STYLE OVERVIEWS (A-Z)
A - styles

ADITHADA
An Indian martial art that is similar to Japanese Karate.
AGNI KEMPO
The World Agni Kempo Organization (WAKO) was founded in 1998 as the leading organization that received from the Great Teachers the Knowledge and a right to develop and partially disclose a system of secret martial art of SHAMBHALA - Agni Kempo, to improve old and to develop new methods and techniques, adapting them as much as possible to extreme life conditions of contemporary man. Teachers of Hierarchy of Light advised to denominate this system on the territory of Russia - Russian Kempo, in Ukraine - Old Russian Kempo. Agni Kempo is translated as Fiery, Lucid or Furious fisticuffs, main aspect of which is self-perfection in mastering the psychical energy.

Agni is a term that means psychical energy. WAKO admits as a member everyone, who decided to follow a way of self-perfection for progress of Love, Good and Justice on the Earth.
Any person (or group of people), irrespective of his nationality, colour of skin or religious convictions, may become a WAKO member, if he supports basic principles of the Organization. The main thing is to have great desire to learn depths and heights of Agni Kempo, to improve himself through this martial art.
AIKIDO
Intro:
Aikido emphasizes evasion and circular/spiral redirection of an attacker's aggressive force into throws, pins, and immobilizations as a primary strategy rather than punches and kicks.
Origin: Japan.
History:
Aikido was founded in 1942 by Morihei Ueshiba (1883-1969). Prior to this time, Ueshiba called his art "aikibudo" or "aikinomichi". In developing aikido, Ueshiba was heavily influenced by Daito Ryu Aikijujitsu, several styles of Japanese fencing (kenjutsu), spear fighting (yarijutsu), and by the so- called "new religion": omotokyo. Largely because of his deep interest in omotokyo, Ueshiba came to see his aikido as rooted less in techniques for achieving physical domination over others than in attempting to cultivate a "spirit of loving protection for all things." The extent to which Ueshiba's religious and philosophical convictions influenced the direction of technical developments and changes within the corpus of aikido techniques is not known, but many aikido practitioners believe that perfect mastery of aikido would allow one to defend against an attacker without causing serious or permanent injury.
Descriptions:
The primary strategic foundations of aikido are: (1) moving into a position off the line of attack; (2) seizing control of the attacker's balance by means of leverage and timing; (3) applying a throw, pin, or other sort of immobilization (such as a wrist/arm lock).
Strikes are not altogether absent from the strategic arsenal of the aikidoist, but their use is primarily (though not, perhaps, exclusively) as a means of distraction -- a strike (called "atemi") is delivered in order to provoke a reaction from the aggressor, thereby creating a window of opportunity, facilitating the application of a throw, pin, or other immobilization.
Many aikido schools train (in varying degrees) with weapons. The most commonly used weapons in aikido are the jo (a staff between 4 or 5 feet in length), the bokken (a wooden sword), and the tanto (a knife, usually made of wood, for safety). These weapons are used not only to teach defences against armed attacks, but also to illustrate principles of aikido movement, distancing, and timing.
Training:
A competitive variant of aikido (Tomiki aikido) holds structured competitions where opponents attempt to score points by stabbing with a foam-rubber knife, or by executing aikido techniques in response to attacks with the knife. Most variants of aikido, however, hold no competitions, matches, or sparring. Instead, techniques are practiced in cooperation with a partner who steadily increases the speed, power, and variety of attacks in accordance with the abilities of the participants. Participants take turns being attacker and defender, usually performing pre-arranged attacks and defences at the lower levels, gradually working up to full-speed freestyle attacks and defences.
Sub-Styles:
There are several major variants of aikido. The root variant is the "aikikai", founded by Morihei Ueshiba, and now headed by the founder's son, Kisshomaru Ueshiba. Several organizations in the United States are affiliated with the aikikai, including the United States Aikido Federation, the Aikido Association of America, and Aikido Schools of Ueshiba.
Other major variants include:
* the "ki society", founded by Koichi Tohei, * yoshinkan aikido, founded by Gozo Shioda, * the kokikai organization, headed by Shuji Maruyama, * "Tomiki aikido" named after its founder, Kenji Tomiki.
AIKI JUTSU
Aiki-JUTSU Ancient system of combat based on jujutsu; founded by Shinra Saburo Yoshimitsu during the Kamakura period (1185-1336) in Japan. Also known as aiki-jutjutsu, it is the art from which aikido developed.
