H - styles

HAKOKO
Hand to hand sports trained young men as warriors and athletes. The Hawaiians had wrestling contests in the makahiki too. The best wrestlers came from different places. They fought to see who was the best wrestlers on the island. There were wrestling contest in each ahupua'a (district) also. People watched the fight. The fighters grabbed each other and tripped them. The winner knocked the other fighter to the ground for victory. Wrestling was a game enjoyed by the chief. The chief would cheer for who he thinks would win. If its man he wanted to win lost he would crown the other wrestler.
HAKKO RYU
Although hakko-ryu ju-jutsu was founded in 1941, it inherits a century-old legacy of classical bujutsu (warrior arts) used by the samurai of feudal Japan. Indeed. Hakko-ryu founder Ryuho Okuyama (1901-1987) and his son Nidai Soke Ryuho (Toshio) Okuyama come from a long line of prominent bushi (warriors), the Genji clan. As a student of Hakko-ryu, you can trace the origins of your art as far back as the 8th Century A.D.
Although there are sketchy references to martial art techniques dating as far back as 23 B.C., the first generally acknowledged that the Japanese grappling system was developed by Prince Teijun Fujiwara, 6th son of Japan's 56th Emperor Seiwa Fujiwara (850-880 AD.). The techniques were inherited by Teijun's son, Tsunemoto, who was given the name Minamoto. His descendants are known as the Seiwa Genji .and his aikijutsu techniques were kept as a secret family art. With them, the Minamoto clan rose to become the most powerful warriors in all of Japan in only four generations.
HAO PAI KUNG FU
This is the style of the Heron. Some typical movements are for instance positions on one leg only or attacks with joined fingers in the eyes, and so on.

HAPKIDO
This Korean art is sometimes confused with Aikido, since the Korean and Japanese translation of the names is the same.
Hapkido history is the subject of some controversy. Some sources say that the founder of Hapkido, Choi, Yong Sul was a houseboy/servant (some even say "the adopted son") of Japanese Daito Ryu Aikijujutsu GrandMaster Takeda, Sokaku. In Japan, Choi used the Japanese name Yoshida, Tatsujutsu since all immigrants to Japan took Japanese names at that time. Choi's Japanese name has also been given as Asao, Yoshida by some sources. According to this view, Choi studied under Takeda in Japan from 1913, when he was aged 9, until Takeda died in 1943. However, Daito Ryu records do not reflect this, so hard confirmation has not been available. Some claim that Choi's Daito Ryu training was limited to attending seminars.
Ueshiba, Morihei, the founder of Aikido, was also a student of Takeda (this is not disputed). Hapkido and Aikido both have significant similarities to Daito Ryu Aikijujutsu, so it would seem that Hapkido's link to it is real, regardless of how and where Choi was trained.
Choi returned to Korea after Takeda's death and began studying Korean arts and teaching Yu Sool or Yawara (other names for jujutsu), eventually calling his kwan ("school") the Hapki Kwan. Ji, Han Jae, began studying under Choi and eventually started his own school, where he taught what he called Hapkido, after the grandmaster's school. Along the way, Hapkido adopted various techniques from Tang Soo Do, Tae Kyon, and other Korean kwans (schools).
Korean sources may tend to emphasize the Korean arts lineage of Hapkido over the Aikijujutsu lineage, with some even omitting the Aikijujutsu connection. However, as noted above, the connection can be seen in the techniques.
Ji now calls his system Sin Moo Hapkido. He currently lives and teaches in California, as does another former Choi student, Myung, Kwang Sik, who is GrandMaster of the World Hapkido Federation.
Some other Choi Hapkido students are still living. Chang, Chun Il currently teaches in New York City, and Im, Hyon Soo lives and teaches in Korea. Both of these men were promoted to 9th dan by Choi. One of the first Hapkido masters to bring the art to the western culture was Han, Bong Soo.
In the 1970's and 80's Hapkido was taught as the style of choice to elite South Korean armed forces units.
