J - Styles

JAILHOUSE ROCK (52 HAND BLOCKS)
An indigenous Black American fighting art, it was started in the 19th Century America, when slaves were first institutionalized and needed to defend themselves. It evolved secretly within the U.S. penal system, with regional styles reflecting the physical realities in specific institutions, e.g., Comstock style, San Quentin style, and others
JEET-KUNE-DO
A non-classical form of Chinese Kung-fu that was founded by Bruce Lee in the 1960's. It is a fluid art that, at times, resembles many other martial arts, since it absorbs what is useful form other arts and rejects that which is useless. "Jeet" means to stop, "kune" means fist, and "do" means way, thus it is "the way of the intercepting fist.". Jeet-kune-do is formless and constantly changing. Its main tenet is "absorb what is useful, reject what is useless, add what is specifically your own." Since Lee's death in 1973, the art has evolved into two variations: original Jeet-kune-do, which is promoted as the art Lee practiced until his death; and Jeet-kune-do concepts, which applies Lee's strategies and philosophies to martial arts techniques drawn from various Indonesian, Philippine, and Thai styles. Jeet-kune-do is renowned for its street effectiveness and is almost never used in competition. Training includes instruction in kicking, punching, trapping, and grappling. Jeet-kune-do emphasizes simplicity. There are no set techniques, it emphasizes improvised problem solving. Sparring emphasizes blocking and attacking at the dame time along a centerline.


JING QUAN DAO
Quick throws, attacks and counterattacks, Chin Na (joint locks), kicking, fist and palm strikes and more . . . Jing Quan Dao "Combat Tactics of Chinese Police" is the modern hardcore combat system of China. Jing Quan Tao literally means "way of the alert fist", but Jing also means police. Since many law enforcement officers implement this method. Master Alexander Tao - a Guinness Book of World Records holder and master of the ancient fighting arts of Shaolin Temple Wudang Mountain and Liang Mountain developed this new martial art for actual street combat situations.
It is a powerful kick boxing art developed as the result of dedicated research and training over a 20 year period. It includes a combination of techniques from many other powerful Kung Fu styles and practices.
The comprehensive scientific research on Jing Quan Dao involves the noted eight training systems, which develop both a trainee's inner strong mind and outer toughness. Such five functional features have been proven in body sculpting, self-defense, kick boxing and in-ring competition, Kung Fu movie roles, on-stage exciting martial arts show, and Qi Kung treatment to disease. It is not only the graceful and swift body movement arts in martial arts, but also a powerful weapon in a trainer's mind and body.
Jing Quan Dao has been shown in more than a dozen countries, and received a wide range of endorsements, has been commended in the Kung Fu circle, and has produced outstanding winners.
Jing Quan Dao is the rediscovery of diverse stunts from China with thousands of years of history, and it has contributed to the development of Kung Fu worldwide.
Jing Quan Dao's training consists of four levels: entry, intermediate, advanced, and super, including module, schema, kickboxing, and Qi Kung. It has been formed into an explicit full vertical training course. The comprehensiveness and availability of this powerful Kung Fu can be effectively used in to train military or police special force.
JOGO DO PAU
Jogo do Pau ("stick fencing" is a possible translation to English) has developed in the North of Portugal (Alto Minho and Trás-os-Montes) as a self-defence art that could help survive bad encounters with robbers, or serve for violent action (rival families or villages, settlement of issues, etc).
There is strong evidence that its technique has most probably derived from a dance in India, which would have been imported and adapted after the Discoveries, a plausible reasoning since it was never practised in Galiza (the neighbouring region of North-West Spain, with close linguistic and cultural ties with Minho and Trás-os-Montes); whatever proves to be true, it certainly has nothing to do with the Robin Hood stories or with the dance known as the Pauliteiros de Miranda (related to Asturain folklore).