Sometime during the 13th century, a school existed to the north of Mt. Fuji that specialized in the teaching of aiki-jutsu. It was kept secret except to a few disciples, for the most part Japanese nobles of ancient lineage. This art had originated from keniutsu, and is said to have gradually become a method of combat superior to jujutsu.
The term Aiki, like ju, indicates a principle, a way of using the body as a weapon of combat. The method of Apiki is to use the coordinated power of kl in harmony with the circumstances of combat; by blending one's strategy with an opponent's, to attain full control over him and over the encounter.
AMERICAN BUSHIDOKAN
In the late 1960's Jim Harrison founded the first Bushidokan School in Kansas City, Kansas. Harrison had studied judo and was top in his league. During this time he had also studied Okinawan Shorin-Ryu Karate and was top at this style as well.
Bushidokan is a combination of Judo, Okinawan Karate and JuJitsu, but it emphasizes a karate, which resembles Shotokan. Bushidokan trains students in effective street self-defence. Physical conditioning is very important and includes leg stretching and abdominal conditioning. Tournament fighting is also a large of part of Bushidokan training.
Beginning students learn seven basic stances, seven basic strikes (six linear and one circular), seven basic blocks (one of which is circular) and seven basic kicks. They also learn self-defence techniques that are not included in the "basic" seven. These techniques include a number of throws, a few soft (redirecting) blocks, and several wrist and hand locks. Two basic self-defence strategies, a direct counter and an indirect counter, are taught for each type of attack. Students also learn different sparring techniques, which they can use either in no contact or full contact sparring.
Bushidokan has only two "official" katas, but students are encouraged to learn other Shotokan katas as well.
Bushidokan is an external Martial Art with only mild references to the internal arts. At the end of the Taiso, which begins each class, Mizu No Kokoro ("mind like water"), is performed.
AMERICAN FREESTYLE KICK BOXING
Introduction
American Freestyle Kick Boxing means, The Boundless System of Fighting.
Coach Jason Porter founded the style in 1995. The first school opened in Endicott, NY in 1998. American Freestyle Kick Boxing is an eclectic, mixed martial art blending the hard and soft aspects from various martial styles that Coach Porter has trained in over the years. Being a student in the martial arts since 1980, Coach Porter has been fortunate enough to train in, and understand, numerous martial styles, and continues to do so today.

Philosophy
American Freestyle Kick Boxing is a boundless system, meaning that it is not limited by style or technique. It is believed that every style has something beneficial and practical to offer, whether it is in terms of technique, training, or philosophy. This system's philosophy is very similar to that of Jeet Kune Do and the late Bruce Lee's philosophy of No Way is the Way. An individual cannot depend on one non-eclectic system as containing everything they need to defend themselves in every situation. Understanding of many styles and ranges is necessary to adequately defend oneself.
It is also believed that every action provokes a typical reaction and it is the student's goal to understand these reactions and how to counter them. The opponents attack and the students flow reactions are repeatedly analysed and trained. However, once a student partakes in reality training and mock combat situations they must rely on trained reaction and learn to naturally flow with their opponent. To teach a student a set way to deal with a particular response is foolish, it is better to teach them to analyse the response in training and then have them flow using the tools they feel most comfortable with. To send an individual out onto the street with a set way to deal with a particular response will only get them hurt. When the unfortunate time comes to defend oneself their adrenaline is racing and it is to hard, if not impossible, to remember exactly, step for step, how to respond to an opponents attack. Many styles teach this approach and it is foolish. The American Freestyle Kick Boxing student is trained to flow with the opponents attack, this way they will be better equipped to deal with the situation and will more than likely come out of the confrontation with little or no personal injury.
The system also believes that people must be well versed in all ranges of self-protection in order to adequately defend themselves in any situation. This is similar in philosophy to No Way is the Way. Learning to defend yourself in just kicking range or punching range or any one range is foolish. No matter how well trained you are in that one range a confrontation can quickly and easily take you out the range your familiar with, then what, your in trouble. You have to be able to effectively protect yourself in all ranges of combat. This will not only make you more effective in defending yourself but will also confuse your attacker when you can so easily flow in and out of ranges.