Hapkido combines joint locks, pressure points, throws, kicks, and strikes for practical self-defense. More soft than hard and more internal than external, but elements of each are included. Emphasizes circular motion, non-resistive movements, and control of the opponent.
Although Hapkido contains both outfighting and infighting techniques, the goal in most situations is to get inside for a close-in strike, lock, or throw. When striking, deriving power from hip rotation is strongly emphasized.
Training varies with organization and instructor. As a general rule, beginners concentrate on basic strikes and kicks, along with a few joint locks and throws. Some of the striking and kicking practice is form-like, that is, with no partner, however, most is done with a partner who is holding heavy pads that the student strikes and kicks full power.
Advanced students add a few more strikes and kicks as well as many more throws, locks, and pressure points. There is also some weapons training for advanced students - primarily belt, kubatan, cane, and short staff.
Some schools do forms, some do not. Some do sparring and some do not, although at the advanced levels, most schools do at least some sparring. Many Hapkido techniques are unsuitable for use in sparring, as their use would result in injury, even when protective gear is used. Thus, sparring typically uses only a limited subset of techinques.
There is generally an emphasis on physical conditioning and excercise, including "ki" exercises.
HARIMAU
Harimau style from Sumatra. In this method, the practitioner's movement pattern resembles the antics of a tiger (the name of Harimau), with heavy emphasis on staying close to the ground using crouching, lying, sitting and semi-squat positions. The leg strength and flexibility required is impressive and the Harimau stylist can use his hands like extra feet or his feet like extra hands. He can start the fight from the ground position or will invite his opponent into a trap then take him to the ground. Other types of Sumatran Silat are Menangkabau, Podang, Sterlak, Lintau and Kumango. On the other hand, many Javanese styles use a percentage weighting that is more balanced between hand and legwork. Many Javanese styles require the practitioner to move in close against the enemy in an upright position, then use various hand and foot moves to express the techniques.
HC'U CH'UAN KUNG FU
Northern Chinese style of kung-fu requiring great agility; the monkey style of kung-fu.
HISARDUT
Hisardut is the unique, elite martial art technique developed in 1995 by Shihan Moti Horenstein and Shihan Miki Erez. Survival is based on the martial art taught in the Israeli Special Forces, Survival incorporates the most powerful elements of Mas Oyama, full contact Karate, Judo, Ju-Jitsu, Kickboxing, Thaiboxing, Grappling and the Israeli Defense Forces self-defense technique Krav Maga. In combining these prominent self-defense styles,Shihan Miki Erez along with Shihan Moti have developed a way to unleash an inner force powerful enough to disarm any attacker in any situation. Uniting mind and body control into one technique in which every move creates a specific reaction on the part of the opponent, Survival has three clear goals: defend, attack and overpower.
HOJO JUTSU
HOJO JUTSU IS THE FEUDAL martial skill of restraining a prisoner with rope. It was practiced by the Warrior class and in particular the samurai, who acted as police officers. The word hojo is made up of the character 'ho', which is also pro- nounced 'tori' and means to catch, seize or arrest someone, the character 'jo', which is also pronounced 'nawa' and means rope, and of course the word 'jutsu', meaning art or skill. The actual characters can then be read in English as either 'torinawa jutsu' or 'hojo jutsu'. However, both meanings remain the same. The main reason for tying someone up is because a need has arisen to keep them alive and take them captive, or prevent their escape. This was often the case during Japan's feudal period, particularly when the captured enemy was thought to be able to be persuaded to part with vital information, or be used in an ex- change deal for someone of import- ance who had been captured by the other side. There were various other reasons why rope tying was employed in Japan. One further purpose was to secure prisoners who were to be brought before a magistrate and tried for crimes they had committed.
