N - styles

NAGINATA-DO
The naginata has been referred to by different names such as halberd, pole arm, swordspear, and curved spear. It is also said that the naginata comes from the Chinese halberd. Whatever the name and wherever it came from, it was a warriors weapon in battle.
In feudal times the use of the naginata was known as naginata-jutsu, the "art of the naginata" and was part of Bujutsu, the classical Japanese military arts. Today its use is called naginata-do, the "way of the naginata", and is part of Budo. This information isn't entirely accurate. Today both naginata-do and naginata-jutsu exists. Both the All-Japan Naginata-Do Federation and the U.S. Naginata Federation would be schools of naginata-do. There are also ryus of naginata-jutsu such as the Katori Shinto Ryu.
Naginata-do would be classed as budo, and naginata-jutsu would be classed as bujutsu. Budo, "military way" or "way of fighting". Spiritually related systems. not necessarily designed by or for warriors, for self-defense. Budo is a generic term encompassing all of the Japanese do (way) arts, which are largely 20th-century offspring stemming from concepts that can first be positively identified about the mid-18th century.
Some of the more predominant budo practices today are judo, karate-do, aikido, kendo, kyudo, and iaido. Budo subscribes to creating the ideal psychological state by removing the fear of death and excessive self- consciousness so its user can freely and completely make use of the acquired physical techniques.
Bujutsu "military art(s)". A collective term for all of the Japanese jutsu (arts) extant before the mid-18th century and practiced almost exclusively by the samurai warrior. These combatives, whose main use was to overcome a foe in combat, were the forerunners of the modern do (way) systems. Thus, judo evolved from jujutsu, Kendo from kenjutsu, karate-do from karate- jutsu, kyudo from kyujutsu, and so on.
The naginata has its origins with the earliest beginnings of the warrior classes in the seventh and eighth centuries A.D. The Japanese authorities date the oldest regular school of naginata technique back to 1168.
It began its history in feudal Japan as warlords vied for power over the land. The naginata was heavily relied upon due to its length and combined powers of cutting and thrusting. Opponents whether on foot or mounted on horseback were effectively neutralized, cut down by long swooping motions of the blade.
The naginata took several forms. The most common one had a socketed or tanged blade some 36 inches or more in length. The shaft was always stoutly banded and longer than the blade. A second form was the nagemaki, a heavy, very long sword mounted on a shorter sturdy shaft. Both weapons were very popular with warriors, especially in the turbulent monastic armies of the eleventh and twelfth centuries and increasingly so with the warrior class, or bushi, from the twelfth to the fifteenth century.
Gradually the character of warfare changed and military fashion favored the straight-bladed yari, or spear, as a lighter and more effective weapon against the sword, both on foot and on horseback. The large-scale use of infantry during the Onin War (1467-77) finally established the yari at the expense of the naginata and the use of the later soon became limited to certain religious sects and to ladies of the Bushi class, as a household weapon.
NANBU DO KARATE
The Nanbu-Dô was created in 1978 from Yoshinao Nanbu. Yoshinao Nanbu was a disciple of Master Tani Chojirô (founder of Shukokai-Ryű). Nanbu created first the Sankukai school at the beginning of the seventies.
NATIVE AMERICAN WRESTLING
Native American Wrestling began as simply a form of entertainment among members of the various tribes, used to develop stamina and agility. In this form, it is a powerful and effective mix of grappling techniques. However, many practitioners also combine it with a spiritual discipline, invoking spirits to aid them, allowing for supernatural feats.
NEIKYA
An advanced form of Korean combat, based on Kwonbop
NINJUTSU
Lit. Translation: "Nin" Perseverance/Endurance "jutsu" Techniques (of). Surrounded by much controversy, today's "ninjutsu" is derived from the traditional fighting arts associated with the Iga/Koga region of Japan. These arts include both "bujutsu" ryuha (martial technique systems) and "ninjutsu" ryuha, which involve a broad base of training designed to prepare the practitioner for all possible situations.
The history of ninjutsu is clouded by the very nature of the art itself. There is little documented history, much of what is known was handed down as part of an oral tradition (much like the native
american indian) and documented by later generations. This has led to a lot of debate regarding the authenticity of the lineages claimed by the arts instructors.
Historical records state that certain individuals/families from the Iga/Koga (modern Mie/Omi) region were noted for possessing specific skills and were employed (by samurai) to apply those and other skills. These records, which were kept by people both within the region and outside of the region, refer to the individuals/families as "Iga/Koga no Mono" (Men of Iga/Koga) and "Iga/Koga no Bushi" (Warriors of Iga/Koga). Due to this regions terrain, it was largely unexplored and the people living within lived a relatively isolated existence. This enabled them to develop perspectives which differed from the "mainstream" society of the time, which was under the direct influence of the upper ruling classes. When necessary, they successfully used the superstitions of the masses as a tool/weapon and became feared and slightly mythologized because of this.
In the mid/late 1500's their difference in perspective led to conflict with the upper ruling classes and the eventual invasion/destruction of the villages and communities within the Iga/Koga region. The term "ninja" was not in use at this time, but was later introduced in the dramatic literature of the Tokugawa period (1605-1867). During this period, ancestral fears became contempt and the stereotypical image ("clans of assassins and mercenaries who used stealth, assassination, disguises, and other tricks to do their work") was formed which, to this day, is still very much the majority opinion.
