Somehat generic term used for Japanese and Okinawan fighting arts that originated in Okianwa.
Karate is a term that either means "Chinese hand" or "Empty hand" depending on which Japanese or Chinese characters you use to write it. The Okinawan Karates could be said to have started in the 1600s when Chinese practitioners of various Kung Fu styles mixed and trained with local adherents of an art called "te" (meaning "hand") which was a very rough, very simple fighting style similar to Western boxing. These arts generally developed into close- range, hard, external
In the late 19th century Gichin Funakoshi trained under several of the great Okinawan Karate masters (Itosu, Azato) as well as working with Jigoro Kano (see Judo) and Japanese Kendo masters (see Kendo). Influenced by these elements, he created a new style of Karate. This
he introduced into Japan in the first decade of the 20th century and thus to the world. The Japanese Karates (or what most people refer to when they say "karate") are of this branch.
Okinawan Karate styles tend to be hard and external. In defense they tend to be circular, and in offense linear. Okinawan karate styles tend to place more emphasis on rigorous physical conditioning than the Japanese styles. Japanese styles tend to have longer, more stylistic movements and to be higher commitment. They also tend to be linear in movement, offense, and defense. Both tend to be high commitment, and tend to emphasize kicks and punches, and a strong offense as a good defense.
Training differs widely but most of the Karate styles emphasize a fairly equal measure of basic technique training (repitition of a particular technique), sparring, and forms. Forms, or kata, as they are called, are stylised patterns of attacks and defenses done in sequence for training purposes.
(Okinawan): Uechi-Ryu, Goju-Ryu, Shoin-Ryu, Isshin-Ryu
(Japanese): Shotokan, Shito-Ryu, Wado-Ryu
Here is a more complete list (complements of Howard High) in which Okinawan and Japanese styles are mixed: Ashihara, Chinto-Ryu, Chito-Ryu, Doshinkan, Gohaku-Kai, Goju-Ryu (Kanzen), Goju-Ryu (Okinawan), Goju-Ryu (Meibukan), Gosoku-Ryu, Isshin-Ryu, Kenseido, Koei-Kan, Kosho-Ryu Kenpo, Kyokushinkai, Kyu Shin Ryu, Motobu-Ryu, Okinawan Kempo, Okinawa Te, Ryokukai, Ryuken, Ryukyu Kempo, Sanzyu-Ryu , Seido, Seidokan, Seishin-Ryu, Shindo Jinen-Ryu, Shinjimasu, Shinko-Ryu, Shito-Ryu (Itosu-Kai), Shito-Ryu (Seishinkai), Shito-Ryu (Kofukan), Shito-Ryu (Kuniba Ha) , Shito-Ryu (Motobu Ha), Shorin-Ryu (Kobayashi), Shorin-Ryu (Matsubayashi), Shorin-Ryu (Shobayashi), Shorin-Ryu (Matsumura), Shorinji Kempo, Shorinji-Ryu, Shoshin-Ryu, Shotokai, Shotokan, Shotoshinkai, Shudokai, Shuri-Ryu, Shuri-Te, Uechi-Ryu , Wado-Kai, Wado-Ryu, Washin-Ryu, Yoseikan, Yoshukai, Yuishinkan.
Wado-Ryu was founded by Hironori Ohtsuka around the 1920s. Ohtsuka studied Jujutsu for many years before becoming a student of Gichin Funakoshi. Considered by some to be Funakoshi's most brilliant student, Ohtsuka combined the movements of Jujutsu with the striking techniques of Okinawan Karate. After the death of Ohtsuka in the early 1980s, the style split into two factions: Wado Kai, headed by Ohtsuka's senior students; and Wado Ryu, headed by Ohtsuka's son, Jiro. Both factions continue to preserve most of the basic elements of the style.
Uechi-ryu Karate, although it has become one of the main Okinawan martial arts and absorbed many of the traditional Okinawan karate training methods and approaches, is historically, and to some extent technically quite separate. The "Uechi" of Uechi-ryu commemorates Uechi Kanbun, an Okinawan who went to Fuzhou, the capital city of Fujian province in China in 1897 to avoid being drafted into the Japanese army. There he studied under master Zhou Zihe for ten years,
finally opening his own school, one of the few non-Chinese who ventured to do so at the time. The man responisble for bringing Uechi-ryu to the US is George Mattson.
Uechi-ryu, unlike the other forms of Okinawan and Japanese karate mentioned in the FAQ, is only a few decades removed from its Chinese origins. Although it has absorbed quite a bit of Okinawan influence and evolved closer to such styles as Okinawan Goju-ryu over those decades, it still Retains its original Chinese flavor, both in its technique and in the culture of the dojo. It is a "half- hard, half-soft" style very similar to such southern Chinese styles as Fukienese Crane (as still practiced in the Chinese communities of Malaysia), Taiwanese Golden Eagle, and even Wing Chun. Conditioning the body for both attack and defense is a common characteristic of both Okinawan karate and southern Shaolin "street" styles, and as such is an important part of Uechi training. There is a strong internal component to the practice, including focused breathing and tensioning exercises similar to Chinese Qigong. Uechi, following its Chinese Crane heritage, emphasizes circular blocks, low snap kicks, infighting (coordinating footwork with grabs, locks, throws, and sweeps), and short, rapid hand traps and attacks (not unlike Wing Chun).
The Karyu combat style is a blending of techniques from Karate, Kempo, Ninjutsu, and Jujutsu, taught to nearly all clan members to some degree, both for self-defense and better control of one's psychic powers. It is normally a wholly weaponless style, though female clan members are often trained in the use of daggers. All in all, it is a powerful style, which seeks to strike a balance between internal and external, thus making both internal control and physical ability key to mastering it.
KE-CHIA KUNG FU
Southern form of Chinese kung-fu, composed of three styles: lung-fusing
(dragon); bai-mei (white eyebrow; also bak-mei in Cantonese); and tsu-chia (also known as southern praying mantis). Ke-chia literally means "guest family," as the originators of these styles were not from the Kwang-Tung province area.
This is a popular sport in Japanese communities.
Kendo is the sport and competitive form of Kenjutsu. Kendo has been practiced for a long time in one form or another.
The practitioners wear protective armor and use simulated swords (split bamboo called "shinai") to "spar" against one another. Strike areas are limited as are moves. It is a very formal art. It is
linear, hard, and external.
Training mostly consists of two-person drills, basics, and some kata that have been retained from kenjutsu between individuals.
The combative use of a sword.
The origins of this art are lost in the midst of history. It probably has its origins in 12th century or 11th century Japan. It is famous in myth and story from people like Miyamoto Mushashi in the 15th century.
There are 4 root systems, Cujo-ryu, Nen-ryu, Kage-ryu and Shinto Ryu. These probably all have roots prior to the beginning of the 16th century. In the 16th century, there was an explosion of styles, with many being formed between then and the present.