HOJUTSU
The art of gunnery or firearms
HOP GAR KUNG FU (A.K.A LAMA KUNG FU)
Also known as Lama kung-fu, Hop-Gar became prominent during the Ch'ing dynasty in China as the official martial system of the Manchu Emperor and his guard. It was, and still is, a style for fighting, not for exercise or dancing. More than three hundred years ago, in the Ming dynasty, a Tibetan priest named Dai-Dot laid the groundwork for the Lama kung-fu style, creating the "lion roar" martial system. According to legend, Dai-Dot was stricken with enlightenment one day and, pointing one finger toward the sky and one toward the earth, he fell to his hands and knees and roared like a lion. Lion roar, composed of eight fists, eight steps, eight fingers, eight grips, and eight kicks, was taught in the Ting-Juck-Lui-Yam Temple by the Kay-Lam Buddha. Lama passed through many generations of Tibetan priests at the temple before reaching the hands of the Lama Jickbowloklowtow, whose Chinese name was Ng-Mui, a famous personality in Chinese kung-fu novels. He is credited with devising the mui-fa-jeong (plumflower stumps) atop which kung-fu was practiced.
The Lama style is composed of four main subdivisions: white crane, ta-mo, wei-t'ol, and law-horn. Ng-Mui taught the compete Lama style to only one student, named Hing-Duk, leaving his other disciples to make full styles of their respective subdivisions.
Hing-Duk passed the Lama style to Wong-Yan-Lum, who brought it to the emperor's palace in Peking, where he was employed to instruct the Imperial guard. When the Manchu dynasty collapsed, Wong left the Forbidden City and changed the style's name to Hop-Gar. To establish a reputation in southern China, he constructed a stage in Canton, challenging all comers and besting more than 150 kung-fu masters. For this he gained the number-one seat in the prestigious group of martial artists known as the Canton -Ten-Tigers. Wong-Yan-Lum passed the Hop-Gar style to Ng-Yim-Ming, who brought it to the U.S. Ng-Yim-Ming, before his death in the early 1970s, appointed one official representative to carry on the Hop-Gar system, Chin-Dai-Wei (David Chin).
Hop-Gar is composed of 12 short-hand and 12 long-hand maneuvers, and 8 forms employing empty-hand and weaponry techniques. The most important aspect of the style is its footwork, called kay-men-bo, used atop Ng-Mui's mui-fa-jeong, a series of stumps driven into the ground. Technique and form, according to Hop-Gar philosophy, are a means to an end; one learns through formalized training but, finally becomes free, discarding all that is not natural and spontaneous.
HSING CHEN KUNG FU
For students who wish to study martial arts for self-defense purposes, the Hsing Chen program teaches an extremely effective means of dealing with an attacker. Training in this program involves the study of close distance fighting, joint trapping and breaking, throws and takedowns, hand and foot striking as well as weapons training. Because Hsing Chen Kung Fu is not dependent on strength but on a mastery of angles and the mechanics of the body, it is an ideal self-defense system for men and women.
HSING YI CHUAN (XING YI QUAN)
Intro:
Hsing Yi Ch'uan is one of the three orthodox "internal" styles of Chinese martial art (the other two being T'ai Chi Ch'uan and Pa Kua Chang). "Hsing" refers to form and "Yi" to the mind or intent.
"Ch'uan" literally means fist and denotes a method of unarmed combat. Hsing Yi Ch'uan is commonly refered to as "Form and Mind" or "Form and Will" boxing. The name illustrates the strong emphasis placed on motion being subordinate to mental control.
Origin: Shan Hsi Province, China.
History:
The exact origins of Hsing Yi Ch'uan are unknown. The creation of the Art is traditionally attributed to the famous general and patriot Yueh Fei (1103- 1141) of the Sung Dynasty. There is, however, no historical data to support this claim. The style was originally called "Hsin Yi
Liu He Ch'uan" (Heart Mind Six Harmonies Boxing). The Six Harmonies refer to the Three Internal Harmonies (the heart or desire coordinates with the intent; the intent coordinates with the ch'i or vital energy; the ch'i coordinates with the stength), and the Three External Harmonies (the shoulders coordinate with the hips; the elbows coordinate with the knees and the hands coordinate with the feet).