Over 70 different "ninjutsu ryu" have been catalogued/identified, however, the majority of them Have died out. Most were developed around a series of specific skills and techniques and when the skills of a particular ryu were no longer in demand, the ryu would (usually) fade from existence. The three remaining ninjutsu ryu (Togakure ryu, Gyokushin ryu, and Kumogakure ryu) are encompassed in Dr. Masaaki Hatsumi's Bujinkan Budo Taijutsu system. These ryu, along with six other "bujutsu ryu" (Gyokko Ryu, Koto Ryu, Takagi Yoshin Ryu, Shinden Fudo Ryu, Gikan Ryu and Kukishinden Ryu), are taught as a collective body of knowledge (see Sub-Styles for other info).
Terms like "soft/hard", "internal/external", linear/circular" have been used to describe ninjutsu by many people. Depending upon the perspective of the person, it could appear to be any one, all or even none of the above. It is important to remember that the term "ninjutsu" does not refer to a specific style, but more to a group of arts, each with a different point of view expressed by the different ryu. The physical dynamics from one ryu to another varies - one ryu may focus on redirection and avoidance while another may charge in and overwhelm.
To provide some kind of brief description, ninjutsu includes the study of both unarmed and armed combative techniques, strategy, philosophy, and history. In many Dojos the area of study is quite comprehensive. The idea being to become adept at many things, rather than specializing in only one.
The main principles in combat are posture, distance, rythm and flow. The practitioner responds to attacks in such a way that they place themselves in an advantageous position from which an effective response can be employed. They are taught to use the entire body for every movement/technique, to provide the most power and leverage. They will use the openings created by the opponents movement to implement techniques, often causing the opponent to "run in/on to" body weapons.
As was noted above, the areas of study in ninjutsu are diverse. However, the new student is not taught everything at once.
Training progresses through skills in Taihenjutsu (Body changing skills), which include falling, rolling, leaping, posture, and avoidance; Dakentaijutsu (Striking weapons body techniques) using the entire body as a striking tool/ weapon - how to apply and how to receive; and Jutaijutsu (Supple body techniques) locks, throws, chokes, holds - how to apply and how to escape.
In the early stages, weapons training is usually limited to practicing how to avoid attacks - overcoming any fear of the object and understanding the dynamics of its use from the perspective of "defending against" (while unarmed). In the mid and later stages, once a grounding in Taijutsu body dynamics is in place, practitioners begin studying from the perspective of "defending with" the various tools/weapons.
In the early stages of training, kata are provided as examples of "what can be done here" and "how to move the body to achieve this result". However, as the practitioner progresses they are encouraged to explore the openings which naturally appear in peoples movements and apply spontaneous techniques based upon the principles contained within the kata. This free flowing style is one of the most important aspects of ninjutsu training. Adaptability is one of the main lessons of all of these ryu.
Due to the combative nature of the techniques studied, there are no tournaments or competitions in Ninjutsu. As tournament fighting has set rules which compel the competitor to study the techniques allowed within that framework, this limits not only the kinds of techniques that they study, but also the way in which they will apply those techniques. The way that you train is the way that you fight. Ninjutsu requires that its practitioners be open to any situation and to be able to adapt their technique to ensure survival.
There are a number of people claiming to teach "ninjutsu".
Dr. Masaaki Hatsumi has been the recpient of numerous cultural awards in recognition of his extra-ordinary knowledge of Japanese martial culture. He is considered by many to be the only source for authentic "ninjutsu". However, as was noted above, the teachings of the three ninjutsu ryu which are part of his Bujinkan system, are not taught individually. Rather, they are taught as part of the collective body of knowledge which forms the foundation of his Bujinkan Budo Taijutsu system.
Shoto Tanemura, formerly of the Bujinkan Dojo, formed his own organization (Genbukan Dojo) and claimed to be the Grandmaster of/teaching both Iga and Koga Ryu Ninjutsu. He has since formed a number of other organizations and is becoming more widely known for his "Samurai Jujutsu" tapes (Panther Productions).
The list of names of people claiming to teach "Koga Ryu Nijutsu" is quite long. The last person to be recognized as part of the Koga Ryu lineage in Japan was Seiko Fujita. His knowledge of "ninjutsu" died with him - he left no successor.
NITEN ICHI RYU
In the early seventeenth century, a very eclectic samurai known as Miyamoto Musashi (author of The Book of Five Rings) developed his "science of martial arts called the Niten Ichi Ryu". This translates roughly as the 'Individual School of Two Skies,' and was influenced by the teachings of Sun Tzu, the fighting and philosophy of various styles (ninjutsu, samurai kenjutsu, kusarigamajutsu, etc), and a lifetime of participation and reflection in the martial arts.
