and body toughening training. It is known for the numerous amount of stances it uses. It is more suitable for a person of heavy body structure. It strives to emulate the actions of the 5 traditional animals and teaches all the traditional Okinawan weapons, such as the bo, tonfa, and sai.
SHORIN-RYU Karate is one of the two original Karate styles formally systemized in Okinawa. It is considered by some authorities to have had the most influential impact on the development of all modern Karate systems, following their emergence in Okinawa. Shorin-Ryu Karate eventually splintered off into four (4) groups.
Technically the Shorin Ryu styles tend to use more upright stances than the Japanese styles, thus giving the Okinawan stylist more mobility. Unlike the Japanese stylist, the Okinawan Shorin Ryu stylist does not emphasize constant forward pressure when engaging in a confrontation, or like the Chinese stylist, indirect countering; rather he maintains enough flexibility to use both approaches very effectively and efeciently.
These four groups are as follows: First, the original Shorin-Ryu style founded by SOKON "Bushi" MATSUMURA, known, as a result, as MATSUMURA ORTHODOX. It is also reported that this style was founded by Hohan Soken, who was born in 1889. Reportedly some of the style's followers have changed its name to Sukunai hayashi.
Second is SHOBAYASHI-Ryu (small forest school), was first taught by Chotoku Kyan, a famous student of Yasutsune Itosu. and trained several notable students such as Shoshin Nagamine. who in 1947 founded the Matsubayashi Ryu branch of Shorin Ryu.
The third style is KOBAYASHI-Ryu (young forest school). Choshin Chibana is credited as the first to teach Kobayashi Ryu. According to some sources this system is identical to Shobayashi Ryu. It is believed that Choshin Chibana simply misspelled the kanji characters, which changed the pronounciation from Shobayashi Ryu. to Kobayashi Ryu.
The last is MATSUBAYASHI-Ryu (pine forest school). The last three names refer to the small pine forest where the original Shao-lin temple was located in China. All Shorin-Ryu styles are interpretted as Shorin-ryu, or "Shao-lin way," reflecting their Chinese heritage.
Shotokai Karate-do is a non-competitive style of Karate derived from Gichin Funakoshi's Karate by Masters Yoshitaka (Gigo) Funakoshi and Shigeru Egami. The word Shotokai is composed of three kanji characters in Japanese. The Sho character is taken from the word matsu which means pine tree. To is the character for waves. Pine Waves is the English translation that tries to express what the original Japanese kanji represent, the sound that is produced by the pine needles when the wind blows through them, a sort of wave sound. Gichin Funakoshi, used Shoto as a pseudonym when he signed his poetry works. The word kai means organization. Thus, Shotokai means the Organization of Shoto, or the Organization of Master Gichin Funakoshi. Kan, means building or house, thus Shotokan is the house or building of Shoto.
Shotokai does not consider Karate a sport so it avoids all type of competitive tournaments. Rather, it stresses Karate as a Budo art that is concerned with personal development through the study and practice of Karate as a Do, a Way of Life, and the development of the internal energy, Ki. Shotokai movements are full of vitality and energy, but they use the principles of harmony and relaxation and avoid the use of brute force. Each Shotokai student in a group, has his or her own way of attaining mind-ki-body unity, in a way that permits all students to learn from each other. In a training atmosphere void of distinctions, communication grows and mutual respect arises unhindered.
Some six million people in sixty-five countries around the world regularly leave their homes, travel to an unimposing building, put on a white cotton uniform, and submit themselves to some of the strictest physical discipline found outside of prisons. They do this voluntarily, often paying for the privilege. Indeed, when they have no money, they frequently ask for more discipline in the form of washing windows, scrubbing floors and toilets and general sweeping in exchange for the right to continue receiving this particular form of individual torture. Their disease is not limited to any special stratum of society: These strange people are male and female, young and old, black and white, red and yellow, ill and well, tall, thin, short, stout and they span all the generations now alive. They are not a religious or fanatical cult and getting a group of them to agree on anything more serious than lunch is normally impossible. While they may not collectively agree on much of anything, there is one thing on which they always agree: Shotokan is a wonderful way of life.