Modern kenjutsu schools trace from either the monk Jion (Nen ryu or Cujo ryu) or from Iiosai, the founder of the Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto Ryu.
This is a hard, weapon style using the Japanese sword. It involves powerful, high commitment strikes to selected targets in order to kill the opponent. There is a strong side of spiritual and philosophical study, similar in a way to that of Aikido.
There is a large amount of two-person work, mostly with wooden swords (bokken). Some schools use the fukuru shinai, an ancestor of todays weapon (Shinkage ryu, Nen-ryu). Sparring is a developed student activity.
Kage, Shinkage, Yagyu Shinkage Cujo, Itto-ryu, Nen-ryu, Katroi-shinto Ryu, Kashima shin-ryu, Niten-ichi-ryu, Jigen-ryu. Shinkage was a royal school - for the Shogun.
KENPO (AMERICAN -SEE ALSO KAJUKENBO)
Note: In the Japanese language, the consonants "n" and "m" have the same symbol, thus the English
spelling can be rendered either "Kempo" or "Kenpo". There are several arts in this family, but the spelling of "Ken/mpo" is not of significance in distinguishing between them.
This art is also called Kenpo Karate. American Kenpo is an eclectic art developed by Hawaiian Ed Parker in the 60s. The art combines the Kara-Ho Kenpo which Parker learned from William Chow with influences from Chinese, Japanese, Hawaiian, and Western Martial sources. American Kenpo blends circular motions and evasive movements with linear kicks and punches. The art is oriented toward street-wise self defense. A big emphasis on basics, sparring, and kata. It is similar
to most Karate styles in its training mechanisms. The Tracy schools of Kenpo teach Parker's style, but are a "politically" separate organization.
KEMPO (KOSHO RYU)
Kosho Ryu Ken/mpo is a philosophical art much like Jeet Kune Do but with a Zen influences...lots of mind science material and healing arts. It is not a style of compiled kata or specific techniques..it is a study of all motion and therefore cannot be stylised to look like a
specific teacher or animal movement. Thus, this writeup will discuss only the history of the art.
Kosho Shorei Kempo was created by several happenings, spanning a period of centuries. According to Mitose Sensei, during the invasion of Genghis Khan, the Head Monk of the Shaolin Temple fled China and found refuge with the Mitose family. In appreciation for the kindness
of the Mitose's, he taught them Shaolin Chuan Fa (Shorinji Kempo in Japanese). From James Mitose's book: "Fifteen hundred years ago, the ancestor (of the Author) was a Shinto priest. He studied and taught many different martial arts including sword fighting, lance fighting, fighting with the bow and arrow, fighting on horseback, and swim fighting. Some arts looked like Kempo, Karate, Kung Fu, and Ju-jitsu- but they were different in many ways. He mastered all of these arts and became Grand Master. Then Grand Master Mitose founded a martial arts school and called his style Mitose's Martial Art School." In 1235 a Shinto priest whom James Mitose called his first ancestor became enlightened to what we call Kempo. According to Mitose, this man was a martial arts master and a Buddhist monk studying at Shaka-In who found it difficult to be both. His religion taught him pacifism; his martial art taught him destruction. He pondered this dilemma under an old pine tree meaning Kosho in Japanese. He became enlightened and was from then on known as, Kosho Bosatsu, the Old Pine Tree Enlightened One. He discovered the relationship between man and Nature and also the secret of the Escaping Arts which is what makes Kempo a True and Pure Kempo or study of all Natural Law through a Martial Arts medium. Then "the Grand Master founded the Kosho Shorei Temple of Peace, True Self Defense and Kosho Shorei Yoga School. At that time, he made up the Coat of Arms and the Motto for his Temple. In his Temple, he taught how to escape from being harmed by using the escaping patterns, with God's help."
Only 2 people in the world learned the Escaping Arts from Mitose Sensei and one of these two learned all the facets of Kosho, namely its 22 Generation Grandmaster Bruce Juchnik. The highest goal is to defend oneself without body contact unlike Okinawan/Japanese Karate systems or many other Ken/mpo systems.
Kosho Ryu influences can be seen in Ed Parker and his creation merican Kenpo. He added many labels to concepts inherent in Kosho that had Japanese names or no labels at all.
Ryu Kempo (which roughly translates into Okinawan kung-fu, or Chinese boxing science) is the original style of martial arts learned and taught by Gichin Funakoshi on the island of Okinawa (1). It stresses the existence of body points within your opponent that can be struck or grappled for more effective fighting.
The style originated in the Okinawa Islands, the RyuKyu Island Chain. Practioners of Ryukyu Kempo believe that karate-do is a popular subform of Kempo, established within this century by Gichin Funakoshi. People with original copies of Funakoshi's first edition book _Ryukyu Kempo_ state that he is clearly is grappling and touching an opponent. Later editions and current karate books only show a practioner with a retracted punch, where the original shows actively grappling an enemy. It is felt that Funakoshi was the last of the purists, wanting all to learn the art.
In subseqent years, the Okinawans, who have a culture and history of their own, became disenchanted with the Japanese, and were less inclined to teach them the "secret techniques" of self defence. When American military men occupied Japan after WWII, they became enamored
of the martial-arts. It is theorized that the Japanese and Okinawans were reluctant to teach the secrets of their national art to the ccupiers, and so taught a "watered down" version of karate-do usually reserved for children. Contemporary Kempo practioners practice "pressure point fighting" or Kyushu-jitsu and grappling, called Tuite. It is an exact art of striking small targets on the body, such as nerve centers, and grappling body points in manners similar to Jujitsu or Aikido(2).
Modern teachers of this are George Dillman of Reading, PA, Taiku Oyata of Independence, Missouri, Rick Clark of Terre Haute, Indiana, and others.
The practioners of kempo believe that kata do not represent origin or direction of attacks but positional techniques for the defender. Concentration is made on physical perfection of kata and the Bunkai, or explanation of the movements. Tournaments of kata and kumite (sparriing) are encouraged as learning experiences, but not overly stressed. Also taught is Kobudo, which is defined as weapons fighting using ordinary hand tools.
Five principles to be observed in Oyata's school:
1. Proper distance.
2. Eye contact.
3. Minimum pain inflication on your opponent.
4. Legally safe.
5. Morally defensible.(3)
There are a couple of physical differences in Kempo and many other styles. One is a three-quarter punch, rather than a full twist. Second is a fist whereby the thumb stops at the first finger, rather
than the first two fingers. Third is the sword hand, which has the little finger placed as parallel as possible to the third finger and the thumb straight and on the inside rather than bent.(2)
Kilap (khilap or kilat) is the Thunder. The aspect of the thunder is the product of the lightning. It teaches a hand of power, striking weak points, crashing and overwhelming the enemy, power in spirit and character. Its' scholarly study is the anatomy of distruction; how to 'break that meat house down'. The study is not so much 'train the frame' as it is 'train the brain'. If mind will lead, body will follow. The study of martial art is not restricted to the athletic of body at all, it is the people of lesser physical presence that need martial art the most.