The earliest reliable information we have makes reference to Chi Lung Feng (also known as Chi Chi Ke) of Shan Hsi Province as being the first to teach the art of Hsin Yi Liu He Ch'uan. Chi Lung Feng was active near the end of the Ming Dynasty (early 1600's) and was a master of spear fighting (he had the reputation of possessing "divine" skill with the spear). He is recorded as stating "I have protected myself in violent times with my spear. Now that we are in a time of "peace" and our weapons have all been destroyed, if I am unarmed and meet the unexpected, how shall I defend myself?" In answer to his own question, Chi Lung Feng reportedly created a style of weaponless combat based on his expertise with the spear. He refered to his art as "Liu He," the Six Harmonies.
Chi Lung Feng had two very famous students. One was from from He Bei province and was named Ts'ao Chi Wu. The other was from He Nan Province and was named Ma Hsueh Li. It was at this point in history that the Hsin Yi Liu He Ch'uan (now also refered to as Hsing Yi Ch'uan) divided into three related yet separate styles, the Shan Hsi, He Nan and He Bei schools. After spending 12 years studying Hsin Yi Ch'uan with Chi Lung Feng, Ts'ao Chi Wu entered the Imperial Martial Examinations and placed first (this was the most prestigious honor one could possibly win as a martial artist in old China, and assured the victor a high government position). Ts'ao passsed on his art to two brothers, Tai Lung Pang and Tai Lin Pang.
Tai Lung Pang passed his Art on to Li Luo Neng (also known as Li Neng Jan). Li holds the distinction of being the greatest Hsing Yi Boxer in the styles' history and one of the top Chinese boxers of all time. Li Luo Neng taught his art in his native Shan Hsi Province and also taught a great number of students in He Bei Province (his duties as a bodyguard involved escorting various members of wealthy families to and from He Bei). Two of Li's most famous Shan Hsi students were Sung Shi Jung and Che Yi Chai. His most famous He Bei student was the formidable Kuo Yun Shen (who reportedly defeated all comers with his "Beng Ch'uan," a straight punch to the body). Kuo Yun Shen passed on his art to Wang Fu Yuan, Liu Ch'i Lan and Sun Lu Tang among others; Liu Ch'i Lan passed on the Art to the most famous practitioners of this century, including Li Ts'un Yi and Chang Chan Kuei (also known as Chang Chao Tung). There are many practitioners of all three sub-systems active today, and Hsing Yi Ch'uan is still a popular and well respected style of martial art in China.
Description:
The art is divided into two main systems, the Ten Animal and Five Element respectively. The Five element system is further divided into two major branches, the He Bei and Shan Hsi styles. The Ten animal style is closest to the original Hsin Yi Liu He Ch'uan in form and practice. The movements in the forms are patterned after the spirit of various animals in combat, including the Dragon, Tiger, Monkey, Horse, Chicken, Hawk, Snake, Bear, Eagle and Swallow. The Five Element based systems have five basic forms (including Splitting, Drilling, Crushing, Pounding, and Crossing) as the foundation of the art. These basic energies are later expanded into Twelve Animal forms which include variations of the animal forms found in the Ten Animal styles as well as two additional animals, the Tai (a mythical bird) and the Tuo (a type of water lizard, akin to the aligator). Training in all systems centers on repetitive practice of single movements which are later combined into more complicated linked forms.
The direction of movement in Hsing Yi Ch'uan forms is predominately linear. Practitioners "walk" through the forms coordinating the motions of their entire bodies into one focused flow. The hands, feet and torso all "arrive" together and the nose, front hand and front foot are along one verticle line when viewed from the front (san jian hsiang chiao). The arms are held in front of the body and the practitioner lines up his or her centerline with opponent's centerline. A familiar adage of Hsing Yi Ch'uan is that "the hands do not leave the (area of the) heart and the elbows do not leave the ribs." There are few kicks in the style and the techniques are of a predominately percussive nature. Great emphasis is placed upon the ability to generate power with the whole body and focus it into one pulse which is released in a sudden burst.
Hsing Yi is characteristically aggressive in nature and prefers to move into the opponent with a decisive blow at the earliest opportunity. The style prizes economy of motion and the concept of
simultaneous attack and defense. As the name of the style implies, the form or "shape" of the movements is the outward, physical manifestation of the "shape" of one's intent. A fundamental principle underlying all styles of Hsing Yi Ch'uan is that the mind controls and leads the movement of the body.
