L - Styles
LA BOXE FRANCAISE
Jean Antoine Charles Lecour combines English prizefighting with French savate to create la boxe Francaise, or French boxing. Unlike English boxing, which generally led with the left side forward and prohibited kicking, French boxing led with the right side forward and allowed kicking, while unlike savate, the body positions in la boxe Francaise were fluid instead of stiff, perhaps because they were less influenced by ballet and fencing
LA LUTTE FRANCAISE
The man responsible for popularizing La Lutte Franšaise (literally, "French fighting," but more usually translated as "French Classical wrestling") was Jean Broyasse of Lyon, who wrestled and managed wrestlers under the name of Exbroyat.
LAU GAR KUNG FU
Lau Gar Kung Fu is derived from a form of boxing practiced at Kuei Ling Temple situated in Kong Sai Province in west China. It was learned from a monk on retreat from that temple by the Master "Three Eyed Lau", a Tiger hunter whom we honour as the founder of our style. The style subsequently became popular over a large part of South West China.
The fighting techniques of the style as based on movements of the five Shao-lin animals, Dragon, Tiger, Snake, Leopard and Crane. The mental training and fighting strategy are derived from Buddhist Philosophy. Particularly important in this respect are the concepts of change (impermance) and emptiness (void).
Lau Gar is classified as a "Southern, hard, external" form of boxing, specialising in short fist techniques executed from firm stances and also excelling in stick work. Such classifications are useful only in comparing the style with another, (say Tai Chi Chuan, which may be classified as Northern, soft, internal, specialising in long fist techniques) and has more to do with order in which the training proceeds.
Like all Shao-lin derived systems, Lau Gar has a significant internal content as well as soft techniques, though these require significantly more training as the power that makes them effective is not of the obvious (external) type.
Towards the end of the last centuary Master Yau's grandfather (Yau Luk Sau) conceived the desire to learn Kung Fu. Consequently at the age of thirteen he left Kowloon and travelled to Kong Sai Province to find a teacher. Within a short space of time his training commenced, under the master Tang Hoi Ching.
Lancashire wrestling, the immediate forerunner of modern Catch as Catch Can and Free Style wrestling, added ground wrestling to the original Loose Style. A bout was ended when one wrestler succeeded in forcing his opponent's shoulder blades to the ground and holding them there for a few seconds. No special dress or harness was used, the wrestlers usually wearing short trunks. Kicking and all holds which might maim were considered to be foul. Strangling was also forbidden. The contestants were expected to wrestle until one or the other pinned his opponent's shoulders to the
Ler Drit is a rare and powerful martial art that mixes powerful hand to hand techniques with highly trained use of psychic powers, known as "Soul Power".
LI GAR KUNG FU
A strong middle length system that utilizeds a lot of hands. Not often taught. Li Gar is one of the five famous family styles found in southern china around Canton and Hong Kong areas.Li Yau Shan is regarded as the founder of this style. The origins as most southern arts are shrouded in mystery but the credit goes to a monk from the shaolin temple. Different stories tell different acounts and different monks who taught Li Yau Shan the system.
Li Yau Shan was also responsible for teaching Chan Hueng of Choy Li Fut lineage and is remembered in as the Li in Choy Li Fut style
LIU HE KUNG FU
"Six methods." The best forms of liu-he come from Chang County, Hopei province, in China This is a difficult style of northern Chinese kung-fu; weapon routines include the spear, staff, and knife. It is composed, as the name implies, of three internal and three external principles which, as it turns out, can be applied to many other martial arts In Shantung, liu-he was combined with tang-lang(praying mantis),forming the liu-hetang-langstyle. Important figures in the liu-he style are Teng-Cheng-l and Liu-Te-Kwan, who taught Chiao-Shin-Chou, who taught Wan-Lai-Sin (who wrote a popular book on the liu-he system)
LIU HO CH'UAN
Kung-fu style originating cat A.D. 1100; also known as six-combination boxing.
LIU-HO-PA-FA KUNG FU
"Six Harmonies, Eight Steps," a northern form of Chinese kung-fu comprised of the styles known as liu-ho and pa-fa The development of this system is rooted in folklore. Essentially, it is similar to yueh-fei-chtuan A soft form of kung fu, this style's origins somewhat of a mystery Until 1929, when master Wu-i-Hwei brought the system to Nan-Hing, nobody had seen it. Even when Wu brought it into the open, the lineage and development were unclear. The style is popular primarily in the Hong Kong area. The system favors fingertip strikes with a minimum use of the legs. Kicks are directed only to leg areas of an opponent. It also favors hand-trapping elbow strikes and wrist-locking tactics.See also liu-ho-chtuan.