In this sense the word kenjutsu is a bit of a misnomer, in that the style focuses on much more than just the sword and other bladed weapons. However, Musashi fought primarily with the sword; so we use the word kenjutsu to generalize. For the most part, practitioners of Niten Ichi Ryu study both empty handed and weapons techniques, under the idea that 'the weapon is an extension of the body' (this has become something of a cliche in the martial arts, but it's true). Just a few of the weapons taught in this school are katana (long sword), wakizashi (short sword), naginata, club, yari (spear), and eventually, firearms and explosives. In addition to teaching the physical application of techniques, Niten Ichi Ryu also works to develop observation, judgment and analysis skills which allow one to better their training in other areas of the martial arts and the world at large.
At this level of training, Niten Ichi Ryu can be on of the most beneficial martial arts. There are no official ranks in this school, but students do have the option of challenging what they already know so as to move on to more advanced levels of training. Benefits of such a 'challenge' can be something as small as wearing a face mask on one's helmet or as large as being allowed to teach the art to others. Collectively, Niten Ichi Ryu requires complete dedication in body, mind, and soul to better oneself physically, mentally, and spiritually - and in several directions that cannot be expressed in words.
NORTH COUNTRY WRESTLING
18th Century form of wrestling. North Country wrestling evolved from Norse backhold wrestling, and included many backheel trips. Other techniques included cross-buttock throws, hip throws, outside reaping throws, and feints. The chief meets were the Melmerby and Langwathby Rounds, which were held annually around New Year's and Midsummer's Day. Winners received silver cups, leather breeches, and other valuable prizes. For coopers, farm hands, and millers, training consisted of manual labor and walking. The sons of the local gentry also did well in wrestling, with the scholars of Bampton School being especially noted for their skillful buttock throws. This made the Bampton curate, Abraham Brown, Britain's first middle-class wrestling hero.
NUBA STICK FENCING
Stick fencing as practised by 'Nuba' people in the Sudan, possibly related to the ancient egyptian stick fencing


O - Styles

OKOL
A grappling form endemic only to Madura.
OTHISMOS
Greek name for the hand to hand combat in a Hoplite battle



P - Styles

PACHIGI
A bizarre Korean Martial Art, where the head is used to butt an opponent
PA KUA CHANG (BA GUA ZHANG)
Pa Kua Chang, originating in Northern China is one of the three orthodox "internal" styles of Chinese martial art (the other two being T'ai Chi Ch'uan and Hsing Yi Ch'uan). Translated, Pa Kua means "Eight Trigram". This refers to the eight basic principles described in the ancient metaphysical treatise the I-Ching, or "Book of Changes". Pa Kua is meant to be the physical manifestation of these eight principles. "Chang" means "palm" and designates Pa Kua Chang as a style of martial art which emphasizes the use of the open hand over the closed fist. Pa Kua Chang as a martial art is based on the theory of continuously changing in response to the situation at hand in order to overcome an opponent with skill rather than brute force.
Although there are several theories as to the origins of Pa Kua Chang, recent and exhaustive research by martial scholars in mainland China concludes without reasonable doubt that the art is the creation of one individual, Tung Hai Ch'uan. Tung was born in Wen An County, Hebei Province about 1813. Tung practiced local martial arts (which reportedly relied heavily upon the use of openhand palm strikes) from his youth and gained some notoriety as a skilled practitioner. At about 40 years of age, Tung left home and travelled southward. At some point during his travels Tung became a member of the Chuan Chen (Complete Truth) sect of Taoism. The Taoists of this sect practiced a method of walking in a circle while reciting certain mantras. The practice was designed to quiet the mind and focus the intent as a prelude to enlightenment. Tung later combined the circle walking mechanics with the boxing he had mastered in his youth to create a new style based on mobility and the ability to apply techniques while in constant motion.
Tung Hai Ch'uan originally called his art "Chuan Chang" (Turning Palm). In his later years, Tung began to speak of the Art in conjunction with the Eight Trigrams (Pa Kua) theory expoused in the
Book Of Changes (Yi Ching). When Tung began teaching his "Chuan Chang" in Beijing, the vast majority of his students were already accomplished martial artists in their own right. Tung's teachings were limited to a few "palm changes" executed while walking the circle and his theory and techniques of combat. His students took Tung's forms and theories and combined them with their original arts. The result is that each of Tung's students ended up with quite different interpretations of the Pa Kua Chang art.
Most of the various styles of Pa Kua Chang found today can be traced back to one of several of Tung Hai Ch'uan's original students. One of these students was a man called Yin Fu. Yin studied with Tung longer than any other and was one of the most respected fighters in the country in his time (he was the personal bodyguard to the Dowager Empress, the highest prestige position of its kind in the entire country). Yin Fu was a master of Luo Han Ch'uan, a Northern Chinese "external" style of boxing before his long apprenticeship with Tung. Another top student of Tung was Cheng Ting Hua, originally a master of Shuai Chaio (Chinese wrestling). Cheng taught a great number of students in his lifetime and variations of his style are many. A third student of Tung which created his own Pa Kua Chang variant was Liang Chen P'u. Liang was Tung's youngest student and was probably influenced by other of Tung's older disciples. Although Pa Kua Chang is a relatively new form of martial art, it became famous throughout China during its inventor's lifetime, mainly because of its effectiveness in combat and the high prestige this afforded its practitioners.
Pa Kua Chang is an art based on evasive footwork and a kind of "guerilla warfare" strategy applied to personal combat. A Pa Kua fighter relies on strategy and skill rather than the direct use of force against force or brute strength in overcoming an opponent. The strategy employed is one of constant change in response to the spontaneous and "live" quality of combat.