Training:
Training in He Nan (Ten Animal) Hsin Yi Liu He Ch'uan includes basic movements designed to condition and develop the striking ability of the "Seven Stars" (the head, shoulders, elbows, hands, hips, knees and feet). From there the student will progress to learning the basic animal forms. Form practice consists of repeating single movements while walking foward in various straight line patterns. Later, the single movements are combined into linked forms. The techniques are
relatively simple and straightforeward and rely on the ability to generate force with almost any part of the body (the Seven Stars). Also included at more advanced levels are weapons forms (including the straight sword, staff and spear).
The Five Element based styles of Hsing Yi Ch'uan (Shan Hsi and He Bei) traditionally begin training with stance keeping (Chan Chuang). The fundamental posture is called "San Ti" (Three Bodies) or "San Ts'ai" (Three Powers, refering to heaven, earth and man). It is from this
posture that all of the movements in the style are created and most teachers place great emphasis upon it. After stance keeping the student begins to learn the Five Elements (Wu Hsing). These are the basic movements of the art and express all the possible combinations of motion which produce percussive power. After a certain level of proficiency is acquired in the practice of the Five Elements, the student goes on to learn the Twelve Animal and linked forms. The Twelve Animal forms are variations of the Five Elements expressed through the format of the spirit of animals in combat. There are several two-person combat forms which teach the student the correct methods of attack and defense and the applications of the techniques practiced in the solo forms. Five Element based styles also include weapons training (the same weapons as the He Nan styles).
Substyles:
As mentioned above, Hsing Yi Ch'uan is divided into three related yet distinct styles: He Nan Hsin Yi Liu He Ch'uan and Shan Hsi/He Bei Hsing Yi Ch'uan.
He Nan Hsin Yi Liu He Ch'uan is characterized by powerful swinging movements of the arms and the ability to strike effectively with every part of the body. This system is very powerful and aggressive in nature and the movements are simple and straightforeward.
He Bei style Five Element Hsing Yi Ch'uan emphasizes larger and more extended postures, strict and precise movements and powerful palm and fist strikes.
Shan Hsi style Five Element Hsing Yi Ch'uan is characterized by smaller postures with the arms held closer to the body, light and agile footwork and a relatively "softer" approach to applying
technique (Shan Hsi Hsing Yi places a greater emphasis on evasiveness than the other styles).
HUNG CHIA
Southern style of Chinese kung-fu stressing powerful hand techniques, delivered from strong low stances. As the story goes, five monks, called the Five Ancestors, escaped from the Shaolin Temple during its destruction by government troops. One monk, Chi-Sim, made his way to southern China, taking refuge among the boat people, where he was recruited by a floating opera troupe to teach martial arts Chi-Sim reportedly modified his Shaolin style accordingly; kicks and the more intricate balancing maneuvers found in northern strains of Shaolin were excluded.
The origination of the style is credited to Fong-T'sai after his escape from the Shaolin Temple. Another source holds that the originators of the style were Ng-Mui and Mui-Hin.
The system is based on the movements of the five animals: dragon, snake, tiger, leopard, and crane. A famous exponent of this system is Yuen-Yik-Kai, in Hong Kong.
HUNG CH'UAN
Form of northern Chinese kung-fu dating to the 12th
HUNG GA GUNG FU
Hung Ga Gung Fu is a traditional gungfu style originating from the southern Siulam monastery. The style is said to be created between 1770 and 1800 by the legendary Hung Heigun. Hung Heigun combined his Siulam Lohon style with Black Tiger and White Crane style, forming a first basic version of the style. Much later, around 1900, the famous Wong Feihung changed the style completely. Based on exchange with other styles many techniques were added and sets were rechoreographed and newly developed. The stances became wider and deeper and the style was changed into a five animal style, namely Dragon, Snake, Tiger, Panther and Crane.