Is a very old Vietnamese style based on "cock fighting" and means "golden cock". Kim Ke fighters prefer to attack from the side. Special features are strikes, similar to strikes by the cock's taloons, two-legs jumping kick to the head or torso. Teeth also are used very often. This style is very quick, 'the best defence is offence' is a well-known saying from this style.
Another facet of the Kali system, Kina Mutai is a highly effective and specialized form of ground fighting, which incorporates the use of biting, gouging, pinching and clawing to aid in offensive and defensive grappling, while creating opportunities for striking and reversals of position.
Kirip is an indigenous form of wrestling quite popular with the Nicobarese tribe. In this sport, before the bout begins, wrestlers grip each other from behind with their hands, and this grip is not to be slackened till the very end of the competition. The wrestler, using various parts of the body, including the leg, tries to thrust the opponent to the ground. If a contestant's back touches the ground, he is declared the loser. Three to five rounds take place before the final verdict is given
"Kobudo" literally means "ancient martial ways". In the karate world, it generally refers to those
traditional Okinawan weapons whose history and practice has been linked to that of karate.
Most Okinawan styles have at least some kobudo/kobujutsu curriculum. In addition, there are at least two major Okinawan organizations whose primary focus is these weapons arts: the Ryukyu Kobudo Hozon Shinko-kai and the Okinawa Kobudo Renmei. In the US there is 'Okinawa
Kobudo Association, USA'; the shihan in the US is in Citrus Heights, CA. There may be other US Kobudo organizations.
The most common kobudo weapons (and the ones most often taught by Okinawan karate systems) are:
1. bo - staff, usually a rokushakubo or "six foot staff", although 4, 9, and 12 foot staffs are also used.
2. sai - three-tined iron clubs, usually carried as a set of 3.
3. nunchaku - two short tapered wooden clubs, connected at the narrow ends by a short rope or chain (a flail, as well as other uses).
4. kama - a sickle, used singly or in pairs;
5. tuifa/tonfa - a club with a hand-length perpendicular handle, the ancestor to the police PR-24; usually used in pairs.
Less common weapons are:
1. koa - a hoe.
2. eku - a boat oar.
3. tekko - essentially brass knuckles.
4. shuchu - a small kubotan-like thing about 5" long.
5. san-setsu-kon - the 3-section staff.
6. surujin/suruchen - a weighted chain with a spike or blade on one end - similar to the Chinese chain whip or the Japanese manrikigusari;
7. tinbe - actually, this is two weapons...the tinbe itself, which is a small shield traditionally made of the shell of a sea tortoise, and
8. the rochin, which is a short spear with a cutting blade - the weapon actually resembles a Zulu spear more than anything else.
9. kusarikama - a kama on the end of a rope or chain.
10. nunti - a short spear.
11. and a few other oddball implements of mayhem including spears and the occasional pilfered Japanese sword ;-).
Japanese style of close combat, grappling with & without weapons
This is the second stage of Kalari. It involves training in wooden weeps like the kettukari (12 span staff), cheruavdi (3 span staff) and ottakkol ('S' curved staff). Training in ottakkol is a stepping stone towards proper execution of advanced kalari. Long practice in this stage enables a student to gain control over the weapon. Even a small wooden staff can become a deadly weapon in the hands of a Kalari practitioner. With dazzling power, he can overpower even a heavily armed adversary.
KONG SHIN BUP DO
Kong Shin Bup(tm) (Do) was founded by the late Grandmaster Pak in Shyuk. The name, literally translated, means "empty body"; however, after many long hours of discussing the art with its founder, Master Timmerman understood that the meaning goes much deeper and that Grandmaster Pak wished to cultivate a system using the concept of "open mind". In the West we might better interpret Kong Shin as "empty cup". The fact that Grandmaster Pak incorporated the entire old Kuk Sool Won-Hap Ki Do curriculum, added ground grappling techniques, and then added techniques of other ancient Korean arts (Tae Kyun Soo Bahk Do) seems to support this view.
The "empty cup principle" allows Kong Shin Bup(tm) practitioners to totally focus on the job at hand and complete feats considered superhuman by the average lay person. This is reflected in the demanding breaking requirements of Kong Shin Bup(tm). As with most Korean martial arts, Kong Shin Bup Hap Ki Do practitioners have strong kicking skills. In addition to this, the style uses well over three thousand joint locking techniques -- including hundreds of ground grappling techniques not normally found in modern Korean martial art styles. Kong Shin Bup(tm) can be considered a Yu Kwan Sool (soft/hard) style martial art.
Kong Shin Bup(tm) provides its practitioners with training in: acupressure healing techniques, meditation, breathing, forms, weapons, punching, kicking, throwing, archery, horseback riding, falling, acrobatics, joint locks, water techniques, pressure points, and a myriad of self-defense techniques that are totally compatible with one another. Using the expertise he has learned in more that forty-five years of practicing various martial arts, Master Timmerman has taken particular care to see that the present curriculum of Kong Shin Bup(tm) is not flawed by using techniques that are not compatible with its foundational principles.
The more than 3,600 Kong Shin Bup(tm) Hap Ki Do techniques are divided into some two hundred and seventy vulnerable areas of attack. Ki power and pressure points are used extensively. In addition to using the circular methods found in many soft style arts, Kong Shin Bup(tm) also employs strong linear counter attacks from a narrow, but solid, stance that does not hamper quick turns. Although Kong Shin Bup Hap Ki Do practitioners are quite capable of subduing their opponents, they are just as likely to finish an altercation with a devastating strike to a vulnerable area. In fact, this method is recommended in multiple person attacks.
One could say that Kong Shin Bup(tm) Hap Ki Do is a carefully organized martial art blend of modern Tae Kwon Do, ancient Tae Kyun, Soo Bahk Do, and Aiki Jiu Jitsu techniques. Grandmaster Pak's extensive background in Kuk Sool Won Hap Ki Do can readily be seen in Kong Shin Bup(tm) Hap Ki Do, and the influence of occupation forces from China and Japan are quite evident; however, the art is quite unique in the manner in which these influences are blended with ancient Korean martial arts. We are proud to continue Grandmaster Pak's vision of Kong Shin Bup(tm), and we do so with the "open mind" he stressed.
KOO SELF DEFENSE
Koo Self Defense was developed in Cartersville, Georgia, USA by Master Roger Koo in 1992 following 20+ years of traditional Martial Arts training (32 years to date). Through his many years of training since the age of fifteen, Master Koo discovered that most of the techniques he had been taught and sought to perfect were not practical and did not translate into real life situations. All martial arts find their roots in other martial arts styles. Koo Self Defense is no
Master Koo while in his search for a progressive and practical martial arts found Choi Kwang Do but after only a short time found it to be very limited. It, like other martial arts styles emphasized on one look
for all students rather than one that fits each. He found that all martial arts systems tried to duplicate the movements of its founder which severely limited individual achievement. He abandoned this antiquated
approach and developed a revolutionary, progressive and more importantly realistic and varied methods of training and drills for his students.