Pa Kua is a very circular art that relies almost entirely on open hand techniques and full body movement to accomplish its goals. It is also characterized by its use of spinning movement and extremely evasive footwork. Many of the techniques in Pa Kua have analogs in other Northern Chinese systems;however, Pa Kua's foot work and body mechanics allow the practitioner to set up and execute these techniques while rapidly and smoothly changing movement direction and orientation. Pa Kua trains the student to be adaptable and evasive, two qualities which dramatically decrease the amount of physical power needed to successfully perform techniques.
The basis of the various styles of Pa Kua Chang is the circle walk practice. The practitioner "walks the circle" holding various postures and executing "palm changes" (short patterns of movement or "forms" which train the body mechanics and methods of generating momentum
which form the basis of the styles' fighting techniques). All styles have a variation of the "Single Palm Change" which is the most basic form and is the nucleus of the remaining palm changes found in the Art. Besides the Single Palm Change, other forms include the "Double Palm Change" and the "Eight Palm Changes" (also known variously as the "Eight Mother Palms" or the "Old Eight Palms"). These forms make up the foundation of the Art. Pa Kua Chang movements have a
characteristic circular nature and there is a great deal of body spinning, turning and rapid changes in direction. In addition to the Single, Double and Eight Palm Changes, most but not all styles of Pa Kua Chang include some variation of the "Sixty-Four Palms." The Sixty-Four Palms include forms which teach the mechanics and sequence of the specific techniques included in the style. These forms take the more general energies developed during the practice of the Palm Changes and focus them into more exact patterns of movement which are applied directly to a specific combat technique.
Training usually begins with basic movements designed to train the fundamental body mechanics associated with the Art. Very often the student will begin with practicing basic palm changes in place (stationary practice), or by walking the circle while the upper body holds various static postures (Hsing Chuang). The purpose of these exercises is to familiarize the beginning student with the feeling of maintaining correct body alignment and mental focus while in motion. The student will progress to learning the various palm changes and related forms. The Sixty-Four Palms or other similar patterns are usually learned after some level of proficiency has been attained with the basic circle walk and palm changes. Some styles practice the Sixty-Four Palms on the circle while other styles practice these forms in a linear fashion. All of the forms in Pa Kua Chang seek to use the power of the whole body in every movement, as the power of the whole will always be much greater than that of isolated parts. The body-energy cultivated is flexible, resilient and "elastic" in nature.
In addition to the above, most styles of Pa Kua Chang include various two- person forms and drills as intermediate steps between solo forms and the practice of combat techniques. Although the techniques of Pa Kua Chang are many and various, they all adhere to the above mentioned
principles of mobility and skill. Many styles of Pa Kua Chang also include a variety of weapons, ranging from the more "standard" types (straight sword, broadsword, spear) to the "exotic." An interesting difference with other styles of martial arts is that Pa Kua Chang weapons tend to be "oversized," that is they are much bigger than standard weapons of the same type (the extra weight increases the strength and stamina of the user).
Each of Tung Hai Ch'uan's students developed their own "style" of Pa Kua Chang based on their individual backgrounds and previous martial training. Each style has its own specific forms and techniques. All of the different styles adhere to the basic principles of Pa Kua Chang while retaining an individual "flavor" of their own. Most of the styles in existence today can trace their roots to either The Yin Fu, Cheng Ting Hua Or Liang Chen P'u variations.
Yin Fu styles include a large number of percussive techniques and fast striking combinations (Yin Fu was said to "fight like a tiger," moving in swiftly and knocking his opponent to the ground like a tiger pouncing on prey). The forms include many explosive movements and very quick and evasive footwork. Variations of the Yin Fu style have been passed down through his students and their students, including Men Bao Chen, Ma Kuei, Kung Bao T'ien, Fu Chen Sung and Lu Shui T'ien. Cheng Ting Hua styles of Pa Kua Chang include palm changes which are done in a smooth and flowing manner, with little display of overt power (Cheng Ting Hua's movement was likened to that of a dragon soaring in the clouds). Popular variants of this style include the Gao Yi Sheng system, Dragon style Pa Kua Chang, "Swimming Body" Pa Kua Chang, the Nine Palace system, Chiang Jung Ch'iao style (probably the most common form practiced today) and the Sun Lu Tang style.
The Liang Chen P'u style was popularized by his student Li Tzu Ming (who was the president of the Beijing Pa Kua Chang Association for many years and who did much to spread his art worldwide).
PAK MEI
Pak Mei (pronounced Bahk Mei), or White Eyebrow, Kung-Fu was created by the Taoist Monk Pak Mei during the Ching Dynasty in China. He began his training in the Shaolin Temple at Sung San Mountain. After leaving the temple, Pak Mei traveled to Ngo Mei (O-Mei) Mountain where he refined his art. Pak Mei's martial art was passed on to Gwong Wei, the only heir to the system, who named the style Pak Mei Kung-Fu out of respect for his teacher. The style was then solely passed to Jok Fat Wan, who traveled with his dsciple Lin Sang from Northern China to Southern China, eventually ending up at the Gwong How Temple in Canton.