This Martial Art system was founded by Grand Master Tuumumao "Tino" Tuiolosega of the Royal Family of Sumo. Mr. Tino has spent over sixty years of his life dedicated to the Martial Arts, and the development of the American Polynesian art of Limalama. After having the Polynesian Martial Arts passed down to him by his father and uncle. Mr. Tino achieved Master Ranks in the five animal styles of Sil-Lum Kung fu. He was the Chief instructor of Self-defense while serving in the Marine Corp. Mr. Tino was the Middle Weight Champion and one of the most famous full contact Martial Arts competitors during the 1950s and 1960s
LO HAN CH'UAN
Literally the Buddha style, a Chinese kung-fu form with northern and southern variants. The most famous is the northern style, which is itself composed of several systems. Basically, the style is similar to chang-ch'uan. Emphasis is placed upon positioning rather than movement (a concept peculiar for kung-fu styles). The southern strain is especially popular in Fukien province; it too stresses positioning, but with more liberal movement.
Lua is the Royal Hawaiian martial art. In the 1800s the royal Hawaiian family decreed that the art would be restricted to members of the royal Hawaiian family (In fact, it is still illegal to practice the art in the state of Hawaii). Since the 1980s, the veil of secrecy to non-Hawaiians has started to lift with the open teaching of the art in Southern California by Alohe Kolomona Kaihewalu.
Lua encompasses both the armed and unarmed combat techniques of the ancient Hawaiian warriors. Isolated from outside influences, lua developed methods for fighting with wooden weapons and bare hands. The bone breaking techniques lua is known for resulted from battlefield expediency--break your opponent's bones, and he can fight no more.
Lua's known for bone breaking techniques, used with or without weapons. Lua is said to have encompassed over 300 techniques to break bones and dislocate joints without the use of weapons. Unarmed combat used joint manipulation, much as in jujitsu, and striking, much as in karate, kung fu, or tae kwon do.
Stories abound of how the adept lua practitioner would strike nerve centers in his opponent's body to render his opponent's limbs limp and useless. The warrior would then start from the opponent's hand and work his way up the arm, dislocating joints and breaking bones. Some practitioners could reverse the damage they caused by massaging pressure points and joint adjustment, seemingly a precursor to the lomi lomi massage and chiropractic care of today. Most of the time, though, the opponent was left to perish.
It's interesting to note that lua contained techniques seen in other martial arts, even though the Hawaiian Islands were isolated for centuries. Pressure point striking is found in kung fu and karate, and is related to the ancient Chinese medical art of acupuncture. Joint manipulation in fighting can be seen in kung fu, jujitsu, judo, aikido, and hapkido, among others.
King Kamehameha, the monarch who united the Hawaiian Islands under his rule, was renowned for his fighting ability. It was said that the king could lift stones no other man could lift, and was undefeated in single combat. Naturally, as king he undoubtedly was taught lua techniques that no other warrior could learn.
LUCHA DEL PALO
Canarian Isles (original inhabitants, the 'Guanches' a Berber people), using a shepherd's stick, still practised
French fighting system, originated from 19th century Paris, 'combat de rue' (= street fighting as opposed to more stylistic sport-fighting), using palm strikes, elbows, headbutts and throwing techniques.
M - Styles
Fight-dance, using sticks or machetes, from Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil, related to Capoeira. A traditional Afro-Brazilian dance played with sticks and machetes. Maculele was created by the African slaves who worked the sugar cane plantations. It is believed that during their rests between working, they would practice this dance with the machetes used for cutting down the sugar cane
The creator of MAENPO is Mr. Haji Ibrahim from Cikalong Cianjur West Java. MAENPO is a simple and unique fighting art by using hand speed with a term "Hand as a gun or Hand is a foot". According to Mr. UTAY MOCHTAR From Kadupandak Village, Cianjur (West Java), MAENPO is from the word "MAENPA" or "MAIN PAPAT" (Four point), that is : Mbah Khair (Bogor), Bang KARI (Betawi), Bang MADI (Pageruyung), SABANDAR (CIANJUR). MAENPO Consist of 27 happening aspect and 3 meaning aspect, that is created by Mr. Haji Ibrahim with the complete name " Raden Djayaperbata " from Cikalong Cianjur West Java. He does not know exactly when he creates this aspec, but he was born on 1816 and he was dead on 1906. He was burried in Majalaya Cikalong Kulon Cianjur. Maenpo is not the same with "SILAT", we can not make competation in MAENPO because the aspect of MAENPO can kill. The Important one of learning MAENPO is we can use the real MAENPO aspect, If we feel our skin will be meat, be at one with our body.
