This is one of Manipur's most ancient martial arts. The fighting equipment comprises a sword and a shield, now modified to a stick encased in soft leather and a shield made of leather. The contestants fight a duel, and victory goes to the person, who scores the maximum points. In ancient times, sword and spears were used by the contestants. Victory in this martial art, depends more on skill, than brawn and brute force.
The competition is held on a flat surface, within a circle, with a diameter of 7 meters. There are two lines of one metre length each in the circle, with a space of two metres between them. The 'cheibi' stick is 2 to 2.5 feet in length, and the shield is 1 metre in diameter.
CHI HSUAN MEN KUNG FU
One of the most ancient and strangest martial arts in existence. Even its name, Chi Hsuan Men means "Unusual Style." Started in the 5th Century B.C. as a defence system for the bureaucrat class of the ancient Chinese dynasties. All the movements involve the use of "the white hade fan," actually a fanlike metal weapon used for both disarming opponents and poking them.
The Chi Hsuan Men master will attempt to calm any enemy with both a relaxed pose and with friendly words. Then, preferably when the enemy is off-guard, the fan can be whipped out of the sleeves and used either to disarm or attack. Masters are extremely rare and usually train only one or two students at a time, treating them as apprentices.
Similar to Aikido, though more direct in its approach, Chin-Na is a collection of locking, throwing and displacing methods taken from a group of Chinese Martial Arts.
The purpose of Chin-Na is to lock, dislocate, or displace the bones and joints of the body so as to cause pain and injury, bringing the opponent under control through pain-compliance and disability, as opposed to striking. Chin-Na also incorporates the use of Pressure Points used to emphasize the vulnerabilities of certain control positions.
CHITO RYU KARATE
The Chito-Ryu Karate was created in Tokyo from an expert of Okinawa, Doctor Tsuyoshi Chitose (1898-1984). The Chito-Ryû is composed of elements of Shôrin-Ryû and Naha-Te. Master Chitose first studied under the direction of master Aragaki before pursuing with Chotoku Kyan (1870-1945).
At various times, Chitose had the opportunity to practise under the direction of many experts, like Chôjun Miyagi (founder of the Gôjû-Ryû), Kenwa Mabuni (founder of the [censored]ô-Ryû) and Moden Yabiku (1882-1945 founder of Ko-Bu-Jutsu).
The Chito-Ryû is composed therefore of elements of Shôrin-Ryû and Naha-Te. Master Chitose introduced Karate in Japan between 1915 and 1920, even before Chôki Motobu and Gichin Funakoshi and was maybe the first men of Okinawa to present this art to the Japanese.
Northern Chinese style of kung-fu originating in the Gao-Yang county of Hopei province, where it is still practiced. Ch'o chiao contains difficult, high-kicking movements, perhaps more than any other system of kung-fu. Because of its flamboyance, the style is suited to the Chinese opera, whose members are often practitioners. Wang-Yu is a famous exponent of the style in China.
CHOI KWANG DO
Self-defence martial art. Choi Kwang-Do (The art of Grand Master Kwang Choi) is a dynamic, innovative approach to martial arts training. It is based on traditional, martial arts philosophy that emphasizes the ideal of personal and social development being paramount, rather than sports competition. The development of good manners, courtesy, self-discipline, self-confidence, and good social adjustment can be considered primary objectives of this art, along with self-defense.
Born March 2, 1942 in Tae Gu City, Korea, Kwang Jo Choi began his formal study of martial arts at age 12 under the famous Master Instructor, Dong Ju Li. Kwang Jo Choi began his study of Tae Kwon-Do (Korean hand and foot fighting art) under its founder, General Choi Hong Hi. He taught self defense to the Korean Army and National Police.
For some time, Master Choi had felt that many of the traditional techniques were too stylised and rigid for practical self defense. He discovered that many of these same techniques could actually harm the body and, over the long term, be detrimental to one's health and longevity. Also, Master Choi saw too much importance being placed on sports competition with the winning of trophies taking precedence over the ideals of personal and human development. Based on these observations, coupled with years of research and practical experience, Master Choi created Choi Kwang Do. It was officially introduced on March 2, 1987.