Pak Mei Kung-Fu is one of the few systems that combines both Shaolin and Taoist practices into a single fighting style. It is classified as an internal and external system that emphasizes the combination of the science of combat along with the Taoist principles of using the chi, or breath, to maximize the generation of power from within the body and to maintain health. In Pak Mei, Chi Kung is incorporated into every aspect of the art, unlike most arts which contain supplemental exercises to develop the chi.
Pak Mei is a highly sophisticated, fast and aggressive system that is rarely seen within the realm of Chinese martial arts today. The Pak Mei practitioner uses, geing jak ging, or scared power, a type of explosive power that enables a technique to change quickly from a soft and relaxed movement into a powerful strike upon impact, which to the untrained observer can look quite external, or using brute force.
Techniques are executed between short and mid-range distances; hand movements are fast and powerful. Pak Mei also contains a wide assortment of kicks including: side, front, jumping , and ground fighting maneuvers.
In Pak Mei training, the essentials are:
Basics - The basics are the foundation to higher proficiency in Pak Mei. The basics consist of exercises unique to the system, designed to loosen the joints, strengthen the bones, and develop full body coordination necessary to become proficient in Pak Mei. In addition, proper coordination of physical movement and breathing is taught.
Forms - A form is a pattern of prearranged techniques that stimulate various situations of attack and defense. In Pak Mei, forms are either done with full power at top speed, or with little power emphasizing relaxed and fluid movements. There is no middle ground.
Free Sparring - Free sparring is an integral part of Pak Mei training. Practice fast and furious, it helps the practitioner develop timing and reflexes needed in hand to hand combat situations.
Weapons - Instructions in various types of traditional Chinese weapons such as the staff, spear, tiger fork, butterfly knives, and other weapons indigenous to Pak Mei.
PAMUR SILAT
Silat from the Island of Madura. Characterized by bladework, no sparring application, minimal foot shifting, good old mans' style. Emphasis the "harimau" tiger. see also Pamor.
PAMOR SILAT
From Madura, sandy beach style- good platform, stepping in, hand traps, minimal jumping to the side, attention to footing-good 'old mans style'. Very direct knife attacks. see also Pamur
PANACHE
French, combination of Canne and Savate
PANANJAKMAN
The Filipino weapons and kicking methods were eventually integrated into one complete system through clandestine training. The Filipinos discovered that by adding kicking techniques to their existing weapons repertoire, they could effectively overcome an opponent versed only in weaponry. Pananjakman, the name given to these combative kicks, has proven to be an integral part of the escrima system in particular. While not as aesthetically appealing as, say, the flashy kicks of tee kwon do, pananjakman techniques have proven especially effective for diverting an opponent's attention and disrupting his timing and balance, which then affords the escrimadoran opening to attack. Although pananjakman includes more than a half-dozen kicks, they are variations of just two techniques: sipang paharap(front kick) and sipanggabiakid (reverse kick). The primary targets for the sipang paharap and the sipang pabiakid are the opponent's instep, the front and back of the knee, the calf, and the thigh. The kicks focus on the opponent's lower body because they are likely to be struck by the opponent's weapon if delivered higher. Also, an attempt to lift the foot higher than waist level could result in a loss of balance and timing, which can prove fatal in the fast and unpredictable world of weapons combat. Using a form of "triangle" movement, the escrimador skilled in pananjakman is able to change positions frequently, with no apparent shifting of his upper body to telegraph his intentions. The escrimador uses stomping techniques to create a "broken" rhythm that keeps the opponent distracted until an opening is established. Once an open target is found on the opponent's legs, the escrimador delivers a kick and quickly follows it up with either another kick, or a hand or weapon technique, until the skirmish is ended. Diligent practice and perseverance are needed to ensure proper development of pananjakman techniques. By repeatedly executing the kicks during empty-hand and weapons sequences, they become second nature and will prove to be efficient elements of an escrimador's overall arsenal.
PANANANDATA
Pananandata is a centuries-old Filipino martial arts system which long remained secret until Master Amante P. Marinas, Sr., recently brought it from the Philippines to the world. It is the art of yantok at daga -- or stick and dagger fighting. Why use both the stick and dagger? When you're fighting an opponent who attacks with a long weapon, the stick is useful for defensive blocking, and for thrusting through your attacker's defense, while the dagger is used only once you have bypassed his defenses. If your assailant chooses a short weapon, the stick easily defeats it -- opening an avenue for a slash or thrust with either the stick or dagger -- an unbeatable combination! Pananandata yantok at daga used a sword in place of the stick many, many centuries ago. But have you ever tried to conceal a sword on the street? Knives and sticks are among the most common weapons used on the streets today.
PANATUKAN
Also known as Suntukan, refers to the empty handed boxing skills of Filipino Kali and consists of a wide variety of punches, open hand techniques elbow strikes and nerve destruction techniques. There are a large number of training drills which, when performed with a training partner develop the reflexes and tactile sensitivity. These methods of training are known as Corto Kadena which mean, close range chaining. these drills help develop the concept of "flowing" from technique to technique in a fast continuous flurry of attacks which target vulnerable areas of the body such as, the eyes, throat, solar plexus, groin, bladder, kidneys and various nerve and pressure point areas.