While others sought to adopt from other styles, Master Roger Koo eliminated all traditional techniques which found no real translation into real self defense situations. Koo Self Defense is leading the way in the much needed evolution of martial arts and self defense
The philosophy of Koo Self Defense is to allow any individual to achieve his or her maximum potential (and beyond) regardless of age, sex, physical ability, disability or level of fitness from our total body cardiovascular workout program that promotes health, fitness and devastating hitting power. Whatever area of our training one's wants to focus on, one's potential can be realized and contrary to all other martial arts system it does not take a lifetime of training to achieve!
What makes Koo Self Defense Different from other types of martial arts and self defense training?
Unlike other martial arts training, Koo Self Defense reenforces natural and instinctual movements for conditioned responses to 'real life street situations' while maximizing your cardiovascular conditioning. and producing awesome hitting power often surpassing that of 'professional boxers' and kick boxers. KSD training focuses on individual development rather than competition. KSD offers the ultimate cardiovascular workout program that will challenge everyone from beginners to Olympic athletes. No other exercise training program comes close. You decide the level of fitness you desire.
KOONG JOONG MUL SOOL
Koong Joong Mul Sool techniques include the use of weapons not commonly available to commoners. Just as our government today restricts us from owning advanced weapons, the ancient courts of Korea restricted the use of weapons to its citizens. In order to provide a more complete art to our students, King Shin Bup includes the skills normally reserved for members of the Korean Royal Court guard. For training purposes, practitioners use low, narrow stances that develop great balance and strong legs. In turn, this aids students in acrobatics, high kicking and jumping skills.
In ancient times the monks of the temples of Japan refrained from using weapons. At first they developed very specialized empty hand fighting skills, eventually adding certain wooden weapons to their repertoire, and finally all s of which they would have to face. Thus the monks of the temples of Japan ended up with a very comprehensive fighting curriculum usually referred to as the Kempo Bugei, the fist law (temple boxing) martial arts.
Yet even as they added weapons to their training, they never neglected their empty hand skills. For a monk never knew when he would be in a combat situation with only his empty hands with which to defend himself or others.
One of the extremely effective skills which the monks developed was known as Koppo, the bone method. This was a special series of strikes designed to break the bones of an assailant. This skill is still kept alive today in the Koga Ha Kosho Shorei Ryu Kempo tradition.
Very special Makiwara are used to condition the bottom fist, which is the primary weapon of Koga Ha Kosho Shorei Ryu Koppo. The standing Makiwara is composed of wooden posts linked together to which small target pads are attached. Circling the Makiwara stand, the pads are arranged so that the practitioner may practice evasion techniques, dodging around the stand, just as one would an attacker, and delivering strikes at various angles.
One important aspect of Koppo training is to attack various levels of the opponent. Thus the pads on the Makiwara are arranged at high levels, middle and low. Thus the Koga Ha Kosho Shorei Ryu Kempoka learns to strike the head, torso, and legs.
Advanced practitioners will sometimes practice striking the wooden stand itself, once their hands are conditioned enough to do so without injury, as demonstrated by Shihan Nimr Hassan.
Another very special Makiwara of the Koga Ha Kosho Shorei Ryu Kempo tradition is the horizontal Makiwara. This is designed to allow the Kempoka to practice bottom, fist strikes downward. This simulates the downward 90 degree strike needed to break the arms or legs of an attacking assailant. It is highly important to develop the perfect 90 degree angle, so that maximum force is generated into the bone struck, leading to the break.
However, since the art was developed by monks, they did look at the situation-in a compassionate way, hoping always to not need their deadliest skills, but being assured of their effectiveness if they should ever be necessary.
Thus in less than lethals situations the open hand was used to palm strike the opponent. The palm strikes could be used to block, push, or gently strike an attacker. Foiling the attacker, the monks, of the past, hoped that this would discourage further aggression.
Sometimes the monks would palm strike hard the arms and legs of an attacker, hoping to weaken the will to fight. Once an attacker had a great deal of pain in the arms and legs, to a point where to strike was uncomfortable because of the soreness in the limbs, many would discontinue the fight. This was a monks way of winning a fight without having to seriously injured the attacker.
However in a lethal situation in, the hands were coiled into fists, ready to strike with credibly destructive power, But even then the monks hoped to use less than actual killing technique. Thus the next move would be to break the arm, for once the arm was broken, the ability to hold a weapon was taken away, as well as the ability to attack. Look at Shihan Hassan's position attacking the Makiwara and the author's application against the attacking arm (in the accompanying photos) and you will see the effectiveness of the Koga Ha Kosho Shorei Ryu Kempo Makiwara.
Once again it needs to be emphasized that the bottom fist must strike the target at a perfect 90 degree angle to allow maximum penetration of force into the target.
Which leads to the final consideration, how Koppo is applied in a life and death situation. So far the applications were designed to gently push the attacker away, sting the arms and legs hoping to take away the desire to fight, or finally to break the arm taking away the capacity for violence, but unfortunately there are times when these less than lethal methods will not stop a determined killer. This was true in ancient Japan, even as it is in modem times.
One story tells of how an individual high on PCP beat six police officers into the ground after they broke his arm. He totally demolished his own arm, continuing to hit with it after it was broken. Thus there are times more force is needed and this is when the bottom fist is moved from the arms and legs to the vital points of the body.
Once again look at Shihan Hassan on the standing Makiwara he applies strikes to the high and middle levels. These correspond to the temple strike and the kidney blow demonstrated by the author.
For a person to truly use Koppo effectively they need to have a basic knowledge of Kyusho, which allows the blows applied by the practitioner to be truly effective. As shown in the photographs, the two Koppo blows delivered by the author could have lethal effect.
A blow to the temple may result in a fracture which can have lethal results. The blow is so concussive that brain damage is a likely event. While the blow to the kidney area can cause compression and rupture of the kidney, which will need surgery for the assailant-to survive.
Ancient Japanese form of combat resembling jujutsu
KOSHO SHOREI RYU KEMPO
Kosho Shorei Ryu Kempo is a 750 year old art developed by the warrior monks of Kyushu, Japan, and is one of the few remaining complete arts in the world. All of Kosho Ryu is based upon natural law, and thus once the basic principles are learned, all levels of force from no contact to destruction are at your disposal for true self defense. This understanding of natural law makes escaping, controlling, and destructive arts possible. The attacker's own energy is used against him/her.