True to its probable Asiatic origin, it is an art of combat with great mobility and high efficiency. At least until the beginning of the 20th century the masters of Jogo do Pau were very sought and earned substantial revenue from the lessons they gave. There are numerous references, including in novels, to the devastating effects that the so-called "rixas de pau" (Jogo do Pau battles) and "varrer de feira" (literally, market sweeping), and to the bad reputation that the fighters earned because of that; not least, the guerrila set up by Zé do Telhado against the Napoleon invasion of the North (and other historical episodes) has used Jogo do Pau.
During the 19th century the Jogo do Pau was brought to the region of Lisbon by a northern master, who adapted it producing a hybrid technique with that of the sabre. In this "school", Jogo do Pau is rather exhibitional, and the bellic character of the original form of the North is secondary. It was integrated in the sports modalities of clubs such as the Ginásio Clube Português and the Ateneu Comercial de Lisboa, and enjoyed a great following as a second sport for gymnastics athletes, for example. Many of the fundamental aspects of the original fight, however, namely th fight against more than one adversary, are totally absent from the Lisbon variant. The image to the right shows Mestre (master) Gameiro executing a defence in the Jogo da Cadeira (Jogo do Pau sitting on a chair), typical of the Lisbon school.
The rapid decline of Jogo do Pau in the North, during the 20th century, was the consequence of two factors: the growing use of guns for the same purpose, and emigration. Towards the end of the seventies only a few of the ancient players remained in the North, aged, not practising for tens of years and isolated, and some schools in Cabeceiras de Basto, Salto (Montalegre) and Fafe. In the Lisbon school, the players born between 1910 and 1930 were the only memory of the generation that lived through the best years of this school, providing a continuity to the seventies, when young practicioners were able to collect the heritage. Among these younger players the name of Nuno Corvello Russo (who is in all photos in this page) is of the highest relevance to ensuring that continuity. Apart from the schools at the G. C. P. and the A. C. L., I also knew of the school led by Mestre Chula at Alhos Vedros and another at Poceirão. I practised Jogo do Pau always at the G. C. P. between 1976 and 1983, first under Armando Sacadura and later with Nuno Russo.
The role of Nuno Russo in the maintenance and development of Jogo do Pau is nothing less than of a saviour. He has developed an excellent technique at the A. C. L., and visited the North frequently, acquainting himself especially with the school of Cabeceiras de Basto, to master the traditional art of the North, with great success as well; he has also interviewed and filmed old players and masters in the North. Thanks to this activity a substantial repository could be compiled and organized, invaluable not only for its sports content but also ethnographically. Beyond that, by teaching at the G. C. P., the Fuzileiros (who correspond to the Marines special troops), at Physical Education Faculties, etc., he has contributed to atracting the interest in the modality by new players
JOFU FA
An ancient form of Chinese combat, where close range grappling techniques are emphasised
JOJUTSU
Japanese method of using the jo (long stick), practiced at Waseda University in Tokyo and in lesser known dojo in Japan and abroad. Jojutsu is reputed to have been invented by the great swordsman Muso Gunnosuke about 400 years ago, after a bout with wooden swords won by the legendary Miyamoto Musashi.
According to this tradition Gunnosuke withdrew to a Shinto shrine and after a period of purification, meditation, and training with the staff, created the art of the jo, blending techniques of spearfighting and swordsmanship with those of other, minor methods of combat. He named his style Shindo-Muso ryu and challenged Musashi again. This time, Gunnosuke mounted an effective defense and penetrated Musashi's own two-sword strategy.
The modern study of the jo, known as jodo (way of the stick), usually leads to other arts and weapons, such as the heavy club (tanjo), the chained sickle (kusari-gama), the fast draw (iai), as well as to blows in karate and kempo or throws in judo and aikido.
Jojutsu, as adapted for modern police purposes, is referred to as keibo soho, or police stick art.
JUDO
Judo is a sport and a way to get in great shape, but is also very useful for self-defense.