MAENPO is not only for the people who has special body and power but it is for all the people without thinking whether he/she has tall or short body or he/she has strong power or weak power. The focus of Maenpo is how we use the apect by using our brain than our muscle, it's mean that someone who is this, He/She must be brave to some one who is fat, He/She must look for the way how to face his/her enemy with his/her weak power, it uses our brain because people can uncrease their power by using their brain. People is defferent with animals. If we want to clash the animals, we must look for the same animal because the animals do not have brain, but people who fight with the strong man/woman, he/she must face him/her calmly. According to us, it is imposible, that's why if we want to learn MAENPO, we must be diligent, I'm sure if we do not try and try, we can't get it. (The Wisdom from Raden Abad: motion has a meaning so be careful with someone motion)
MANDE MUDA SILAT
Uyuh Suwanda was the founder of the Mande Muda system and the father of Herman Suwanda, the current head of the system. Bapak Uyuh passed on in 1989. The Mande Muda school of Pencak Silat was formed in 1951 in Bandung, West Java. Like the traditional Pencak Silat the teachings were not open to the general public. Bapak Uyuh studied 17 styles of Pencak Silat until his marriage to Mimi Rukmini, who came from and practiced Cimande.Together they taught Pencak Silat to their family and friends."
Marma shastra, the ancient Indian martial art form that manipulates vital points in the body, can be used both for self-defense and healing
Still gaze. Lithe stance. The warrior commands all his concentration on the target. Body alert, mind quiet, spirit calm, he waits for the right moment. Suddenly, his hand darts out like a serpent's fangs-to kill... or to heal.
Healing has always been an important part of martial arts. You cannot be a fighter without knowing how to heal your wounds. But nothing connects the two better than marma shastra-where the difference between life and death is just a matter of pressure.
The word 'marma' was used for the first time in Atharva Veda (ancient Indian scripture). During the Vedic period of India, this martial art was known to kings and warriors and was used in battlefields. It is said that marmas are constituted of six vital elements-soma (sleshma, phlegm), marutha (vata, air), teja (pitta, bile) and the three mental types: rajas, tamas and satva. Marma adi is the science of manipulating marmas or vital points. These are nerve junctures usually close to the skin surface. According to Susruta, author of Susruta Samhita, the ancient treatise on ayurveda, human body contains 107 marma points which, when struck or massaged, produce desired healing or injurious results. Like acupressure, marma adi functions by pressing these points through which the prana (chi in Chinese) flows.
The highest stage of kalarippayat, Kerala's ancient and potent martial art form, marma adi is now a near-extinct science, existing in a few remote corners of the place of its origin. Even in this age of websites and rediscovering of ancient wisdom, marma adi has remained a tradition shrouded in mystery.
According to marma adi, our body is crisscrossed like irrigation channels with meridians, a closed interconnecting system through which prana flows in the body. While acupressure, or shiatsu, follows a 14-meridian theory (with 361 marma or tsubo points), marma shastra believes there are 26 meridians in all. Of these, 12 are located in pairs on the left and right sides.
Marma points, supposed to be located on these meridians, boost the prana each time it flows through, resulting in a stronger life force energy. Marma points are also divided on the basis of their pancha bhautic (five elements) constitution into sadya pranahara (fire), kalanthara pranahara (water), vishalaya ghunam (air), vaikalyakara (earth) and rujakara (space).
While six of the 12 pairs of meridians have negative polarity (Shakti, yin, ida), six are of the positive polarity (Shiva, yang, pingala). The negative meridians begin from the toes or the middle of the body and go upward to the head. The positive meridians begin at the head and go down. The intensity of prana flow varies according to the time of the day, peaking and diminishing in a 12-hour cycle. A marma point is most vulnerable when prana is flowing through it.
The prana leaves the lungs at dawn between 1.00 a.m. and 3.00 a.m. and returns after flowing through 13 other channels within 24 hours. When the flow of prana is disturbed, the corresponding organ is affected. A study of the exact location of prana is imperative for marma adi to be effective, for it works only if the blow is precisely on the marma point. The hit should also be vertical. This excessive stress on a precise hit and the years of practice it demands has stymied the popularity of this martial art form.
Two kinds of weapons can be used in marma adi: natural and artificial. The natural weapons include various hand and finger strikes including snake strike, dart strike, mantis strike and dragon fist strike. The metamorphosis of your hand from a wobbly five-fingered prong to a deadly weapon requires much practice, including jabbing your fingers on leather strips, wood, wall or even a bucketful of sand. But before doing any of these, make sure that you massage your palms, fingers and wrists with oil to regulate the blood circulation. Usually these exercises are recommended three days a week, with a gradual increase in the strain. If martial arts remind you of Bruce Lee gracefully slashing the wind with lightning strikes, marma adi will revise your opinion. You might use a stick, your house keys, a spoon, or even a corner of War and Peace to hit an assailant on the marma points. Each item works as well. Not to heal, though.