Many of the empty handed flow drills also teach the concept of trapping which involves manipulating an opponents attacking arms in such a way as they become "tied-up" thus rendering effective defence almost impossible. Trapping is a highly sophisticated skill requiring a high level of training.
PANKRATION
Over 2000 years ago, the ancient Greeks had developed a brutal, all-out combat form which they named Pankration (pronounced pan/cray/shun or pan-crat-ee-on depending on the dialect). The term is derived from the Greek adjectives pan and kratos and is translated to mean "all powers" or "all-encompassing." First introduced into the Olympic Games of 648 B.C., pankration would soon become the most popular and most demanding of all athletic events. It integrated every physical and mental resource - hands and feet, mind and spirit - in the closest simulation of no-holds-barred competitive fighting that any culture has ever allowed. Only biting and gouging were prohibited. Anything else went, although the tough Spartan contingent allowed these, too, in their local athletic festivals. The techniques included a murderous mixture of Hellenic boxing and wrestling: hook and uppercut punches, full-powered kicks, elbowing and kneeing, joint locks, as well as numerous submission chokeholds.
Kicking was an essential part of pankration, especially rising kicks to the groin or stomach, and powerful leg sweeps meant to take an opponent off his feet. Kicks above the belt were used sparingly, with blows aimed to the head or face only when one's adversary was on the ground and too weakened to block or catch the attacker's foot. Due to this unique tactic alone, some combative experts credit pankration as the first comprehensive unarmed fighting system on record.
Pankration bouts were extremely brutal and sometimes life-threatening to the competitors. Rules were minimal in number. In addition, there were no weight divisions and no time limits. The fighting arena or "ring" was no more than twelve to fourteen-feet square to encourage close-quarter action. Referees were armed with stout rods or switches to enforce the rules against biting and gouging. The rules, however, were often broken by some participants who, realizing they were outclassed by a heavier and stronger foe, would resort to such measures to escape being seriously maimed. The contest itself continued uninterrupted until one of the combatants either surrendered, suffered unconsciousness, or, of course, was killed.
Although knockouts were common, most pankration battles were decided on the ground where both striking and submission techniques would freely come into play. Pankratiasts were highly-skilled grapplers and were extremely effective in applying a variety of takedowns, chokes, and punishing joint locks. Strangulation was most feared during ground combat, and was the leading cause of death in matches. A fighter would immediately raise his arm in defeat once his opponent's forearm had secured a firm grip across the windpipe or carotid artery.
The feats of the ancient pankratiasts became legendary in the annals of Greek athletics. Stories abound of past champions and masters who were considered invincible beings. Arrichion, Dioxxipus, and Polydamos are among the most highly-recognized names, their accomplishments defying the odds by besting multiple armed opponents in life-and-death combat, and battling and killing lions when human competition was no longer a feasible challenge. It is also theorized that the famed strongman Hercules was the first Olympic victor in pankration. Exhibitions of superhuman strength were frequently witnessed by the awe-struck Greek people. Practitioners displayed the power of pneuma (Gr. inner energy) by breaking stones and planks with their bare fists and driving their hardened feet through forged war shields.
The Romans would later adopt pankration into their particular athletic contests, but their modifications would degrade it to a mere blood sport. The fighters were now armed with the dreaded caestus, a weighted and spiked glove which reigned blows with deadly results. In Rome it was not unusual for such public brutality, as it was the rule rather than the exception, to quench the spectator's thirst for gore. This alteration, however, diminished the skill and aesthetic value that the Greek race had come to admire in their athletes. Rarely, if ever, did a true Greek pankratiast participate in the savage gladiatorial arenas of Rome, even though the were often tempted by higher purses and positions within the powerful Roman empire.
Pankration was basic to the majority of the Greek warriors who served under Alexander the Great during his invasion of India in 326 B.C. Many authorities now contend that this dispersal of pankration techniques throughout the subcontinent laid the foundation for countless Asian martial arts which evolved soon thereafter, including Chinese kung fu, Okinawan karate, and Japanese jiujitsu. This theory has been the subject of a raging controversy for the past twenty years.
PEIKITI - TIRSIA
Pekiti-Tirsia is a Filipino Martial Art developed by the Tortal family of Negros, an island in the central Visayan region of the Philippines and brought to the U.S. in 1972 by Grand Master Leo Tortal Gaje. In the Illongo dialect of Visayan, Pekiti-Tirsia literally means Close-Thirds; in the west we would say Close-Quarters; or as Grand Master Gaje likes to paraphrase it you cut him up small, up close Pekiti-Tirsia International System of Kali is comprised of 5 main weapons categories:
Solo - Single stick, sword or spear. Doble - Double stick or sword. Espada y Daga - Sword and Dagger. Daga y Daga - Knife to Knife (both single and double). Mano y Mano - Hand to Hand. Pekiti-Tirsia International is based on 3 principles:
1. Ranges - You are taught Close Range first as this is the most dangerous and difficult to master; then Medium, and finally Long.
2. Levels - Along with every attack you are taught several counters to that attack, as well as several recounters to each counter. You develop the ability to think at least 3 levels ahead in a fight.
3. Opponents - You are taught to be prepared to fight at least 3 opponents; therefore, you don't spend too much time on any one opponent.