Judo is derived from Jujutsu (see Jujutsu). It was created by Professor Jigoro Kano who was born in Japan in 1860 and who died in 1938 after a lifetime of promoting Judo. Mastering several styles of jujutsu in his youth he began to develop his own system based on modern sports principles. In 1882 he founded the Kodokan Judo Institute in Tokyo where he began teaching and which still is the international authority for Judo. The name Judo was chosen because it means the "gentle way". Kano emphasised the larger educational value of training in attack and defense so that it could be a path or way of life that all people could participate in and benefit from. He eliminated some of the traditional jujutsu techniques and changed training methods so that most of the moves could be done with full force to create a decisive victory without injury.
The popularity of Judo increased dramatically after a famous contest hosted by the Tokyo police in 1886 where the Judo team defeated the most well-known jujutsu school of the time. It then became a part of the Japanese physical education system and began its spread around the world. In 1964 men's Judo competition became a part of the Olympics, the only eastern martial art that is an official medal sport. In 1992 Judo competition for women was added to the Olympics.
Judo is practiced on mats and consists primarily of throws (nage-waza), along with katame-waza (grappling), which includes osaekomi-waza (pins), shime-waza (chokes), and kansetsu-waza (armbars). Additional techniques, including atemi-waza (striking) and various joint locks are found in the judo katas. Judo is generally compared to wrestling but it retains its unique combat forms. As a daughter to Jujutsu these techniques are also often taught in Judo classes.

Because the founder was involved in education (President of Tokyo University) Judo training emphasizes mental, moral and character development as much as physical training. Most instructors stress the principles of Judo such as the principle of yielding to overcome greater strength or size, as well as the scientific principles of leverage, balance, efficiency, momentum and control. Judo would be a good choice for most children because it is safe and fun.
Judo training has many forms for different interests. Some students train for competition by sparring and entering the many tournaments that are available. Other students study the traditional art and forms (kata) of Judo. Other students train for self-defense, and yet other students play Judo for fun. Black belts are expected to learn all of these aspects of Judo.
Because Judo originated in modern times it is organized like other major sports with one international governing body, the International Judo Federation (IJF), and one technical authority (Kodokan). There are several small splinter groups (such as the Zen Judo Assoc.) who stress judo as a "do" or path, rather than a sport.
Unlike other martial arts, Judo competition rules, training methods, and rank systems are relatively uniform throughout the world.
JUJUTSU
Old, practical, fighting art. A parent to Judo, Aikido, and Hapkido.
The begining of Ju-jutsu can be found in the turbulent period of Japanese history between the 8th and 16th Century. During this time, there was almost constant civil war in Japan and the classical
weaponed systems were developed and constantly refined on the battle field. Close fighting techniques were developed as part of these systems to be use in conjunction with weapons against armoured, armed apponents. It was from these techniques that Ju-jutsu arose.
The first publicly recognised Ju-jutsu ryu was formed by Takenouchie Hisamori in 1532 and consisted of techniques of sword, jo-stick and dagger as well as unarmed techniques.
In 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu brought peace to Japan by forming the Tokugawa military government. This marked the beginning of the Edo period of Japanese history (1603-1868), during which waring ceased to be a dominant feature of Japanese life.
In the beginning of this period there was a general shift from weaponed forms of fighting to weaponless styles. These weaponless styles were developed from the grappling techniques of the weaponed styles and were collectively known as ju-jutsu. During the height of the Edo period, there were more than 700 systems of jujutsu.
The end of the Edo was marked by the Meiji Restoration, an abortive civil war that moved power from the Shogun back to the Emperor. A large proportion of the Samurai class supported the Shogun during the war. Consequently, when power was restored to the Emperor, many things
related to the Samurai fell into disrepute. An Imperial edict was decreed, declaring it a criminal offence to practice the old style combative martial arts. During the period of the Imperial edict,
Ju-jutsu was almost lost. However, some masters continued to practice their art "under-ground", or moved to other countries, allowing the style to continue. By the mid twenty century, the ban on ju-jutsu in Japan had lifted, allowing the free practicing of the art.