You strike the marma points to hit, and press with your thumb or the index finger to heal. For example, if lohit, a marma point on the leg, is struck, it results in paralysis. But the same marma is treated with moderate circular and deep pressure to treat paralysis. Similarly, marma vipat near the groin, when struck, can cause impotency while the same marma, when massaged, cures impotency. When somebody hits the marma, the flow of prana is disturbed and can be treated either by marma itself or acupressure. Those who have watched the Tamil hit movie Indian, or its Hindi version Hindustani would get an inkling of marma adi through those intricate jabs the hero Kamal Haasan uses to kill or maim his enemies, and which are later used by a marma master from Kerala to heal one of the victims.
Marma adi, unlike some other martial art forms, cannot be learnt in regular schools. The technique, handed down from one generation to the next within a family, is taught only to the most exceptional and dedicated students. It is possible to find marma masters in some gurukkals (teachers) of kalarippayat in Kerala.
What makes marma adi even more difficult to practice, especially as a form of defence, is the inaccessibility of many marma points. You can hardly pull out the shoes of an assailant to hit at his soles. Or trace the exact marma point up his spine. As a healing technique, however, marma adi is potent. And since that, in essence, is its function, marma has been, and continues to be, one of the most revered traditions of Indian healing systems.
"The effectiveness of marma healing is almost 100 per cent," says Sunil Kumar, son and disciple of K. Narayanan Gurukkal, a marma master based in the southern Indian state of Kerala. "It takes six weeks for a fracture to be healed through marma. Paralysis can be treated in three months. Other ailments such as spondylosis, nervous disorders, sciatic and rheumatic problems can also be treated with marma." It is, however, important to study the patient first, find out whether he is a vata (air), pitta (bile) or kapha (phlegm). "Vata type of people respond best to marma," says Sudhakaran, a student of marma. "Kapha and pitta types require medication as well as marma."
Masaki Ryu is one of Japans more obscure martial arts to say the least. The Founder was only known as Masaki, because he was a monk at one of the many Buddhist temples in Edo during the 1600's. Masaki was a guard at Tge temples gates. Being a Buddhist monk he could not spill blood so he developed a chain weapon he saw in a vision he had about an attack on the temple in the not so far future.
After he was done making the weapon he started developing Techniques based around Karate, Kung Fu and the training methods of the Chain he learned from a wandering Chinese warrior. The Manriki-gusari is the chain weapon he made, it is around three to twelve feet long, with the average being six feet long. It is a chain with weights on the end used to bash peoples skulls in.
Fight discipline of 'Massa´' people (Kenia)
Guadeloupe, similar forms also known in region (Martinique (Ladja), Dominique and Trinidad). Stick fighting, accompanied by a special drum rythm and traditional creole chants) Using sticks of 1m05 to
0 maximum, made of local kinds of hard-wood. On Marie-Galante, three sizes are used: 55, 70 and 90 cm at maximum. In earlier days possibly lethal, it developed to a ritualised, pugilistic dance.
This involves 12 graded body exercise sequences which include twists and turns of the body, leaps and poses. A single sequence constitutes a Payattu (much like a kata in Japanese martial arts). In advanced stages, the student learns several sequences of body control excursus which enable the student to master balance, coordination and the principles of movement in space as well as to understand the continuous flow of body energy.
This Manipuri game resembles wrestling in many ways. As in the more popular Indian form of wrestling, stamina, physical strength and prowess are the attributes required for success.
The ground should be of soft sand, and contestants should wear thin vests. Smearing the body with oil is not permitted, neither is the wearing of rings or any article that can be injurious. The contest is timed to three rounds, each lasting for 3 minutes. If a wrestler is defeated in two rounds, he is declared the loser. Punching, slapping, scratching or using of force with a knee - jerk or elbow jab are also not allowed. Even the use of bad language by the contestants invites disqualification.
A contestant is defeated when:
a) Both shoulders are pinned to the ground for a count of six, in five seconds.
b) A wrestler is lifted into the air, and is kept suspended for a count of six, in five seconds.
c) A wrestler is pinned on the ground, in any position for a count of six in five seconds.
A single referee conducts a bout, assisted by ringside judes, who allot points for every correct offensive posture. The total points of each judge are taken into consideration when deciding on the winner.
Literally, "cotton fist," a northern style of Chinese kung-fu. Notions of softness, smoothness, slowness, warmth, and even weakness are conveyed in its name. Practitioners train very slowly. Emphasis here is on soft training, training the legs, perfecting a low horse stance. A saying about this style warns "Mein-ch'uan, ten years stay in the home"-ten years of practice before one can use it.