HWA RANG DO
Hwa Rang Do is a comprehensive martial arts system whose training encompasses unarmed combat, weaponry, internal training and healing techniques. Translated, Hwa Rang Do means "the way of flowering manhood".
In March 1942 present day founder of Hwa Rang Do, Dr. Joo Bang Lee and his brother, Joo Sang Lee was introduced to the Buddhist monk Suahm Dosa by their father, who was a personal friend of the monk, and they began their formal training aged 5 & 6.
The brothers lived and trained as the sole students with the monk mostly in weekends and during School vacations but also trained in other martial arts when they were unable to train under Suahm Dosa. Influences include Boxing, Yudo, Komdo, and Tang Soo Do. In addition the Lee Brothers attained Master level of Dae Dong Ryu Yu Sul (modern name - Hapkido) from its founder Choi Yong Sool in October 1956.
In April 1960 Dr. Joo Bang Lee created and founded his martial art by combining Suham Dosa's techniques with the other systems he had trained. He choose the name Hwa Rang Kwan to describe his system and this also marked the first time the Hwa Rang was used publicly in
connection with unarmed Korean martial arts. There is no way of knowing if the techniques Suahm Dosa taught the brothers actually was the martial art of the Silla Hwa Rang, or another form of monk martial art.
In 1967, at the request of President Park, Dr. Joo Bang Lee organized the unification of the Korean martial arts and directed the Unified Korean Martial Arts Exposition on May 27, 1968 at the Jang Chung Sports Arena in Seoul. Since it was difficult for all martial art organization leaders to agree on methods of administration, this organization was also disbanded shortly after the exposition.
Following the dissolution, Dr. Joo Bang Lee concentrated his efforts solely on the development of his martial art to the exclusion of all other martial arts. He renamed it Hwa Rang Do translated to mean "The Way of the Flowering Manhood". (Do - represents "the way" or the "martial art"). Also this marked the first time the character for "Way" was used in connection with the Hwa Rang and the unarmed martial arts.
In 1968, Head Grandmaster Joo Sang Lee introduced Hwa Rang Do to the United States of America. Dr. Joo Bang Lee became the system's supreme grandmaster upon Suahm Dosa's death in 1969. He immigrated to America in 1972 and founded the World Hwa Rang Do Association and since then Hwa Rang Do has spread all over the world. Today Dr. Joo Bang Lee presides over the World Hwa Rang Do Association, Hwa Rang Do World Headquarters in Downey, California (USA).
Hwa Rang Do is a combination of UM (soft/circular movement) and YANG (hard/linear movement). The Mu Sul (martial aspects) of Hwa Rang Do can be further explained in four distinct - though interconnecting - major paths of study.
NAE GONG - deals with developing, controlling, and directing one's Ki, or internal energy force, through breathing and meditation exercises in conjunction with specific physical techniques.
WAE GONG - Wae gong includes more than 4000 offensive and defensive combative applications. Combining elements predominantly tense and linear in nature with those soft and circular, these techniques mesh to form a natural fighting system. This phase includes full instruction in all hand strikes and blocks (trapping and grabbing as well as deflection applications, using the hands, wrist, forearm, elbows, arms and shoulders), 365 individual kicks, throws and falls from any position and onto any surfaces, human anatomical structure as it pertains to combat applications (knowing and utilizing the body's weak points to effectively control the opponent, regardless of their size), joint manipulation and breaking, finger pressure-point application, prisoner arrest, control and transport, grappling applications, forms, offensive choking and flesh-tearing techniques, defense against multiple opponents, breaking techniques, counter-attacks, and killing techniques.
MOO GI GONG - involves the offensive and defensive use of the over 108 traditional weapons found within 20 categories of weaponry. By learning these various weapon systems, the practitioner can most effectively utilize any available object as a weapon as the situation
demands.