The style encompasses throws, locks, and striking techniques, with a strong emphasis on throws, locks, and defensive techniques. It is also characterized by in-fighting and close work. It is a circular, hard/soft, external style.
Training is practical with a heavy emphasis on sparring and mock combat.
There are many sub-styles, each associated with a different "school" (Ryu). Here is a partial list: Daito Ryu, Danzan Ryu, Shidare Yanagi Ryu, Hokuto Ryu, Hontai Yoshin Ryu, Sosuishi Ryu, Kito Ryu, Kyushin Ryu.
A more modern addition to this list is "Gracie Jujutsu", so named because of its development by the Gracie family of Brazil. Gracie Jujutsu (or GJJ as it has come to be known on rec.martial-arts) has a heavy emphasis on grappling/groundfighting. The Gracies have come into public promenence over the past year or two through a series of "no rules" martial arts contests known as the Ultimate Fighting Championships (UFC), some of which have been won by Royce pronounced "Hoyce" in the Portugese language) Gracie.
JUNG SIM DO
Jung Sim Do is a Traditional Korean Martial Art that encompasses the three major Martial Arts of Korea. These being Tae Kwon Do, Hap Ki Do, and Yu Do. The techniques of these styles are then taught under the Philosophy of Jung Sim Do; meaning straight mind, or single mind, way. This philosophy stresses the traditional oriental principles and values, such as rigorous mental and physical discipline, concentration, and most importantly respect; for others as well as oneself. These are virtues that seems to be in short supply in our modern "quick fix" society.
The true martial arts are not a sport. Sparring, and self-defense are important, but they are not the ultimate goal. Control. Control of body and mind was the original focus of these arts and should be today. In the martial arts world of today, most people are concerned with what rank they hold, and how much better they are than someone else. The only real competition in the martial arts should come from within. This is everyone's worst enemy, themselves.
The martial arts can mean different things to different people. For some they are the perfect vehicle for achieving physical fitness, while others regard them as an ideal means of self-protection in an ever increasing violent age, but they are much more. Martial arts can lead to a path of self-discovery and self-renewal and it is completely up to you which path to take and how much you can achieve.

K - styles

KABADDI
Kabaddi is a rare and unusual style, which grew out of yoga and Dhyana Buddhism. Monks of ancient India were said to hold great power, but to use that power they had to achieve such a state of tranquillity that it could not be used offensively. The combative uses of these techniques are collectively known as Kabaddi, and it is one of the most difficult styles to master, simply because of the sheer level of control required.
KAKALAAU
Hawaiian form of stick fighting
KAJUKENBO
An eclectic martial art that is a blend of Karate, Judo, Kempo, and Boxing, from which arts it takes its name.
Kajukenbo was synthesized in the Palomas settlements of Hawaii during the years 1949-1952. Five practitioners of their respective martial arts developed Kajukenbo to complement each others styles to allow effective fighting at all ranges and speeds. The last living founder of Kajukenbo is Sijo Adriano D. Emperado who practiced kempo and escrima. (Other founders are P.Y.Y. Choo, Frank Ordonez, J. Holck, and Professor C. Chang). It was decided that kempo would be the
scafolding around which Kajukenbo was built. The arts drawn upon to found Kajukenbo are Tang soo do, judo, ju-jitsu, kempo, and chu'an fa gung fu (Chinese boxing); hence the name Ka-ju-kem-bo (Tang Soo Do was shortened as a form of karate, even though that is technically incorrect).
To test the effectiveness of their origional techniques the five founders would get into fights around the Palomas settlements (the worst slum in Hawaii at the time). If the technique succeeded
consistently in streetfighting it was kept as part of the system. From these field test came Kajukenbo's Quins (known as the Palomas sets (forms or kata)), Natural laws (self-defense), Tricks (close-quarters fighting), and grab arts (escapes).