Chow-Gar style is from Southern China. It was founded by Chow Lung, who learned hung-gar, one of the five basic southern systems originating in the Shao-lin temple, from his uncle who added the pa-kua staff maneuvers to his nephew's training before passing away. The Choy style was taught to him by Choy-Kau. Later, after a three-year residence at the temples he opened his own school in Canton. In 1915 Gen. Lee-Fook-Lam appointed Chow-Lung an instructor in the Chinese army.
CHOY LI FUT
Master Chan Heung, the founder of Choy Li Fut, was born in the Kwang-Tung province of China on July 10, 1806. At the age of seven, Chan began to study Gung Fu from his uncle, who had trained in the Shaolin temple. Mentally and physically superior for his age, the young boy made rapid progress in the martial arts. By age 15, Chan was the leading boxer in his area. When he was 17, he studied under his uncle's senior classmate, a Shaolin expert named Li Yau Shan. Within several years, Chan had absorbed all the teachings of Master Li. One day, Chan's instructor said, "Your uncle and I spent 20 years in the Shaolin temple. It is unbelievable how you could master all that we know in only half that time. Any further instruction will need to come directly from a Shaolin priest. But most of these monks have disappeared from the area. The only one I know of is a wandering priest named Choy Fok. Unfortunately, he is leading a life of seclusion and does not like to be bothered." Yearning for further knowledge, Chan Heung decided to seek out the nomadic monk.
Arriving at Mount Lau Foo, Chan Heung searched until he was able to locate the Shaolin priest. Reading Chan's letter of introduction, Choy Fok said, "I gave up practicing martial arts a long time ago. So if you have come here to acquire skill and strength in boxing, I'm afraid that I cannot help you. I am just too old. The remaining years of my life are being devoted to a thorough research of Buddhism. You may stay and study our religion together if you wish." Instead of being discouraged, Chan Heung knelt down and humbly accepted the monk's offer to become a disciple of Buddha.
Although the study of religion took up most of Chan's time, he still maintained a high interest in the martial arts. In his leisure hours, therefore, Chan Heung continued to practice the Shaolin style of combat he had learned. One early morning, Chan was performing foot sweeps against bamboo stumps in a heavily wooded area. He also kicked rocks up into the air, smashing them to pieces as they fell. Suddenly the monk appears and asked, "Is that all you can do?" Pointing to a 50-60-lb. rock nearby, Choy Fok said, "Try your best to kick it up." Summoning all his power, Chan Heung Swept his foot against the rock and sent it into the air. Proud of his feat, Chan waited for the monk to show an expression of praise. Without saying a word, however, Choy Fok calmly walked over to the boulder and thrust his right foot beneath the heavy object. He spun around in a quick graceful motion and sent the rock flying more than 12 feet away. By now, Chan Heung realized that the priest still possessed some sort of super-normal power. Chan immediately asked the monk to teach him. Satisfied with Chan Heung's character and patience, the monk Choy Fok agreed and for the next eight years, taught his new student everything that he knew of Gung Fu.
At the age of 29, Chan left the monk and returned to his native village, analyzing everything that he had learned. Finally, in the year 1836, Chan Heung founded a new method of fighting. Chan named the system after his two instructors Choy and Li. The suffix Fut, which meant Buddha, was then added to pay homage to the Shaolin temple from which his predecessors had come. Chan Heung's fame as a boxing expert soon became known, and he was persuaded by village elders to set up a school in a nearby temple.
Choy Li Fut is one of the most powerful styles of Wushu. It relies on very powerful hand and arm techniques. Four main hand techniques are used, including the straight punch, the back fist, the uppercut and the hook punch. It incorporates oriental medicine and philosophy. The emphasis is on learning through forms practice and many hands and weapons forms are taught, most of which have between one hundred and three hundred moements. Speed, balance and power are all important elements in this style of Wushu, which also combines hard and soft techniques. Many full contact fighters follow this system.
Practitioners can also learn numerous weapons including the double hook swords and the staff, plus the nine dragon trident, which is exclusive to this style.