MI TSUNG I
Northern style of Chinese kung-fu founded around the end of the Sung dynasty. Its mythical founder, Yen-Ching, was actually a character in a famous Chinese novel entitled Water Margin. Emphasis in mi-t'sung is on changing direction, speed, and footwork to confuse the enemy. Aspects of both hard and soft kung-fu are included. Its most noted weapon is the knife (tao). The style was made famous by master Hou-Yuan-Chia, who founded the T'sing Wu Athletic Association in Shanghai during the early part of this century. Although Hou's academy housed several different styles, he never included his prized mi-t'sung in curriculum. To the day, the system is quite rate. The most famous master of this style ir' the U.S., Adam Hsu, teaches in San Francisco; he learned his mi-t'sung from Liu-Yen-Chiao, who in turn studied under ChiangYao-Ting
MOK GAR KUNG FU
Mok Gar is one of the oldest martial arts, and is particularly famed for its kicking techniques. However, a full range of weapons are also used, making this form of martial arts one of the most effective combatant forms. Unlike some other forms, such as Wing Chun, Mok Gar has been faithfully passed from generation to generation without modification, and so Mok Gar practised today is very similar to that which would have been practised generations ago.
It is said that Mok Gar was invented by the Shaolin monk Mok Da Si. At that time the form was knows as Shaolin Kuen. He taught this to his family, who then passed it on from generation to generation. After three generations the form was renamed Mok Gar which can roughly be translated as the Mok Form. (Other family forms include Lau Gar, Lee Gar, Choi Gar and Hung Gar which were developed at the same time as Mok Gar, and similarly retain the faithful observance of the original teachings).
As mentioned above, great emphasis is placed on kicking techniques in Mok Gar, and to this end a tremendous amount of stamina building is undertaken as well as the development of power and flexibility in the legs. The flip side of this is that techniques are also taught to withstand kicks.
Once the 108 movements which form the basis of Mok Gar have been mastered, students go on to learn Tai Chi, which although it is a soft form of martial arts, if a student can master the art of combining the hard techniques of Mok Gar with the soft techniques of Tai Chi a formidable combatant form emerges.
For centuries the Mongolians have been known for their legendary grappling skills. Their skills and techniques have been passed on to kung fu practitioners in China as well as to wrestlers and sambo practitioners in Russia. BOKE, the Mongolian word for wrestling, was born in the 11th century. There is an Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia style. The Naadam festival held during the second week of every July is a sportive festival that features Boke, among other sports. Bbayrildax is another name for Mongolian wrestling. Most often it takes place outdoors, though sometimes, during the winter, tournaments are held indoors. There are no weight classes or time limits in a match. The objective of the match is to get your opponent to touch his back, knee or elbow to the ground. In the Inner Mongolian version, any body part other than the feet touching the ground signals defeat. Both versions use a variety of throws, trips and lifts to throw the opponent. The Inner Mongolians may not touch their opponent's legs with their hands, whereas, in Mongolia, grabbing your opponent's legs is completely legal..
The technique and ritual of Mongolian wrestling is distinctly national. There are no weight categories or age limits in Mongolian national wrestling. The wrestlers wear heavy boots, a very small tight-fitting loincloth, a pair of sleeves which meet across the back of the shoulders, resembling a tiny vestige of a jacket, and a pointed cap of velvet.
The contestants come out on the field leaping and dancing, flapping their arms in imitation of an eagle. Each wrestler has an attendant herald. The aim of the sport is to knock your opponent off balance and throw him down, making him touch the ground with his elbow and knee. Each bout is contested over the best of three wins. The loser walks under the raised arms of the winner in a sign of respect, and unties his vest, after which the victor, again leaping and dancing, takes a turn round the flag in the center of the field. The victor is awarded symbolic prizes - biscuits and aaruul, or dried curds. Once he has tasted these, he offers them to his seconds and to spectators.
Traditionally, either one thousand and twenty-four or five hundred and twelve wrestlers participate in the contest. At the Republican Naadam, nine rounds are held. Those who lose in one round are eliminated from further rounds.
Moo Do is a new, eclectic style founded by Grand Master Chae T. Goh, built on Tae Kwon Do but incorporating a much wider range of techniques than most TKD schools. The name means "Warrior's Way". In 1972, Master Goh came to America after a remarkable history of success
as a student, teacher, and innovator in several martial arts in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Moo Do combines Tae Kwon Do kicking, Karate punching, and Hapkido grappling and throwing techniques. The style focuses on street-usable techniques and forms, as both technique practice and a way of pursuing the `do' or self-improvement aspect of the art. Sport and competition fighting are de-emphasized.
Movements and forms are basically linear, but with a lot of training in 45-degree shifts for evasion. A wide range of grappling and throwing techniques designed specifically for common self-defense situations on the street are included. Each class begins with stretching and aerobic exercise. The classes are physically challenging, but there's a strong tradition of adapting to what the student's body can handle. Kick-punch combinations and multiple-technique attacks are pushed hard from the beginning. Sparring begins at intermediate levels.