Kajukenbo concentrates on being an effective art at all ranges of fighting, kicking -> Punching -> Trapping -> Grappling. While many schools of karate and Korean martial arts concentrate on kata, Kajukenbo stresses the self-defence movements over the relatively fewer forms in the art. The reasoning behind this is that a practitioner must be capable of defending himself in streetfighting situations before turning inward to perfect the 'art' of Kajukenbo. At higher levels there is meditative and chi training, but the author cannot comment further at his level of experience.
Kajukenbo stresses the following-up of techniques based on an opponents reactions and not stopping with just one hit. The reasoning is that while one should strive to end a fight with the fewest techniques nessesary, it is important to know how an opponent will respond to attacks, and how best to take advantage of his reactions. A major ethical point behind my instruction was, "If he starts the fight, you decide when the fight is over."
The training is physically intense and very demanding. Exercise is a part of the class structure to insure that practitioners will be physically capable of defending themselves outside of the dojo. The warm-up and callistenics typically last 1/3 of the class period. Emphasis is placed on bag work (kick, punching, elbows, and knees) as well as sparring and grappling (contact with control). After a certain amount of time training, students begin to throw real punches at each other and their partner is expected to react appropriately or face the consequences. Learning to absorb and soften an impact is also a major facet of training. Quins (kata) are performed to fine-tune a person's movements while working with partners for self defense teaches a student how to manipulate an opponent and follow up on his reactions.
Kajukenpo, formed in 1970 by Algene Caraulia, and headquartered in Cleveland, Ohio. Kenpo Karate is considered to be a sub-style of Kajukenbo (see Separate entry on Kenpo) and is very close to "the original" Kajukenbo. Tum Pai, created in part by Sifu Al Dacascos, is adminstered by Sifu Jon Loren, and incorporates more of the soft, internal Chinese arts.
Kajukenbo Chuan Fa was created by Dela Cruz and Professor Emperado and has been taken over by Leonard Endrizzi and Bill Owens. It includes more Chinese martial arts than Kenpo Karate and is softer but no less rigorous.
Wun Hop Kuen Do is the newest sub-style - the personal expression of Sifu Dacascos, containing the original syllabus but with more Chinese and Filipino influence.
KALARIPAYIT
Kalaripayit is an ancient Indian martial art that uses pressurepoint strikes, yoga stretching, and venous strangely shaped weapons. Its name literally means "battlefield training." Many researchers theorize that it was the basis upon which the Chinese martial arts developed because they contend that Bodhidharma, the Chinese Buddhist monk who taught at Shaolin Temple, would have learned Kalaripayit in India and transplanted it, along with his religion, to China. Few kalaripayit practitioners teach anywhere in the world-even in India. Much of the art is said to have degenerated into a martial dance.
Kalari Payat is the grappling art of India. Each one of the Kalari Payat techniques is a complete finishing tactic, which enables the person to get into the enemy and put him under control. Although it has developed over the centuries, there are techniques that very much resemble Pankration, and it is thought that pankration may be one of its root styles. The art has it's origin with the training of soldiers, Buddhist monks as well as noblemen who had to learn the art, because there were frequent raids on the Kings and Princes' of Kerala (South India) by neighboring war lords. Kalari Payat was developed a few thousand years ago in the state of Kerala in India, which was introduced in Malaysia by the Mahaguru Ustaz Haji Hamzah Haji Abu, who is the founder of the International Dynamic Self Defense Kalari Payat (FIDSDK). Kalari Payat, had it's origin in Kerala State, South -West of India. This is why there is a suggestion that the soldiers of Alexander the Great may have brought pankration to western India and influenced the local grappling arts.