CORNO BRETO - CORNISH WRESTLING
"Cornish wrestling". This is very similar to Japanese Judo, the main difference is that the practitioner is not allowed to go to ground when making a throw; he must stay on his feet.
Cornish wrestling originated, surprisingly enough in Cornwall, and is yet another regional variation of wrestling and should in no way be confused with Devonish, Lancaster or any of the other regional variations that exist in the UK.
There are NO ground techniques in Cornish Wrestling. In sport, holds can only be made on the jackets worn by the competitors. There are about 14 tradional techniques. Also, in sport, if a competitor places his hand or knee on the ground while executing a throw, the throw does not count, therefore all throws must be executed from a standing position. This is significant for the martial aspects of this style.
At the start of a match, the lapels of the jackets are twisted together and tucked under the left arm. the competitors then shake hands. This is the wrestlers' signal to each other that they are ready to start. As in Gouren the object is to "back" your opponent. In Cornish wrestling, "pins" refer to the shoulders and hips. A "back" is where three pins touch the ground directly after a throw. A fall where less than three pins touch, or when the "hitch" is broken must be wrestled over. A back ends the bout.
The throwing techniques operate on the "double twist" principle where an wrestler's leg or head is twisted in one direction, and the rest of their body is pulled, or pushed in the opposite direction. (Using the jacket of course.) The throws are not really comparable to the throws in any mainstream style of wrestling. (I, for one get infuriated when this style gets compared to judo, because judo it aint!)
As to the martial aspect: The manual of Cornish Wrestling, put out by the Federation of Old Cornwall Societies some years ago states: "...the thrower will genarally lose his balance and fall fractionally later than his opponent;" This is significant in a fighting situation. In sport, wrestlers endeaver to fall clear of their opponent to avoid injuring them, however, when someone crashes to the ground from a standing postion, with the full weight of their opponent on top of them, there is a strong possibility for injury.
Mr. Colin Roberts, a cornishman who teaches these techniques, was asked about this, he actually said that Cornish wrestling evolved the way it did because it was safer to land on your back, and minimsed the chance of injury. However, it is also significant to note that wrestlers are taught to grip tight to their opponent's jacket when thrown, and not put their arm down to soften the impact of a throw, b/c of the possibility of landing on the arm, not only with your own full weight, but also with the full weight of your opponent. Imagine trying to finish a fight with an arm broken in this manner.
CUONG NHU (PRONOUNCED "KUNG NEW")
Cuong Nhu is another eclectic, fairly new martial art, founded in 1965 by Master Ngo Dong in Vietnam. The first US school opened in Gainesville FL in 1971. Cuong Nhu is an integrated martial art blending hard aspects ("cuong" in Vietnamese) from Shotokan Karate, Wing Chun Kung Fu, and American Boxing, with influences from the soft ("nhu" in Vietnamese) arts of Judo, Aikido, and Tai Chi, in addition to Vovinam, a Vietnamese martial art using both hard and soft
techniques. In keeping with its inclusive nature, Cuong Nhu instruction extends beyond the traditionally martial to public speaking, poetry, paintint, and philosophy. There is a strong
emphasis on developing self control, modesty, and a non-defeatist attitude.
Beginning students focus on the hard, linear arts, mostly modified Shotokan Karate techniques and katas. Experienced students add movements from more advanced softer, circular arts such as Aikido and Tai Chi. All levels get some exposure to the entire range of styles. Training emphasizes moral and philosophical development, and students discuss the "Code of Ethics" and selections from Cuong Nhu philosophy in class. As with other styles, belt color indicates rank as certified by regional testing.
D - Styles
DAITO RYU AIKI-JUJUSTSU
Daito-ryu Aiki-Jujutsu is an old Jujutsu style presumably founded my Minamoto, Yoshimitsu in the eleventh century. Originally, it was only practised by the highest ranking Samurais in the Takeda family in the Kai fiefdom in northern Japan.