Iranian form of wrestling
Some movements are familiar to exponents of Thai and Hindu classical dance. The Mai Sun Sawk techniques are flavored with monkey movements that have a hint of Chinese origin though the attack and defend techniques are very distinctly Thai. The weapon itself on first look resembles something of Japanese or Okinawan origin. But the truth is probably that they were the same common handles of millstones used for grinding rice that the Okinawan used. This unique blend is the very essence of Thai culture and thus its combat arts. Although its beginnings are unknown, it probably sprang from Sino-Indian origins on the battlefield, possibly modified in the 7th century by the Japanese Samurai Yamada Nagasama, a.k.a. (Nizaemon), who with eight hundred ronin Samurai helped 20,000 Thai warriors to put down dissidence following the death of King Song Thom (1611-1628) in 1628." It is doubtful that the Thais borrowed any actual techniques from the Japanese but they did develop explosive counter-attacks to what they felt were the inferior two-handed sword techniques.
Much in the same way, the Filipino's would adopt their own counters to the famed Japanese sword techniques. This would come in handy should the Thais eventually come to conflict with the Japanese. David K. Wyatt highlights such an episode, "When King Prasat Thong (1629-56)sent Yamada Nagasama to quell a rebellion in Nakon in 1629, the populace soon revolted against Yamada and then against Prasat Thongs usurpation. To make matters worse, Japanese whom Prasat Thong had run out of Ayutthaya had gone to assist Cambodia in attacking Siam. We can see this synergistic evolution most clearly in Traditional Thai Medicine where the influences drawn from India as well as China sowed the seeds of a carefully distilled indigenous healing practice. The earliest practices concerning itself with injuries suffered by combatants in battle and the herbs and the herbs that could heal the open wounds. Herbal medicine drawn from Chinese influences, nutritional medicine, physical medicine such as Thai massage brought to Siam over 2,500 years ago by Jivaka Komarbhacca, who was a physician, friend and contemporary of the Buddha and a well known figure of the Pali canon as well as spiritual practices aligned to Buddhism formed the nucleus that now includes Western medicine as well.
Krabi Krabong, as the weapons art came to be named in the 20th century, evolved mainly from sword fighting perfected during the Ayutthaya period. And that is why Krabi Krabong's recorded growth and emergence is most closely aligned with legendary Wat Buddhai Sawan.
KARATE (SHURI-TE, NAHA TE, TOMARI TE)
Much is legend, as records and other forms of documentation were not used during the early period of martial arts development. But, legends are often based on fact; it is however, subject to many interpretations and may not be agreed upon in other martial art systems. It is my belief that this history is a close representation.
This period of history was some of the most violent and disciplined in the history of man. I can only hope that knowledge and understanding along with patience, are what the true karateka will pass on to their students, by keeping the art as close to original as possible. Remember, the ancient masters lived and died by their techniques. The techniques we have today survived the test of combat, they live in the old katas.
The study of martial arts is usually taken up for 3 main reasons: self defense, physical discipline, and mental discipline. Ideally, all three come into play for the karate student. The roots of karate, formed during the Sixth Century, were geared toward training the mind and body so they could become as one. Kata, as many of the ancient masters taught, brought this oneness into reality.
The Buddhist Monk, who traveled from India to China, and began the first martial arts teaching was known as "Bodhidharma, Daruma, or Ta Mo." He arrived at the Shaolin Temple around 520 A.D. and there he founded a monastery. His mission was to teach the way of Buddha to the monks. This teaching was incorporated into the existing Chinese Tao beliefs, which stressed enlightenment was being one with the Universe.
Bodhidharma taught his followers a way to train their minds and bodies, so they could follow his religious instruction. The training was based on "Daruma's" knowledge of animals and the ways of nature. As Buddhists, they were not allowed to carry weapons, so an alternative defense was needed. The "18 Lohan Shou" was the name given to Bodhidharma's exercises, and were the basis for "the five animal forms of the Dragon, Leopard, Snake, Tiger, and Crane"; these forms are still found in many styles which exist today.
Tokugawa, emperor of Japan, had united Japan under his leadership. In an effort to keep peace and retain harmony, he gave Okinawa to the Shimazu Clan, a Samurai Family which had opposed Tokugawa in the past. In 1609, these Satsuma Warriors took over the Royal City of Shuri. There was a valiant, but futile struggle by the Okinawans, and the weapons of the island were confiscated by the Samurai.
Metal cooking utensils, as well as the weapons, were taken away by the Japanese. Normal life for the natives changed drastically. Instead of becoming weak and compliant, as the samurai expected they would, the Okinawans searched for ways to provide food and defend themselves.
The elders of the islands had heard stories of China and the formidable bare-handed fighters of that country. They chose young men to go to China, study these martial arts, and upon their return, to share their knowledge with others. All was done with the utmost secrecy. The Fukien area of China was the destination of many Okinawans where the Shaolin styles were taught.
Okinawa-te was born. The Japanese still knew nothing of the build up of weaponless knowledge, but more and more soldiers were found dead, and their weapons stolen. The Okinawans refined the Chinese techniques for their needs and purposes. Natives were trained to defend against armed attacks and could pierce the samurai armor with their wooden weapons.
Historically, Okinawa has been under either Japanese or Chinese control. Despite this, trade and diplomatic relations from Okinawa were always maintained with both of the larger countries. In the 18th Century, Okinawa was a feudal State of China. Pirates and Japanese Samurai frequently terrorized the Okinawans. The Chinese did little to protect the natives from these attacks, so the Okinawans had to fend for themselves. The importance of the secret of martial arts grew tremendously.
First known as To-te', then Kara-te', the Chinese martial arts influence continued. Many Chinese families had lived in Okinawa since the last 1300's and some held important social and political positions. This encouraged the traffic of traders and social emissaries between the two countries. The contacts with these Chinese visitors gave the Okinawans even more knowledge of martial arts and helped them develop better fighting skills. Instead of the Chinese influence abating, the Okinawans looked to China for nurturing of their young art, Karate. A Chinese martial artist that came to Okinawa in 1761 was Kushanku. He attended many exhibitions showing his empty-hand techniques to the Okinawans. The Kushanku kata, known as "Kwanku" in Japanese styles, is said to have incorporated in it some of the original techniques used by Kushanku in his Okinawan demonstrations.
While still in Okinawa, Kushanku met and taught a young karate student, Sakugawa, who has been referred to as "the first teacher and master of the style that is commonly called true Okinawan and Japanese karate."
Sakugawa was born in Shuri in 1733 and in his teens began studying Okinawa-te' with a local monk. When he was about 23, Sakugawa began his study with Kushanku. After several years, Kushanku returned to his homeland of China and Sakugawa returned to Shuri. The Kushanku kata was developed and passed down by this Okinawan. Karate masters at this time were looked to by the Okinawans for protection. Sakugawa and his students made sure scoundrels and ruffians were kept in line. To accomplish this task, students aspired to be well rounded in all aspects of their art.