PENJANG GULAT
Is a form of wrestling practiced mostly by the farmers of Indonesia, and is rarely seen today, except at annual festival events.

PENTJAK SILAT
Pentjak Silat means, literally, the formal movements or choreography (Pentjak) of fighting (Silat). It is a catch-all term for the indigenous martial arts of Indonesia. There are regional specialties such as the kicking and ground-fighting of Sumatran Harimau stylists or the hand-work of Bali and Java. The Indonesian government has its sanctioned organization IPSI which is dedicated to creating an athletic sport out of the brutally practical combatives of Pentjak Silat. This form of the art, Silat Olah Raga, was part of the most recent Southeast Asian Games. The word Silat is also used in Malaysia and in the Muslim Southern Philippines. Although the words Pentjak and Silat may be used by themselves there is a saying about them which underscores the interdependent nature of the formal and practical aspects of the art. "Pentjak without Silat is meaningless. Silat without Pentjak is worthless."
PEUL
Fighting method from Guinee (Africa)
PILA
Italian type of stick fighting used in combat as far back as the 2nd Century BC or earlier.
POC KHEK
New style of kung-fu popular in Malaysia. The art has been developed in the past thirty years by a Chinese sifu (teacher), Nip Chee Fei. Its resilience is drawn from Tai-chi-chtuan, its strength from Shaolin. Poc khek has its own kata; leg techniques are employed, but hand techniques predominate. During sparring, punches and kicks are not pulled, and protective gear is worn.
POEKOELAN TJIMINDIE TULEN
Poekoelan Tjimindie Tulen is a celebration of much love, dedication, discipline and fortune that provides practitioners an art through which they can engage in the marvelous process of life and training.
Poekoelan Tjimindie Tuelen was founded by Mas Goeroe Agoeng Willy John Christopher Wetzel, a Dutch Indonesian man and ninth degree Golden Dragon. Goeroe traveled throughout Indonesia studying many styles of Pentjat Silat and took the best parts of each to develop the style of Poekoelan Tjimindie Tulen. Goeroe brought the art to America in 1956. The first school to teach Goeroe's style was opened in Lowellville, Ohio in 1973 by Goeroe Barbara Niggel under the direct tutorage of Mas Goeroe Agoeng Willy Wetzel. Goeroe's compassion, spirit and dedication to his art were boundless. In honor of his dream to teach and further develop the lessons and knowledge of Poekoelan, we introduce his art, Poekoelan Tjimindie Tulen.
Quiet Goddess of Compassion, Kwan Yin, guided Mas Goeroe Agoeng Willy Wetzel to develop the art of Poekoelan Tjimindie Tulen. Goeroe is the "Well" as he is the originator of the art, Goeroe Barbara Niggel is the first bloodline or first river, and her students are second rivers and so on. Poekoelan is an Indonesian word, which means "series of blows with returning hands and feet"; Tjimindie means "beautiful flowing waters"; Tulen means "original". Together, this describes the movement of this complete martial art, which flows gracefully and is effective in both combat and healing. The art is symbolized by the flexible, supple, yielding bamboo and an individualistic, beautiful rose that has thorns to protect itself. These symbols are set upon a black background, which signify the secrets and mysteries of the art.
The systems movements are of a nature akin to water and bamboo, fluid and circular, spiraling and continuous, graceful and whip-like. Movements are derived from four animals; the fierce tiger in the north, the eastern inspirational crane, the playful southern monkey, and from the west, the powerfully fluid snake. The use of these animals provide a set of dynamic dualities: soft/hard, fast/slow, small/large, fierce/playful, circular/angular and high/low. All of this is combined with a meditative, dance-like form, called the "crawl", a movement that is completely unique to each practitioner.
Martial techniques for self-defense are joined with breath and energy for purification of the body and mind. The purpose is to waken and connect with the body, seek clarity of self, and learn to strengthen, protect and secure the human spirit core by developing calm, compassion and a high level of internal energy for use in healing. The advanced levels of training in the Tulen art inspire the student to develop not only physical skills but mental and spiritual skills as well. The three advanced phases of the Tulen System are White Dragon, Silver Dragon and Gold Dragon.
Students begin training by bowing with empty hands and open minds to our teacher. The cleansing spirit of the art pours through them, and with each step it washes and purifies them. The training drum rhythms guide the students to their own movement. To fully understand the essence of training, students are encouraged to "accept, breathe, flow and not be concerned with outcomes." Compassion based Poekoelan offers a calm and fluidly beautiful art of self-protection and cultivation of the inner spirit.
The goal of the student is to spread Poekoelan Tjimindie Tulen worldwide in the name of Mas Goeroe Agoeng Willy Wetzel. Welcome to his art.

PRAYING MANTIS (TANG LANG CHUEN/TANG LANG PAI)
Imitative boxing of the Praying Mantis. The Praying Mantis is an insect with killer instinct and blinding speed. The Tang Lang Pai is a combat system composed of several sub-styles, that due to the richness and complexity of their techniques are considered styles by themselves. Some of these styles were created combining the praying mantis boxing with other wu-shu systems. Some writers count more than 40 Praying Mantis styles. This section will only mention below theMore ancient and traditional ones.