Feudal overlord Takeda, Shingen died in 1573, and his kinsman Takeda, Kunitsugu moved to the Aizu fiefdom, where he became Jito - overseer of the fief. Kunitsugu introduced Daitoryu Aikijujutsu at the Aizu fiefdom, where the secret fighting art only was taught to the feudal lords and the highest ranking samurais and ladies in waiting.
The feudal system was broken down after 1868 when the Meiji restoration begun. Saigo, Tanomo (1829-1905), the heir to Daito-ryu gave the system to Takeda, Sogaku (1859-1943) and instructed him to pass it on to future generations. Takeda, Sogaku first used the term "Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu" in the beginning of the twentieth century and taught the art of it to many students.
Takeda, Sogaku taught Daito-ryu from the beginning of the twentieth century until his death in 1943 two of his best known students were Ueshiba, Morihei, founder of Aikido and Choi, Yong Sul, founder of Hapkido.
Other prominent 20th century Daito-ryu masters include Horikawa, Kodo (1894-1980); Takuma, Hisa (1895-1979); Hakaru, Mori (1931-), the current director of the Daitoryu Aikijujutsu Takumakai; Sagawa, Yukiyoshi (1902-); Takeda, Tokimune (1916-1993), son of Takeda, Sogaku; Katsuyuki, Kondo (1945-); and Okamoto, Seigo (1925-), who is often considered the most progressive teacher of Daitoryu Aikijujutsu.
Description and Training:
The way of teaching Daitoryu comes from Takeda, Sogaku's students in the same manner as the understanding, feeling and character of the techniques. Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu has four levels of techniques: Shoden (Lowest), Chuden (advanced), Okuden (highest) and Hiden (secret techniques).
The training in Daito-ryu starts with Shoden, where the student learns ukemi (falling and rolling), taisabaki (moving the body), tesabaki and ashisabaki (movements of the hands and feet and legs), defense against grappling, and continues with defense against punches, kicks and weapons, as for instance short and long staffs (tanbo, jo and chobo) and knives and swords (tanto and katana). There are techniques that can be done from standing, sitting or lying positions. The first transmission scroll Hiden Mokuroku describes the first 118 jujutsu techniques from the Shoden level.
These are advanced jujutsu techniques with large soft movements as known from Aikido. The actual aiki training consists of a combination of these techniques and those from Shoden. At this level of training it is allowed to use some amount of force, several steps and large movements.
When doing Okuden all movements should be as small as possible. Breathing, reflexes, circles and timing are used instead of muscles; the techniques are small and fast, and it is not necessary to hold an attacker in order to throw him. The reflexes of the attacker are used against him. He gets a soft shock, similar to an electric shock activating his reflexes, and it becomes easy to manipulate the body of the attacker so it is felt as an extension of one's own.
These are the secret techniques. The real aiki consists always of soft techniques that only work properly when the whole body and proper breathing is used. The attacker is touched easily, you are as glued to him, and the techniques are so small that even experienced budokas cannot see what is happening. However, the most fascinating part of Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu is that it is unnecessary to use physical power for incapacitating the attacker his own force is turned against him.
DANSE DE RUE
French, combination of traditional fighting methods: lutte parisienne, chausson, panache, canne de combat et baton (and associated weapons) and boxe-francaise-savate. More emphasis on the real fighting (combat de rue) than with the sport-oriented methods of Boxe francaise and canne.
The Degerberg method of Martial Arts is a compilation of many system like Western Boxing, Kali, Jun Fan Gung Fu, Judo, Ju-Jitsu, just to name a few. Based in Chicago, Master Fred Degerberg has made it his life's work to giving back in the martial arts. He and his wife, Katie, created one of the largest and best schools in the world
Senegalese fight discipline
Doce Pares (12 Pairs), was founded in 1932 following a meeting of the most senior Masters of the Filipino Martial Arts from Cebu and neighbouring islands.
In total there were 24 Masters, hence the name, 12 Pairs. The objective of the Doce Pares society was to bring together the most prominent styles and masters and to research and refine the various styles to form one complete system that could be spread throughout the Philippines.