Sakugawa was 78 when he accepted Sokon Matsumura as his student. Matsumura was given the title of "Bushi", by an Okinawan King, meaning Warrior or Samurai. He was the bodyguard to several members of royalty, which was also a very high honor. Matsumura lived in Shuri, and there organized his style of karate, creating Shuri-te or "Suide". He named his art Sho-rin Ryu, but it is not the same style we know today by that name. Matsumura's sho-rin ryu translates as "pine forest style". The difference between the two aren't implied in the English spelling. Matsumura taught Yatsume Itosu, but passed on his menkyo-kaiden, seal of ju-dan (10th degree Black Belt) to his grandson Nabe Matsumura. Nabe was the uncle and karate instructor of Hohan Soken. Hohan died in 1982, but before his death, he named Fusei Kise his heir to the Old Matsumura Family System.
Continuing with Itosu, he is given credit for formulating and preserving most of the Okinawan katas. Because of contradictory dates in reference materials, suffice it to say Itosu introduced karate to the Okinawan School System, sometime between 1900 and 1910. Though Itosu chose to bring karate to the masses, this was in no way the general consensus of the martial art masters. The Sensei of the many villages and family styles kept their art underground, continuing as before, with only a few students.
Itosu was from Shuri. One story about him tells how he went to Naha and while there fought to defend the Karate of Shuri. The Karateka of Naha felt their major style, Go-Ju, was better suited for battle and warfare than the Sho-rin style of Shuri. Upon hearing some men discussing the failing of his style, Itosu decided to challenge the champion of Naha. He went to the huge rock in Naha, a notorious place to issue a challenge. The rock has been named "Ude-kaka-shi". At this place, Itosu defeated three opponents, two with weapons, before the Naha Champion, "Tomoyose", chose to face him. When Tomoyose attacked, Itosu struck Tomoyose's outstretched arm, snapping the bones and ending the fight. Because of this and other accomplishments, such as creating the Pinan Katas, Itosu's fame spread. Itsosu had many students, and some became masters and founding fathers of karate styles. One such student was Gichin Funakoshi.
Funakoshi was chosen to represent Okinawan karate when Japan requested a karateka to compare to their masters of Japanese martial art. Though the Japanese were skeptical as to the merit of karate, Funakoshi gradually won them over. He stayed in Japan and began teaching his art. He founded the Shotokan style which was the first systemized style of karate and it embraced the code of the Japanese Samurai. Shotokan had 19 kata, 12 from the Shuri-te or Sho-rin System (external) and 7 from the Naha-te System (internal). While rearranging and organizing the style, Funakoshi changed the name to the 5 Pinan Kata to Heian (peaceful mind) kata. Funakoshi died in 1957 leaving a great void for his style of Shotokan.
Goju Ryu is the internal style of Okinawan-te. The founder and Master of this style was Miyagi Chogun, 1888 to 1953. Originally the style was called Naha-te, from the rough and rowdy seaport city of Naha. The Naha-te founder was Kanryo Higashionna, 1845-1915, who strongly believed in and practiced Sanchin Dachi. Students of Higahonna and Miyagi studied the embodiment of humility. He had promised his karate instructor to never misuse his teaching by harming anyone, and he never broke the pact. The Okinawan spelling of Miyagi is Miyagusuku. He was born in Naha and like many martial artists of his time, went to China and learned, among others, Zen breathing. He blended this breathing into his katas, two of which are Sanchin and Tenso.
Miyagi stressed bunkai in his teaching, anxious for his student to understand the technique application of the forms. He taught his students to use blocks as well and punches and kicks to disable opponents. One of the first Okinawans to study in China was Yara, bringing home the vital importance of balance between mind and body, and Miyagi Chojun integrated this idea into his art.
Okinawa has 3 basic facets:
1). Shuri-Te (external, also known as Sho-Rin Ryu.)
2). Tomari-Te (external and internal, also known as Isshin Ryu.)
3). Naha-Te (internal, also known as Goju Ryu.)
The styles are somewhat overlapped since the master saw the wisdom of using the techniques and stances that worked well for them. Sho-Rin Ryu still does the Pinan Kata, while the Japanese Shotokan Style does the Heian Kata of Funakoshi. The half moon step is used by Goju Ryu practitioners, but not the Sho-Rin Ryu Systems. Shuri-Te incorporates aspects of several of these styles.
Kata remains the living history of Karate, passed down as unchanged as possible from the Masters. Kata was created when the Masters had spiritual insights to the oneness of the Universe, a knowledge of self. The philosophy and spiritual oneness of mind and body can be developed through practice of kata. The student finds his greatest battle in Kata training, having to control the body with the mind and make them one.
This oneness is not an outdated idea. It incorporates the concept of balance and is relevant in everyday living. A far greater strength is available to us than the power of a fist, that is the unification of mind and body acquired after many hours of practice and labor. This concept is perhaps the greatest gift the Masters have sent to us through the centuries, vitalized in their native Okinawa-te.
The Israeli official Martial Art originating in Israel.
The Krav Maga was developed in Israel in the early forties when the underground liberation organizations were fighting for the independence of the State of Israel. At that time, it was illegal to possess weapons. The inventor and developer of the Krav Maga was a champion heavy weight boxer, a judo champion, and an expert in jiu-jutsu. In addition, he was as a trapeze acrobat and a well known dancer. The knowledge he thus obtained, contributed to the development of the Israeli martial art of self defense. There is no hidden meaning behind the name Krav Maga, and literarily means "contact fight / battle".
The Krav Maga was put into practice originally by the fighters of the liberation organizations that often went to battle armed with knives or sticks and with the knowledge of Krav Maga, and they were very successful. After the establishment of the State of Israel, Krav Maga was adopted as the official martial art taught in the defense forces, and especially in the elite police and army units. Krav Maga was integrated into army training by Imi Lichenfield, a career IDF officer and chief instructor at the armys physical training facility at the Wingate Institute. Imi is still active involved in the Krav Maga Association and maintains the role of president.
Over the years, the Krav Maga has turned into an integrated part of training in many disciplines such as educational institutes. Krav Maga is taught in many public schools in Isreal.
The Krav Maga is not an ecletic martial art system, rather, it was developed with the perception that the classic martial arts were lacking various elements. The defense needs in the eras that the
classic martial arts were developed were different than those of today. New unique techniques for defense against pistols, guns and hand grenades were considered needed, and therefore developed.
Krav Maga has no katas or specific sequences that must be followed. Students use the basic moves in conjunction with any one of a number of other moves to fend off an attack, the key idea being adaptability to new situations through improvisation. Emphasis is put on speed, endurance, strength, accuracy and co-ordination especially for intensive Krav Maga training.
Since the Krav Maga by definition is for self defense, it does not have any constitution and judicial rules and therefore there are no contests and exhibitions. The training is for practical usage in the every day reality. There is a coloured belt system with a Black Belt typically granted after 8 to 10 years of practice. Spiritual and philosophical aspects are studied only at the Black Belt level.
Like other Martial Art systems around the world, The Kaihewalu Lua system also uses Peku (a variety of kicks), Paa Lima (hand catch and trap), Hikua (throws), Ku'i Ku'i (boxing, a variety of punches), Waho/Loko Hio (a variety of leg sweeps), Ihe Manamana Lima (finger spear poking), Pahu/Huki (push and pull), Nahu Waha (biting with the mouth), Ku'i (punch, poke), and Mokomoko (rough dirty, everything goes fighting).