Wang Lang (the style creator) was born in the Tsi Mo district, in Shantung Province (Northern China). He lived during the Ming Dynasty fall and as he was a patriot (some Masters say he was uncle of the last Ming Emperor), he decided to excel in the martial arts to fight against the Ching Dynasty (Manchurian rulers). He entered to the Shaolin monastery in Sung Shang, but being prosecuted by the Manchurians he travelled all over China, training in places places where he could find Kung Fu Masters. In this way he learned 17 Chinese Boxing styles.
After this travel, Wang Lang entered to the Lao Shan monastery. Once there, he was always defeated by the abbot of the temple in spite of his deep knowledge of the fighting arts. One day, while he was meditating in a forest he saw a combat between a praying mantis and a cicada. He was impressed by the aggressive attitude of the mantis and he started studying its movements. After a long learning time he combined the praying mantis hand movements with the monkey steps (to enhance the coordination between hand and feet). With this new style Wang Lang could defeat the monastery abbot. Wang Lang went on modifying his system and when he felt satisfied with his creation he accepted some disciples.
Even though Praying Mantis sub-styles are quite different, they all contain the basic structure created by Wang Lang: * 8 stances * 12 key words * 8 rigid and 12 flexible methods * 5 external and 5 internal elements * 8 non- attacking and 8 attacking points.
Northern praying mantis is a style characterized by fast hand movements. The hook hands are the "trade mark" of the style and they are found in all the northern sub-styles. Northern Tang Lang Chuen's main weapon is the blinding speed of the hand trying to control and punch the opponent. It has a balanced combination of circular and straight movements.
Other important elements are the simultaneous block and punch, and strong chopping punches. These are practical movements for full contact street fighting. Some Chinese martial artists say that Seven Star Praying Mantis Boxing (one of the praying mantis sub-styles) is the most aggressive style created in China. Grappling, kicking, nerve-attack and weapons complete the northern branch.
Southern praying mantis is very different. It is an infighting system that resembles Wing Chun. Chi Kung is very important in the Southern Praying Mantis. Movements are continuous and circular, soft and hard, except in attack, where the middle knuckle (phoenix eye) of the index
finger is used like a needle to pierce the internal organs. A punch with the fist produces an external muscular bruise, striking with the phoenix eye produces an internal bruise.
Training:
1) Physical exercises
2) Body conditioning
Tie Sha Chang (Iron Palm)
Pai Ta Kung (body strengthening)
Jhiu Sa So (Poison Palm)
3) Fighting Theory
Tuey (legs actions)
Ta (hand actions)
4) School training (basic movements known as combinations)
5) Hsuai (Throwing Techniques)
6) Na (also known as Chin Na, grappling techniques)
7) Forms training (The core of the system. Solo training and forms
for two or more people)
8) San Sou (free fighting)
9) Jei Jai (weapons training)
10) Dim Mak (also known as mur mon, the death touch)
8 attacking points
8 non attacking points
Deadly points
11) History and tradition (honor the ancestors in the style and keep
the folklore tradition -for example Lion Dance-)
Sub-Styles:
Northern Sub-Styles:
Seven Stars Praying Mantis (Chi Shing Tang Lang)
Eight Steps Praying Mantis (Pa Pu Tang Lang)
Six Armonies Praying Mantis (Liu Ho Tang Lang)
Secret Door Praying Mantis (Pi Men Tang Lang)
Mysterious Track Praying Mantis (Mi Tzong Tang Lang)
Throwing Hands Praying Mantis (Shai Shou Tang Lang)
Plumb Flower Praying Mantis (Mei Hua Tang Lang)
Flying legs Praying Mantis from the Wah Lum Temple (Wah
Lum Tam Tui Tang Lang) Jade Ring Praying Mantis (Yu-Huan
Tang Lang) Long Boxing Praying Mantis (Chang Chuen Tang Lang)
Great Ultimate Praying Mantis (Tai Chi Tang Lang)
Eight Ultimates Praying Mantis (Pa Chi Tang Lang)
Southern Sub-Styles (Hakka shadow boxing):
Bamboo Forest Praying Mantis (Kwong Sai Jook Lum Tang Lang)
Chou Clan Praying Mantis (Chou Gar Tang Lang)
Chu Clan Praying Mantis (Chu Gar Tang Lang)
Familiar or non spread Sub-Styles:
Han Kun Family Praying Mantis (Han Kung Chia Tang Lang)
Drunken Praying Mantis (Chui Tang Lang)
Shiny Board Praying Mantis (Kuang Pang Tang Lang)
Connected Arms Praying Mantis (Tong Pei Tang Lang)
Mandarin Duck Praying Mantis (Yuan Yan Tang Lang)
PUKULAN
Pukulan comes from the word 'Pukul', meaning 'to strike' or 'to collide'- the suffix 'an' connoting a field of study. The word, then, means 'the study of the colliding art'. This usage is primarily Dutch Indonesian. It is roughly equivalent to common handfighting or boxing/wrestling. It also doesn't necessarily have an adherantcy to style lineage as in the idea of a Pusaka (holy legacy/heirloom).
PURRING
British unarmed fighting method using kicks delivered by the feet
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A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.

Ken