SHIN GONG - is the study, development, and control of the human mind in order to attain one's full potential and mental capabilities. Techniques are taught to achieve an increase in one's total awareness, focus, and concentration levels. Included are instruction in : controlling one's mind; development of the "sixth sense"; memory recall; the study of human character and personalities; practical psychology; visualization; the art of concealment and stealth as utilized by special agents (Sulsa); as well as advanced, secretive applications. Hwa Rang Do teaches both the martial art (mu-sul) and healing art (in-sul). If one is able to injure or worse, then he/she should know how to heal as well, once again maintaining harmony through balance of opposites. First aid applications, revival techniques are taught in conjunction with the traditional full studies of acupuncture, Royal Family acupressure, herbal and natural medicines, and bone setting.
A typical training session includes Meditation (beginning and end of class). Total body stretching and warm-up exercises. Basic punching and kicking practice. Ki power exercises. "Basic-8" combination drills (which vary by belt rank). Two-man countering techniques (vary by belt rank). Open session which may include: sparring, tumbling, grappling, sweeps, or advanced techniques. Self-defense techniques. Cool down exercises. Hwa Rang Do code of ethics.

I - styles

IAIDO
The Art of drawing the sword for combat.This art is very old, and has strong philosophical and historical ties to Kenjutsu. It was practiced by Japanese warriors for centuries. The object is to draw the sword perfectly, striking as it is drawn, so that the opponent has no chance to defend against the strike. Training is usually practiced in solo form (kata), but also has partner forms (kumetachi).
Sub-Styles: Muso Shinden Ryu, Muso Jikishin Ryu, and others.
INBUAN
A traditional game of the Indian state of Mizoram, Inbuan resembles combat-wrestling. The sport is played in a circle, 15 to 16 feet in diameter, on a carpet or grass. The winner, is the one who succeeds in lifting his opponent off the ground, using strength, skill and rapid movement of the arms and legs. By using the legs, the aim is to loosen the grip of an opponent's legs or feet, but kicking is prohibited.
The contest is conducted over three rounds, each of 30 to 60 second duration, or till one of the players is lifted off the ground. Stepping outside the ring and bending of knees is not permitted. The belt or catch-hold rope, around the waist, has to remain tight all through the game.
Inbuan as a sport became known only, after the Mizos migrated from Burma to the Lushai hills. It is said, that it was invented in the village of Dungtland in 1750 A.D. It is a game of strength, which every newcomer to the village had to demonstrate, when matched against the strongest man in the village.
IKKAKU RYU JUTTE JUTSU
Ikkaku Ryu Jutte-jutsu or forked truncheon art first appeared during Muromachi jidai becoming popular with law enforcement during the Edo period. The art form originated with the third successor to the Shindo Muso Ryu, Matsuzaki, Gonemon.
IRISH COLLAR AND ELBOW WRESTLING
Irish collar and Elbow wrestling as practiced in the 19th century greatly resembled the wrestling in Cornwall and the Breton wrestling(gouren). This suggests an almost pan-celtic style of wrestling that may have had it's origin in a time when the celtic peoples dispersed themselves over the British isles.
IRISH CUDGEL FIGHTING
The Irish cudgel/cane which is known by many names, the most popular used by Anglo writers being Shillelagh, has come to symbolize Irish culture almost as much as the Shamrock. Often seen nowadays as a tourist favorite at airport gift shops. A quaint little twisted knobby stick complete with a green bow and a nifty painted shamrock can be found anywhere there may be a tourist looking for an Irish souvenir. This handy little item has very little to do with the oaken or blackthorn cudgel of the early 19th century and earlier.
From a young age Irish boys were exposed to the traditions of the bata, when they came of age to carry a stick it was as if the journey into manhood had taken place. A young man was taught by his father to hold the bata tightly so as not to be taken unaware at the fair. Many young Irishmen practiced with the stick regularly. Constant sparring was needed so as not to lose face at the fair or Pattern. Each faction had a trainer which they called the Maighistir Prionnsa or fencing master who taught the use of the bata.
While the stick was carried by the Irishman most everywhere he went, it was at the fair, wake or pattern that most of the fights broke out. To quote an Irishman at the funeral of his father in northern Leinster "Tis a sad day, when my father is put into the clay, and not even one blow struck at his funeral." This quote helps show the Irish view towards rowdiness at funerals and wakes in the early 1800's. The Factions were sure to be present at both wakes and fairs often roughing up a person who had refused to join them but more often fighting members of other factions over some insult real or imaginary or even just for the love of fighting.