KALARI SOUTHERN SYSTEM
It gives more importance to footwork and hand attacks. The special feature of the Southern System is Adimura-64 ( the 64 types of attacking blows & locks). the bare hand has more importance in Adimura, Thattumura, Pidimura, Marmamura and Marma Adi free hand combat. Locks and escapes are also emphasized. In the foot work systems, there are 84 types of movements. They are Ankachery Chuvadu (16), Balivazhi Chuvadu (18), Ankamvettu Chuvadu (12), Nalani (16), Karinada Chuvadu (8), Cheena Adi (6- Drunken Style) and Thattu Marma Chuvadu (8). Nerchuvadu, Pirivu Chuvadu, Vattachuvadu Charivu Chuvadu, Ottachuvadu, Ozhivuchuvadu and Pachavarnachuvadu are also included in the 84 types of movements.
KALI/ESCRIMA/ARNIS
Kali, Escrima, and Arnis are all terms for the native fighting arts of the Philippines, specifically the arts that use weapons. Arnis is a Northern Term, Escrima more Central, and Kali is from the South. In this view, the terms just refer to indigenous weapons fighting systems. Arnis would be the term used in Northern Luzon, Escrima from Manila through the central islands, and Kali on Mindanao. People who use this definition tend to say that the words don't matter - every village, and often every master, has a distinct style, and that's what the important thing is - "do you study Illustrisimo, Caballero, or Cabales style?" Not "do you study escrima or kali?"
Kali is an older art than Escrima or Arnis, and more comprehensive. Escrima and Arnis were Developed as streamlined, simplified ways to teach people to fight the Spanish invaders. Hence, Kali is more of a "warrior's art" while Escrima and Arnis are "soldier's arts". Kali is usually considered to have 12 areas of combat, with Escrima containing 8 or 9 of them, and Arnis 4 to 6.
The "full" coverage alluded to above usually contains the following:
1 Single Stick (or long blade)
2 Double long weapon
3 Long & Short (sword & dagger, e.g.)
4 Single dagger
5 Double Dagger
6 Palm Stick/Double-end Dagger
7 Empty Hands (punching, kicking, grappling)
8 Spear/Staff, long weapons (two-handed)
9 Flexible weapons (whip, sarong, etc.)
10 Throwing weapons
11 Projectile weapons (bows, blowguns)
12 Healing arts
A further distinction that some people make is to say that Kali is, at its heart, a blade art, while Escrima and Arnis are designed to work with sticks. This is a matter of some contention among practitioners of the various styles and schools.
A distinctive feature of all of these Filipino arts is their use of geometry. In strikes/defenses and movement, lines and angles are very important. In addition, the independent use of the hands, or hands and feet, to do two different things at the same time, is a high-level skill sought after a fair amount of experience.
Filipino styles normally classify attacks not by their weapon, or their delivery style, but by the direction of their energy - for example, a strike to the head is usually analyzed in terms of "a high
lateral strike." A punch to the gut is treated much the same as a straight knife thrust to that region would be. Students learn how to deal with the energy of the attack, and then apply that knowledge to the slight variations that come with different lengths and types of weapons.
Filipino arts place great emphasis on footwork, mobility, and body positioning. The same Concepts (of angles of attack, deflections, traps, passes, etc.) are applied to similar situations at different ranges, making the understanding of ranges and how to bridge them very important. The Filipinos make extensive use of geometric shapes, superimposing them on a combat situation, and movement patterns, to teach fighters to use their position and their movement to best advantage. Some styles emphasize line-cutting (a la Wing Chun), while some are very circular (like Aikido). Some like to stay at long range, some will move inside as soon as possible. These differences are hotly debated, as are most things, but they all work differently for different people.
Most Filipino arts, but Kali in particular, stress the importance of disarming an opponent in combat. This is not usually done gently, but by destroying an attacking weapon (break the hand, and the stick will fall.)
Sub-Styles: Latosa Escrima, Serrada Escrima, and others.
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A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.

Ken