At the founding of Doce Pares, Lorenzo Saavereda, then recognised as the foremost Eskrimador in Cebu City, became it's first Grandmaster. He was supported by three other top-rated masters; Teodoro and Frederico Saavedra - Lorenzo's nephews - and Filemon Canete. Later, Teodoro Saavedra rose to prominence as the best fighter in the Doce Pares society.
Master Eulogio Canete, Filemion's elder brother, was elected first president of Doce Pares and remained in that position until his death in 1988.
During the Second World War, Master Teodoro Saavedra, an active guerrilla fighter, was captured and killed by the occupying Japanese forces. Shortly after his death Master Ciriaco Canete, also a resistance fighter, emerged as Doce Pares' foremost fighter and innovator.
In the early 1950's eskrima techniques and tactics were analysed, devised, modified and systematised by master Ciriaco Canete, based mostly on actual combat experience with rival Eskrimadors belonging to rival associations. Among his many contributions to the development of eskrima is the art of Eskrido, a combination of Judo, Ju-jitsu and Eskrima techniques applied at close range.
In Philippine fiestas, a traditionally important part of the celebrations is an Eskrima contest among the best eskrimadors from various regions of the country. These competitions are fierce with no holds barred, there are no rules to govern the fight, nor are there any prizes at stake other than the reputations of the combatants and their Eskrima schools. (Grandmaster Canete likens these times to the wild west).
The combatants willingly fight without protection and most often the fight is brutal and bloody. The fight stops only when one fighter is defeated and unable to continue or if a signal of surrender is given. Such was the training ground of Grandmaster "Cacoy" Canete who fought in many such tournaments and challenges. In more than 100 such fights he tasted not one single defeat.
Today the Doce Pares continues to flourish from its Headquarters in Cebu City under the direction of Grandmaster Ciriaco "Cacoy" Canete, at 82 years of age he still continues to train daily and is always ready to defend his reputation as "unbeatable "Cacoy"
The Filipino Dumog is a very rare art today. Dumog can be found mostly in the Southern part of Negros Island and in the island of Panay in the province of Antique. This can be found in small barrios mostly farmers where Dumog became a past time, an entertainment and a form of survival. According to one farmer I came to have personal discussion with few Dumog lessons, Dumog was a normal practice used by the farmers to catch the Carabao by the horn to control and wrestle down. To control the Carabao, the rope is entangled around the neck or at the nose rope holder made of rattan hooked to the Carabao's nose. The rope is used to pull the Carabao to brought to a place where a farmer makes them rest. The act of controlling the Carabao catching the horn and wrestling down to the ground is called Dumog. A Dumog expert has a well-built body with sturdy legs and broad shoulders. His legs are spread far apart when he walks and normally he doesn't wear shoes. To build the legs for strength and resistance, the mud pit (a knee high) is the training area. A farmer dip both feet into the sticky mud and take a high stride moving in circular motion until the mud is softened. It could take hours but that builds the legs as strong as the legs of the Carabao after several months or years of training. This is done as an exercise. For the Arms and Shoulder, the farmers cut a strong branch of a tree and tried to bend it until the branch either breaks or bends. For Power Push, the farmer will position himself in front of the big tree, sometimes a coconut tree and use the legs to balance and both hands push the tree. The farmer moved around the coconut tree and execute a vigorous push and repeatedly doing until the farmer felt tired then he stopped. For the Hand Grip, the farmer takes a rope and ties the other end against the tree and while holding the end of the rope, the farmer turns around in full force. The Head Butts, the banana tree is used as the object, but the head butting is started by running towards the direction of the banana tree, the head hits the banana tree with vigorous force that sometimes the banana tree falls down and that ends the training for the day. The Dumog has a lot of foot work, namely the squaring/parallel footwork (the Baka) the Footwork (Panikang) the feet twisting (Palubid) strong footage (Pamigas) footclipping (Pangipit), forward push (Pasudsud), foot deflection (Palapas) Lampasu, (foot drag), foot smashing (Panglinas), footbar (Pangligwat), ability to balance and deliver vigorous throw (Haboy). Dumog has sophisticated hand work called Pangamut which will be explained under the technical fighting structure.