Basic meditation is part of the curriculum. Students are instructed in the ethics of the Hwarang Do, including loyalty to nation and family, truthfulness, keeping one's word, loving kindness to one's spouse, and the necessity to "justify your means" when using force. Senior students are required to research and write essays on various topics in the art to pass belt tests.
MOO DUK KWAN
In 1945 Grandmaster Hwang Kee founded the martial arts system of "Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan". It originated from the ancient Korean martial art "Soo Bahk Ki" and was influenced by Northern and Southern Chinese sysems, such as the Tang method.
The art was renamed Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan in 1994, in accordance with the wishes of the Grandmaster. The name reflects the increased pure Korean influence Grandmaster Hwang Kee has introduced and shows that we are still evolving as a "living art".
Soo Bahk Do is not a sport. As a classical martial art its purpose is to develop every aspect of the self to create a mature person who totally integrates his/her body, spirit, emotions and intellect. This integration helps to free a person from inner conflict and develops an ability to deal with the outside world in a mature, intelligent, forthright and virtuous manner.
Grandmaster Hwang Kee founded his first Soo Bahk Do school under the name of Moo Duk Kwan. A brief meaning of these words is a brotherhood and school of stopping inner and outer conflict and developing virtue through Soo Bahk Do training. Moo Duk Kwan is the mental direction and focus; it is the philosophy that supports the techniques of Soo Bahk Do. Combined, these two aspects enable total development of the self, each enhancing the other. This harmony creates an awareness of being that makes Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan training a valuable art form.
Over the past 20 years many westerners have studied Soo Bahk Do in Korea. Korean instructors have been sent out world-wide creating many major organizations. There are over 200,000 Soo Bahk Do students and over 35,000 Dan holders. Before 1974 there were many teachers but little standardization. Grandmaster Hwang Kee decided to unify and standardize these western organizations and as a result the first Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation Inc. was formed in 1975 in the United States (now know as the U.S. Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation Inc.). This is a non-profit organization, committed to promoting world peace by improving human relationships through the instruction and practice of Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan.
In 1985 the Belgian Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation was formed. Both federations are devoted to the growth and continuation of Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan maintaining the Grandmaster's high standards of excellence. Since 1945 the Grandmaster has instructed and monitored those who are certified to teach to ensure accurate transmission. These high standards bring strict expectations; the Grandmaster was once heard to have said "If you want to do front and reverse punches correctly, you must spend ten hours a day, six days a week for three years doing nothing else."!
It is a testimony in itself to the Grandmaster and his teaching that he commands such respect and inspires so much dedication and effort. Certain qualities of the Grandmaster permeate Soo Bahk Do and its members: openness, personal closeness, independence, rock hard determination and unshakeable solidarity. These qualities as well as unifying and binding us together assure that future generations will be able to follow the way of Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan.
Only those instructors certified through the Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation by Grandmaster Hwang Kee are legally authorized to engage in the instruction of Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan. Whilst "Tang Soo Do" is a generic term, "Soo Bahk Do" and "Moo Duk Kwan" are not. They were developed by Grandmaster Hwang Kee to specifically identify his system of martial art instruction and may only be used by those who are authorised to do so.
MOO GI GONG
Involves the offensive and defensive use of the over 108 traditional weapons found within 20 categories of weaponry. By learning these various weapon systems, the practitioner can most effectively utilize any object as a weapon as the situation demands.
MSHINDI VITA SAANA
"Mshindi Vita Saana" is Ki Swahili for "Champion War Art" or Victor('s) War Art. Mshindi Vita Saana is a system of self defense developed for and by people of Afrikan* descent (African Americans.) Using an African frame of reference, Mshindi Vita Saana approaches self defense using rhythm, strategy, coordination and agility to highlight traditional and contemporary movements. At its core, Mshindi Vita Saana reflects the graceful elaborate polyrhythms found in Afrikan dance and music. As a people, dance and combat have always been integral parts of our glorious history.
Every nation of people has or has had their own system of self defense. Blacks (Afrikans) are not excluded from this fact. Africa flourished with rich and diverse cultures. Many of the developed sciences and arts of the world began in the cradle of civilization known today as Africa. The martial arts is just one of the many many treasures adopted or stolen from our homeland. There are always those who are surprised to hear that such a thing as Afrikan martial arts exist; they are surprised to know there are many systems of Afrikan martial arts. Often we hear of Karate and Whu Shu/Kung Fu as methods of self defense, but not often do we hear of Afrikan fighting arts such as Mshindi Vita Saana, Yara, Zuar, Ceoporia, Testa or Yangumi, just to name a few.