Virtually without exception, serious students of Shotokan Karate-do represent the antitheses of the widely-held public image of "Karate People." They wear only white uniforms, and can rarely, if ever, be found wearing a bell bottomed, laced-up, elasticized waist, trimmed Gi. The few who wear patches on their Gi disdain dragons and snakes and their belts (even black belts) are never marked with stripes or stars. Acknowledging that there may be exceptions to every rule, it can still be said with a high degree of certitude that serious students of Shotokan Karate-do are a different breed. They simply do not fit the modern world. What they do fit is their plain cotton Gi, and it is in those Gi that, hour after hour, day after day, year after year, they strive mightily towards an ideal which was conceived by an indigent school teacher more than 60 years ago. Their teachers tell them to "move from center", "find your spirit", and divine the meaning of Iken Hisatsu ("to kill with a blow"). They are not unfamiliar with jumping and spinning and slashing, but Iken Hisatsu is difficult to find when one is flying through the air; it is more likely to be found rooted in the earth. Shotokan is acknowledged as the first art to be truly called Karate, and Master Gichin Funakoshi, as the father of modern day Karate. He changed the meaning of Karate from China Hand to Empty Hand. Funakoshi trained under two great masters, Azato and Itosu. But his studies did not stop with them. Other teachers helped mold him: Kiyuna, Niigakim Toono and the greatest of the era, "Bushi" Matsumura. In addition to his martial arts training, Funakoshi also became a school teacher. It was for this reason that he was chosen to introduce Karate to Japan. He brought to the colleges first. Then it was his students that picked the name of his art. Funakoshi had a pen name, Shoto. That, combined with Kan, meaning house, the art became Shotokan, the House of Shoto.

Modern Shuai-chiao (competing to throw) is the culmination of the ancient, crude, practical and effective combat grappling method of the battlefield - that has evolved into a sophisticated and efficient no non-sense approach to combat. Its training method of using punches, kicks and joint-locks in the context of throwing can conform to all martial arts styles. Its philosophy share the same principle of Tai-chi Yin and Yang, the traditional cosmic law of China. In fact, the advanced Shuai-chiao practitioner views Shuai-chiao and Tai-chi as two sides of the same coin meeting at a junction, but coming from totally different origin. Shuai-chiao's techniques are the culmination of tested grappling experience in the best environment - the battlefield. Today, it is still a part of military and police training as well as a national sport in China and Taiwan.
Shuai-chiao's earliest recorded use was by the Yellow Emperor of China, 2697 B.C. against the rebel enemy Chih-yiu and his army. They used horned helmets and gored their opponents while using a primitive form of grappling. This early recorded period was first called Chiao-ti (butting with horns). Throughout the centuries, the hands and arms replaced the horns while the techniques increased and improved. The name Chiao-ti also changed and was referred to by many names popular at that time in history or by government decree.
The original Chinese Martial Art, a combat wrestling system called Chiao-li (Contesting of strength), was systematized during the Chou Dynasty (1122-256 BC). This military combat wrestling system, the first combination of fighting techniques historically employed by the imperial military, consisted of throws (Shuai), hand and foot strikes (Ta), seizing a person's joints (Na), attacking vital parts (Tien) and breaking joints (Tuan). This format proves that Chiao-li used punches, kicks, vital point attacks, Chin-na seizing and breaking joints in the context of throwing. All of these elements of fighting skills were practiced in training during the winter months and used in hundreds of battles in ancient China. It is the root and the foundation of Chinese Martial Arts. At first Chiao-li emphasis is only for military combat, but it gradually became a sport in the Chin Dynasty (221-207 BC) during the reign of the second emperor and became an entertainment event in the fifth century. The importance of proper training methods for the practical aspects of self-defense or sparring is to be emphasized.
It is common knowledge that power and speed is of high importance in any kind of self-defense. Shuai-chiao training has been used for over 4,000 years, to train the Chinese Emperor's personal bodyguards, the military and still in the 20th century the police and military academies of China and Taiwan. Shuai-chiao e
A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.