During the celebration of the Saints, to include the Thanksgiving ceremony for the first harvest of the rice field, corn fields, several entertainment are prepared for the big show. Like Carabao race, Horse fight, Dog fight, Cock fight (Bulang), Spider fight, Sipa (kicking contest with chicken feather wrap with cloth and a peso coin inside). The Sipa takraw (a volleyball by using the feet). The Kali fight using the hardwood (Lampusanay), leg wrestling (pi-ol) then the Dumog.
Winners are given awards, a dozen chicken eggs, a fighting cock, a sack of rice, a sack of corn, one gallon of coconut wine (Tuba), bunch of bananas, 2 dozens of coconut fruits and many others. These entertainment sports were considered cultural in nature but what count most is at the coronation of the Queen in the evening, there are contest for the native dances like the Tinikling (bamboo dance) the Maglalatik (coconut shell dance), Pandango sa ilaw (candle dance), the Itik-itik (a bird dance.)
Dumog is considered as a natural sport and a natural ground combat fighting art. In most cases, if there are feuds between family against family, the first to be called to be the middle man to pacify the trouble is the Dumoguero because the presence of the Dumoguero scares everybody. Some will always say, "Don't kid around, the Dumoguero, he will plaster you to the wall or the Dumoguero will plant your head into the ground".
The presence of the Dumoguero during fistfight or a drunkard turns wild, the situation will be settled immediately. There was a story about a stranger who became the guest of a family in a barrio. This man happens to be a thief. But in the barrio people are always very accommodating and very hospitable. Of course the stranger was easily accepted and he was able to win the sympathy of the barrio people. Then one evening, someone had shouted that he lost all of his money he kept under the pillow. Money from the sale of rice that day. Then immediately without delay, the headman of the Barangay hit the empty can and everybody gathered asking what happened and they were told that the stranger had something to do with the lost money. They looked for the stranger but they couldn't find him within the vicinity. Then suddenly a small boy came running shouting that he saw a man running toward the town probably to take a ride with a passenger bus or to go somewhere. Without delay, the Dumoguero ran towards the town and when he reached the town, he went to the passenger bus and he found the stranger hiding at the back of the bus. He immediately caught the stranger by the collar of his shirt and brought him outside the bus. He dragged him to the ground in front of many people. First he held him by the head and he applied pressure to the neck area so he can confess to tell the truth. Then his pockets were searched and there they found the stolen money. After they took the money, the stranger was held by the left arm and without delay his left arm was twisted. Then the Dumoguero close in beside the stranger. He suddenly made a body twist wrecking the arm, then he grab the stranger and went down inserting his right shoulder between his legs and brought the stranger to the ground breaking his spinal and smashing his head to the ground until the face, the head were completely unrecognizable. The Dumogueros are fierce people. Fear has no place in their daily life. They are conditioned to fight against all odds.
DUX RYU NINJITSU
Dux Ryu Ninjitsu's self-defense techniques are geared to the individual, thus the individual progress is faster, finding personal self-defense practical for today's threats and builds around one's own strengths and weaknesses. Another factor, separating Dux Ryu Ninjitsu from traditional Martial Arts, is that training is not addressed to fighting only under ideal conditions like in school, but in fluctuating situations and environments. For example, one v. multiple attackers, fighting in the dark, in a crowd or hallway, on slippery ground, such as wet grass, where a fight strategy emphasizing kicking would be rendered useless.
After the student has become proficient in hand to hand, hand to weapon self-defense, he/she is introduced to "Inpo:" the ancient art of escape: climbing, herbology, emergency first aid, acupressure, water safety, outdoor survival skills and a host of other rewarding and enjoyable skills, all of which can be employed in self-defense so that one can go anywhere in the world and, under the most extreme conditions, survive.
The purpose of Dux Ryu Ninjitsu lies not in victory or defeat but in the perfection of one's character. Dux Ryu Ninjitsu is not solely self-defense or physical conditioning, but enhances one's self-worth and develops character and maturity. This is instilled in all students, helping them find self- confidence and discipline, putting them on a pathway to higher achievement outside the "Dojo."
A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.