Mshindi Vita Saana, being self reliant and self determined, is not Black Karate nor is it Afrikan Kung Fu. There are no such art forms and to title any martial arts system as Afrikan Karate shows contradiction and confusion of culture, consciousness and commitment. Not to be misleading, Mshindi Vista Saana supports any practice of self defense and respects all systems. Mshindi Vita Saana teaches us that a martial arts system should reflect the cultural and political ambitions of a nation. Mshindi Vita Saana encourages unity among African American martial artists regardless of style or system. We consider it important to racially and culturally identify our art form -- Black Martial Arts. We make no apologies for our racial pride or for the uniqueness the Black experience brings to the martial arts or any art, for that matter.
Vita Saana was established in 1973 by founders Mwangazi O. Changa Mshindi and Mwanzo Umeme M. Maharibi. Since its beginning, Vita Saana has grown to be a strong influence in the Afrikan community, producing many outstanding martial artists. Today there are two disparate clans in the Philadelphia area, each under the leadership of one of the two co-founders of Vita Saana.
Mshindi Vita Saana, M.V.S. as it is sometimes abbreviated, was founded as one of the strategies to promote Black manhood/ womanhood during the unrest of the early nineteen seventies. During this time, practitioners trained in churches and independent Black institutions. Self defense was considered a fundamental and necessary component by both political activists and civil rights advocates. Mshindi Vita Saana is dedicated to teaching self defense as a life survival skill. As we accelerate toward our twenty-fifth anniversary and the next century, we remain involved in addressing the issues and concerns of the Afrikan community.
Ki Swahili is used by practitioners to greet classmates, respond to instructors and name techniques. Ki Swahili is also used in our drills and basic communication. Using the Swahili language to instruct Mshindi Vita Saana classes gives the student a sense of unity, pride and cultural awareness. Ki Swahili was chosen because of its large territorial usage boundaries and its acceptance by African Americans during our early cultural quest in the nineteen sixties. Mshindi Vita Saana promotes social interaction of age groups to build strong peer bonding. Children are encouraged to have fun and be responsible for each other. There is no negative discrimination because of complexion, gender, size or age. Everyone is treated fairly and with respect. Protocol is a must in Mshindi Vita Saana, for it teaches us to honor the work, and accomplishments of parents, teachers and elders. Mshindi Vita Saana instructions are reflective of an extended family with our members holding various positions of responsibility earned through rank.
The Mshindi Vita Saana curriculum reflects depth and substance. Covering self defense, weaponry, unarmed combat, fighting forms, breaking, etc. Each of the course components is more precisely defined by extensive subject matter. Practitioners are expected to work hard and achieve at their individual levels. Students (mwanafunzi) are encouraged to always give one hundred percent. Although Mshindi Vita Saana participants engage in sport-type events (tournaments) and perform extremely well, it is not our goal to produce tournament-type sports fighters. We choose to concentrate on urban street survival. We believe the concept of street survival requires mental as well as physical capabilities. For this reason, Mshindi Vita Saana emphasizes mental strategies and intellectual stimulation, along with rigorous physical training.
The seven styles of Mshindi Vita Saana each outline a physical and mental side, encompassing character, portrayal in appearance, attitude and methods. For example, one style of Mshindi Vita Saana is Tiger/Lion (Simba) which physically and mentally emotes a very aggressive fighter that is confident and seldom yields. Simba (Lion/Tiger) is very strong, fearless, agile and quick, someone who is impulsive and spontaneous. This is the type of person who is in it for the duration. We all may know someone with that aggressive Simba (Tiger/Lion) behavior. Each style also has a counter style. The important thing is that there is a list of strategies from which to choose. Because each situation may require a new plan, there is much to be learned in Mshindi Vita Saana; it is hard work, but the benefits and rewards are tremendous.
Often someone asks: is Mshindi Vita Saana more like karate or is it like Kung Fu? The answer is neither. To suggest this comparison is like asking: are Black people more like the Japanese or Chinese people? Because of history, culture, and other factors, every people has their own uniqueness that makes them who they are. Mshindi Vita Saana is our attempt to develop and secure martial arts skills through practice and study within our distinctive circumstance. It is of great importance to us that our skills are reflective of the Black experience. We encourage the practice of the Martial Arts and look forward to ongoing interactions with all fellow practitioners.
Muay Thai is usually regarded as a very hard, external style. However, especially because of its roots in heavily Buddhist Thailand, some consider it to have a spiritual aspect as well. Thai boxers typically perform some Buddhist rituals before beginning a match. Practicing Muay Thai is a vigorous workout and produces tremendous cardiovascular endurance.