The name "Kuk Sool Won(tm)" is best understood by breaking it down into its three sections. "Kuk" translates to 'nation', 'state' or 'country'. "Sool" literally means 'martial art technique'; however, "Sool's" implied meaning goes deeper to include the mental, spiritual and philosophical heritage of the Korean martial arts. "Won" means institution or association. The entire name, "Kuk Sool Won(tm)" can then be translated to mean, 'National Martial Arts Association'. Kuk Sool is a comprehensive martial arts system that is derived from the rich and varied martial arts techniques and traditions that have arisen in Korea through the ages. Kuk Sool is not a sport, nor is it simply another oriental self-defense style.
Kuk Sool is a complete martial art that is dedicated to the cultivation of mental strength and well being and to the preservation of traditional Korean Martial Arts.
The basis of 'Kuk Sool' is the development and use of "Ki" (internal power). Therefore Kuk Sool is considered an internal martial arts system. However, to classify Kuk Sool under any one name is incorrect due to its vastness. For self-defense, Kuk Sool is unsurpassed. It combines kicking, punching, throwing, falling, choking, joint locking and a myriad of weapons techniques into a beautiful, dynamic, 'hard-soft' style, emphasizing speed and fluidity. In conjunction with physical training, meditation, breathing, acupressure and acupuncture techniques are employed to improve and maintain health, develop internal power and retard the aging process. Philosophically, Kuk Sool stresses humility, self discipline, loyalty and respect for others. Together, these different aspects of Kuk Sool provide means for attaining a longer and healthier life.
The roots of Kuk Sool date back to the very beginning of Korea with 'Sado Mu Sool', which means family or tribal martial art. The next art to develop was 'Bulkyo Mu Sool', or 'Buddhist martial art'. Shortly afterwards came 'Koong Joong Mu Sool' which translates to 'Royal Court martial art'. These are the three traditions of ancient Korean martial arts from which the techniques of Kuk Sool evolved.
Although its origins may be traced back to antiquity, the present Kuk Sool system was formally devised only recently. Grandmaster In Hyuk Suh has spent more than 50 years in single-minded practice and research in order to learn, compile, master and organize the more than 3,600 techniques that comprise the art of Kuk Sool.
Grandmaster Suh founded Kuk Sool Won(tm) in 1958 and brought it to the United States in 1974. The World Kuk Sool Association now has its headquarters in Houston, Texas and has grown to include more than 250 member schools in Asia, Europe and America, and continues to increase in strength and numbers daily.
Hawaiian form of wrestling
Kung-sool is the Korean art of archery. Koreans have always preferred archery (bother afoot and mounted) to the sword. The training is arduous: often performing 300 dry pulls and shooting 1000 arrows daily.
Kumdo is a Korean martial art of the sword, similarly to Japanese Kendo. Kumdo is the " The Way of the Sword". [Kum: The Sword Do: The Way]
Kumdo can be described as "Character Building" through the manipulation of the sword in manner of meditation. Physical power is less important than doing everything with full spirit and effort. (The best you did is not as good as the best effort you put in to do the best you did.) The essence of Kumdo is attaining mental, spiritual, and physical harmony with calm and balance.
Kumdo is both physically and mentally demanding. A Kumdo Daeryun (Sparring) is an intense experience which requires absolute concentration. Any thought is suppressed, and instinctive action is needed. Such training develops powers of resolution and endurance under pressure which frequently affects your life beyond the confines of the Dojang (Place of practice).
Kumdo will teach you the self-confidence, discipline, respects for others and yourself, integrity and the will power to overcome any adversity in real life. Persistence is the key to the success.
From the beginning you must practice hard physically and develop mental control to master simple techniques. The will to continue regular training is the essential element in learning Kumdo.
KUNG FU/WU SHU
This is an almost impossible category. This label is attached to almost any martial art that comes From China. It is the generic name for literally hundreds of individual Chinese fighting arts. In
reality we should have an entry for each individual Kung Fu style we are interested in, but this would fill entire volumes. .
This is extremely controversial. Most of what appears here is a summary of what has been learned from Sifu Benny Meng.
There are vague references of a King in China some thousands of years ago who trained his men in techniques of hand-to-hand combat to use in fighting against invading barbarians.
The first real references of an organized system of martial arts came from a man named General Chin Na. He taught a form of combat to his soldiers which most people believe developed into what is modern day Chin-Na.
The first written record we have of Chinese martial arts is from a Taoist acupuncturist from the 5th century. He describes combat designed along the lines of an animal's movements and style.
Legend has it that a Bhuddist monk named Bohdiharma, also called Ta Mo, came across the Tibetan Mountains to China. The Emperor of China at the time was much impressed with the man, and gave him a temple located in Honan - the famed Sui Lim Monastery (Shaolin Monastery). Ta Mo found that the monks there, while searching for spiritual enlightenment, had neglected their physical bodies. He taught them some exercises and drills that they adapted into fighting forms. This became the famous Shaolin Kung Fu system.
"Kung Fu" means "skill and effort". It is used to describe anything that a person nees to spend time training in and becoming skillful in. (A chef can have good "kung fu".) The Chinese term that translates into "military art" is "Wu Shu".
As all martial arts, Wushu in its early stages of development was practiced primarily for self-defense and for aquiring basic needs. As time progressed, innumerable people tempered and processed Wushu in different ways. By China's Ming and Qing dynasties (1368-1911), Wushu
had formed its basic patterns.
Intense military conflicts served as catalysts for the development of Wushu. During China's Xia, Shang, and Zhou periods (2000BC to 771BC), Wushu matured and formed complete systems of offense and defense, with the emergence of bronze weapons in quantity. During the period of
Warring States (770BC to 221BC), the heads of states and government advocated Wushu in their armies and kept Wushu masters for their own puposes.
Military Wushu developed more systematically during the Tang and Song dynaties (618 to 1279) and exhibitions of Wushu arts were held in the armies as morale boosters and military exercises. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the general development of Wushu was at its height. Military Wushu became more practical and meticulous and was systematically classified and summarized . General Qi Jiguang of the Ming Dynasty delved into Wushu study and wrote "A New Essay on Wushu Arts", which became an important book in China's military literature.
The latter half of the 20th century has seen a great upswing in the interest of Kung Fu world wide. The introduction of Kung Fu to the Western world has seen to it that its development and popularity will continue to grow.
Styles of Kung Fu encompass both soft and hard, internal and external techniques. They include grappling, striking, nerve-attack and much weapons training.
The Shao-Lin styles encompass both Northern and Southern styles, and therefore are the basis of the following outline.