A little about the Faction fights: Faction fighting was prevalent from the seventeenth century up until the famine of the 1840's. Most often the factions were members of certain families or of political groups. Some of the more infamous factions were named Shanvest, Caravats, The Three year Olds, The four Year Olds, Coffeys, Reaskawallaghs, Cooleens, Black Mulvihills, Bogboys, Tobbers. Sometimes the fights would consist of hundreds or even thousands of men and women. The weapon of choice was the Bata. Although other weapons were brought to the fights guns were rarely used (at least by the faction fighters...the police trying to control the riots are a different story all together) Women used rocks, often wrapped up in a sock at their weapon, leaving the stick play to the men. Even though the women were free to hurl stones at the men and to wallop them with their loaded socks it was considered a foul play to hit a woman with a stick. A large staff called a wattle was sometimes seen during the faction fights as well as the odd sword that had perhaps been in the family for years. Some fighters specialized in the use of two sticks. This was called the Troid de bata or two stick fight. The stick held in the off hand was used as a shield. There are reports of people using a rocks in their offhand to bludgeon their opponents when they got inside and there is even mention of bayonets being used in the offhand. After the 1840's the Factions fights became fewer and farther between. The last recorded Faction Fight was at a fair in Co Tipperary in 1887.
Fights with the bata were not always of the faction variety, some were sport while others were conflicts of a more personal nature. One tradtion at fair was for a man to drag his coat on the ground behind him and exclaim"Who'll tread on the tail of my coat?" or to ask a crowd "Who'll say black is the white of my eye?" These combats were not always a deady duel, often they were friendly if somewhat rough contests. The bata was held somewhat towards the lower middle of the stick and was snapped out with the wrist rather than swung like a tradional cudgel. it was a simple art in terms of numbers of techniques. yest it took years of practice just as any other weapon to achieve mastery of. Sir john Barrington a member of Irish Parliament wrote in his 1790 book titled "Personal Sketches of His Own Times" wrote that the stickfights were exhibitions of skill...."like sword exercises and did not appear savage. Nobody was disfigured thereby, or rendered fit for a doctor. I never saw a bone broken or a dngerous contusion from what was called 'whacks' of a shillelagh (which was never too heavy)."
ISSHINRYU KARATE
Isshinryu Karate-do was founded by Master Tatsuo Shimabuko. This style was officially recognized on January 15, 1954. For 32 years Master Shimabuko studied Goju-ryu, Shorin-ryu and Kobudo. He formed the Isshinryu style utilizing the best techniques of each art. Isshinryu was known as the "Master Style" because of its approval by all the Okinawan Karate Masters before becoming officially recognized. A student from a traditional Japanese Karate Dojo visiting an Isshinryu Dojo would find this style of martial arts odd. Stances are high and kicks are low. The traditional "corkscrew" punch is not used at all, rather a vertical fist with the thumb on top locking the fist is utilized. Also, blocks are executed vertically. Hard bone to bone are not used. Instead, the blocking area is the muscle found between the ulna and radial bone. Isshinryu is simple and direct. The system is based on 15 upper body techniques, 15 lower body techniques, 8 empty hand Kata and 5 weapon Kata. Master Shimabuku believed that no 2 people were exactly the same and each would have to adapt their techniques to their own needs at a given moment. The Kanji that form the word Isshinryu translates as "One Heart Method". This Kanji also means concentration. Isshinryu truly means to clear your consciousness of all useless or wasteful thoughts. Allow your mind to concentrate on your ultimate goal only.
ITOSU RYU KARATE
This style was created in 1952 from Rysh Sakagami (1915-1933). He was the disciple of Kenwa Mabuni (founder of [censored]-Ry) and from Moden Yabiku (Ko-Bu-Jutsu). The Itsu-Ry uses higher stances than [censored]-Ry and also almost all traditional weapons of Okinawa like Nunchaku, Tonfa, Bo and Sa.
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A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.

Ken