Modern Thai Boxing (Muay Thai) originated from Krabi Krabong (a Thai weapons art roughly meaning "stick and sword"). When the Thais lost their weapons or fought close quarters with weapons they used knees, elbows, feet, fists and headbutting. They became famous for their toughness on the battle field with constant wars with their Burmese rivals. King Ramkamheng (1275 - 1317) wrote the "Tamrab-Pichei-Songkram" - the Book of War Learning, about the Thai war art, the basis of which was weaponless fighting. The biggest Thaiboxing hero of Thailand is the 'Black Prince' Nai Khanom Dtom, who was camtured by the Burmese and had to fight against 12 of the best Burmese fighters before he was released (in 1560). The Thais are still having annual Muay Thai tournaments in order to salute him.
In the old days the fights lasted until one of the fighters was dead or seriously injured. There were no rounds and the fights could have lasted for several hours. No protective gear was used and sometimes they wore rope over their knuckles and glued some broken glass on top of it...
Before the 1940's, Thai fighters fought bare-knuckled. After World War II, the Thai government became concerned due to the high number of fatalities in the ring and and forced some rules to be used: they gave up groin shots, eye pokes, started using weight classes and boxing gloves, and rounds. The Thais felt that this watered down their sport. As a result, Thais place more emphasis on kicks, particularly to the legs; knee strikes; and grappling. These skills score higher points than hand strikes in Thai matches.
Muay Thai involves boxing techniques, hard kicking, and knee and elbow strikes. Low kicks to the thighs are a very distinguishing technique used frequently in Muay Thai. Stand up grappling is also used and allowed in the ring. Muay Thai practitioners develop a very high level of physical conditioning developed by its practitioners.
The training involves rigorous physical training, similar to that practiced by Western boxers. It includes running, shadow-boxing, and heavy bag work. Much emphasis is also placed on various drills with the so-called "Thai pads". These pads weigh five to ten pounds, and cover the wearers forearms. In use, the trainer wears the pads, and may hold them to receive kicks, punchs, and knee and elbow strikes, and may also use them to punch at the trainee. This training is vaguely similar to the way boxing trainers use focus mitts. The characteristic Muay Thai round kick is delivered with the shin, therefore, the shins become conditioned by this type of kicking.
Full contact, full-power sparring is usually not done in training, due to the devastating nature of the techniques employed. Thai boxers may box, hands only, with ordinary boxing gloves. Another training drill is for two fighters to clinch, and practice a form of stand-up grappling, the goal of which is to try to land a knee strike. However, full-power kicks, knees, and elbows are typically not used in training.
Promising children will enter dedicated Muay Thai training camps as young as six or seven. There, the fighter will be put on a plan aimed at making him a national champion while still in his teens. The Thais fight frequently, and a 20 year old fighter may have had 150 fights. Typically, half the purse from each fight goes to the training camp, with the remainder being split between the fighter and his family.
Mukna is a sport, which is a combination of wrestling and judo, originating from, and popular in the state of Manipur. Historical records prove, that Mukna has been played since, the first half of the 15th century, but no exact record is available of the earlier meets. In Manipur, there is a belief that this type of wrestling goes as far back as the Hayachak era (Satya Yug), when Pakhangba, the son of the Atiya Guru Shidaba, caught his irate brother, Sanamahi who was the incarnation of a horse, causing chaos and confusion in the kingdom. Sanamahi was furious with his father, for naming Pakhangba as his successor. Pakhangba trapped his brother at the end of a long and bitter encounter, when he used a deadly grip that rendered Sanamahi powerless. This paved way for the birth of Mukna. This sport really flourished during the reign of King Khagemba (1597-1672). The game is generally played on the last day of the festival of Lai Haraoba (worship of the sylvan diety), and is an intrinsic part of the ceremonial functions.
The competitions are usually in the same weight category. Contestants, wearing a waist belt and a groin belt, hold each other's belts, and then the match begins. Holding the opponent's neck, hair, ear, private parts or legs with the hands, are considered foul. Boxing and kicking are also not permitted. The competitor who touches the ground first with his head, back, shoulder, knee or the hand, is declared the loser.
Some of the traditional equipment and dresses of the land are used by the players of this game. This is principally, to protect the vital parts of a player's body. It also helps to identify the Ana or the yek, to which the wrestler belongs. The waist belt is known as a ningri. The winner is called a yatra. He is declared winner, if he succeeds in pinning his opponent to the ground - with the whole of his body or his back touching the ground.
There are many techniques or lou, used in Mukna. Absolute physical fitness and skill is required, while mastering these techniques. Today, the game is popular in Imphal, Thoubal and Bishnpur.
MY JONG LOHAN
My-Jong Lohan (also: "18 Law Horn") - Also known as the "Lost Track" and/or "18 Buddhas" style, this Northern style of Chinese kung-fu is said to contain many of the original exercises developed by Bodhidharma. Derived from the Northern Shaolin system, My-Jong Lohan bears a remarkable similarity in both technique and form. It stresses liberal, darting movements and sweeping, long-range attacks. Acrobatic leaps and maneuvers are also common in the forms of this style.