I Shaolin Wushu styles
A. External Styles (Hard, Physical)
a. Northern Shaolin
b. Chang Chuan (Long Fist)
c. Praying Mantis
d. Eagle Claw
f. Drunken, et al
a. Southern Shaolin
b. Wing Chun
c. Five Animal System (Dragon, Snake, Tiger, Leopard, Crane)
d. Tiger and Crane Systems, et al
B. Internal Styles (Soft, Mental/Spiritual)
1. Tai Chi Chuan
2. Others (Pa Kua, Xingyi, et al)
II Shaolin Wushu Methods
A. Hard or External Styles
1. Stresses training and strengthening of the joints, bones,
2. Requires rigorous body conditioning
3. Consists of positioning and movement of the limbs and body,
correct technique, muscular strength, speed, etc.
B. Soft or Internal Styles
1. Stresses development of internal organs where "Chi" is
2. Allows one to develop mental capability to call upon this
3. Concerned with breathing, poise, and tone of the core body
C. Long or Northern Styles
1. Stresses Flexibility, quickness, agility, and balance
similar to the attributes of a trained and well-conditioned
2. Uses many kicks along with hand techniques
3. Legs specialize in long-range tactics
D. Short or Southern
1. Stresses close-range tactics, power, and stability
2. Uses mostly hand techniques
Kung Fu almost always seems to incorporate forms and routines. They emphasize solo practice as well as group practice. (They even have forms for two or more people). They train in multiple types of weapons. There is also a great emphasis on sparring in the harder styles, and sensitivity training in the soft styles.
KUN GEK DO
It seems that after nearly 30 years' experience in the martial arts, particularly taekwondo, founder Jung Do-mo was satisfied, comfortable with his skill. Then, as the story has it, he witnessed a demonstration match between a traditional stylist and a kickboxer. The traditional stylist was demolished. That unsettling outcome forced Jung to reconsider that to which he had devoted his life--the traditional Korean martial arts.
After a short time, Jung realized just what was needed--a hybrid combination of the traditional Korean styles and the strange-but-effective sport that originated in Thailand. So, off he went to learn "muay Thai" kickboxing. After more than three years of intensive study and grueling practice abroad, Jung created kun gek do.
The name kun gek do was also a brainchild of Jung. "Kun" is really pronounced "gwun" and means fist or punch. "Gek" should be pronounced "gyuk" and is part of the work "gong gyuk," meaning attack. And "do," of course, means the art or way. There you have it: kun gek do, the art of attacking and punching.
Kun gek do has borrowed its hand techniques from boxing and kickboxing. The gloved fists are held high to protect the head. No open-hand movements are used, the reason being that most practitioners execute them improperly, Jung says. And when blocking or striking with full power, broken or dislocated fingers can result. Additionally, the use of gloves greatly restricts hand positions other than a closed one.
The foot techniques involved come from both taekwondo and kickboxing. Naturally there is the front kick, pushing rather than snapping out; the back kick; the side kick; and the spinning hook kick. These are the staples of the Korean arts. But also incorporated into kun gek do is the Thai-style roundhouse kick. That means kicking with the leg almost fully extended and impacting with the lower part of the shin. The power generated is considerably greater than it would be if a snapping motion were used.
An interesting point of this art is the stress placed on combinations. In kun gek do, combinations are not simply one-two series attacks; they are simultaneous attacks. Kicking and punching at the same time utterly confuses the opponent, and in most cases he will not be able to defend himself completely. A rear-hand punch with a roundhouse kick is a typical combination. This and others like it are definitely not for the beginner. Long hours of training are required before one can deliver both strikes with sufficient power and proper balance.
Thai kickboxing is famous for its lunging knee smashes and elbow strikes. Kun gek do naturally has retained both devastating moves. They are taught and practiced only with great care and, of course, with protective gear. And a fighter is allowed to use them only in a professional free-style match. Or on the street. Unfortunately, many Korean styles regard these two techniques as lacking in martial spirit, and they neglect to teach them entirely.
More than 30 years ago, the Korea Kun Gek Do Association devised 27 self-defense techniques intended to be practical in modern society. They are simple, effective and easy-to-learn routines designed for defense against a knife, a staff and even an iron bar. The kun gek do stylist can rest assured that any one of his self-defense techniques will leave his attacker unconscious or worse.
Somewhat strangely, this martial art does not teach any kind "ki" (internal energy) development. Jung believes that the majority of martial arts students have virtually no ability to control their ki and probably will not study long enough to learn. Therefore, he concentrated on "wae gong," or external energy, which is developed by increasing physical strength through weight training and refining technique through endless repetition.
Not surprisingly, every kun gek do class includes a great deal of full-contact sparring. Even beginners are introduced to it after only a few lessons. A kickboxing-ring-sized area marked with tape can be found in most dojang. A few establishments are lucky enough to have a full-sized, elevated ring complete with regulation ropes. During practice, light boxing gloves and groin and chest protection are worn, along with a uniform. But for the professional fighter getting ready for a tournament, only boxing gloves and shorts are allowed.
To prepare students for actually striking a human target, kun gek do employs two training methods. The first involves extensive use of the heavy bag for kicks, punches and elbow and knee attacks. In excess of 120 pounds, it closely simulates a heavy, impact-absorbing target like a human body. The other is a wooden board about 10 inches wide, wrapped with an old kind of rope made of rice straw. The students simply kick and punch the rough coils with increasing power, both to harden their striking surfaces and to strengthen the related bones and joints.
Perhaps the climax of the kun gek do stylist's training, first coming some two years after training has commenced, is the tournament. There are many which he can enter, up to one a month in larger cities. Tournaments fall into two categories: those that follow traditional sparring rules and those that follow kickboxing rules. The exact regulations depend on which style is sponsoring the tournament. However, kun gek do stylists are accustomed to training under slightly different rules and then trying their best to follow them. Jung estimates that 60 percent of all successful tournament techniques use the hands.
KUNG KI CH'UAN
Northern style of Chinese kung-fu originating in the Chang county, Hopei province, where it is still practiced. Practice is quite slow and very difficult, consisting of low horse stances Famous for its staff and knife routines, it is a rare style in which a practitioner will often strike his own body Because of this, and its extreme difficulty, the nickname Sa-Dung-Li, or "stupid Kung-Li practitioners," has been applied The system has three forms, LiuTwei-Jya, Kung-Li-Jya, and Kung-Li-Ch'uan.
Kuntao involves an introduction to the serious study in defense of one's physical, mental, and spiritual existence; one must not consider this a sport in any way until one has considered this is not a sport.
The Chinese word for street fighting is Kuntao, Kuntau, or Cuntao. Physically, its movements are composed of jumping and swinging shoulders with the body's joints and muscles locked in -- to form one unit. The exponent of Cuntao will strike his enemies before the enemies' minds can prepare for the pain. He stands sedate like a tree, then explodes into a force much like a tornado. The exponent will find himself behind the enemy without having been touched.
Kuntaw is a martial art that was developed in the Philippines. Fighting skills were "borrowed" from the many culture
A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.