It is also understood that we are all individuals and because of this everybody will have a particular style of defending themselves. It is believed that everyone is a "toolbox" and through training in American Freestyle Kick Boxing they are given various tools, which tools they use to defend themselves is entirely up to them. The system was designed knowing that everyone is different in body structure and athletic ability. Some people are varying quick, some are rooted, and some are aggressive. Likewise some are big, some small, some tall, and some short. For instance, a 20-year-old weighing 125 pounds will have a different means of defending themselves than a 20 year old weighing 250 pounds. Regardless of makeup, students are taught to fight within their means. They will learn movements and techniques both inside and outside of their makeup but it is up to them whether or not they feel it is one of their tools. Students will progress and become very effective within their style and athleticism. The system will teach them to be very effective using their tools and their style of self-defence whatever it happens to be.
The system does not promote fighting but it is believed that if one must defend themselves they should be able to do so very effectively, regardless of the situation.
Description
American Freestyle Kick Boxing is an external, hard and soft style that incorporates both linear and circular techniques. In addition, much emphasis is placed on learning to zone on your opponent and learning to flow with whatever your opponent comes at you with. Stopping with one counter hit is not an option, students must learn to aggressively flow until the situation is dissolved and they no longer feel threatened.
The beginning student will focus primarily on the movements and techniques of such hard arts as Western Boxing, Thai Boxing, and Oyama Karate. Experienced students will add more movements and techniques from other various hard arts such as, Kali, Wing Chun, Savate, Penchak Silat and Folkstyle Wrestling. Experienced students will also become more effective using movements from such soft arts as Judo, Aikijutsu, and,Greco-RomanWrestling.
American Freestyle Kick Boxing teaches students how to defend themselves in six ranges of self-defence. These include Kicking, Punching, Trapping, Standing Grappling, Split, and Ground Grappling ranges. Beginning students focus mainly on the Kicking and Punching Ranges and as they progress the other ranges are incorporated. Regardless of experience, all students get some exposure to the various styles and ranges.
This system combines punching techniques with kicking, empty hand striking, trapping, joint manipulation, chokes, sweeps, throwing, pressure points, manoeuvrability, and positioning. It contains both outfighting and infighting techniques with the goal in most situations being to get inside for close-in striking, locking, and throwing. Students learn to realize that in most situations in order to throw or lock an opponent it is best to first "soften" them up with striking. This is why so much emphasis is put on the striking ranges early on in the students training. Without striking the other aspects are much harder. Joint manipulation and throws are considered ways to finish off the situation if there is an opportunity to do so. Nothing in this system is forced. The student learns to flow with what is offered and take only what they can easily and fluidly get. Don't resist the flow and don't force techniques or movements.
The system stresses following-up with techniques based on an opponent's reaction and not stopping with one hit. Again, students learn to understand how an opponent will typically respond to a specific technique and how they can best flow off of that response into a finish. Students learn to use the opponent's attacks and openings against themselves. Students are also taught to use the entire body when performing a movement or technique in order to provide the most power and leverage into their technique while maintaining control of their own body. Emphasis is put on fluidity, speed, balance, strength, endurance, flexibility, accuracy, and assertiveness.
There is a coloured belt system with a Black Belt typically taking from four to five years. Students are tested for belts with both a written test and a physical test. The written tests are designed to test the student's knowledge of the techniques they have learned. Knowing how to physically do something is not enough students must be able to explain how to perform the technique and why it is performed in a particular way. The physical test is not only testing your ability to perform various techniques but also your ability to spar and your mental toughness. Students do gain peer respect upon completion of testing and as one progresses through the ranks they also progress through a series of titles, titles they have earned through hard work and dedication. In addition to earning more respect from their fellow students, they also are given added responsibility. The titles are as follows: Assistant Instructor, Instructor, Coach, and Professor. Professor takes years to attain, even the founder of the style doesn't feel he is worthy of the Professor title.
Training
American Freestyle Kick Boxing is a mixed martial art designed to deal with today's streets. It is believed that the classical or traditional martial arts are outdated for today's streets. This system is both practical and reality based. The style does not incorporate kata, a.k.a. forms, into the curriculum. Instead of spending time on forms this time is used for bag or pad work, partner drills, or sparring. Because the system is based on practicality an emphasis is put on sparring, which varies in contact depending on the student's ability level. As the student advances they begin to incorporate grappling into their sparring and eventually get to the point where they can effectively defend themselves against multiple attackers. Advanced students also begin dealing with mock combat situations. They learn to analyse various situations and how best to defend themselves in these situations.
Exercise and callisthenics are part of the class structure to insure that the student will be physically capable of defending themselves outside of the school. You must be in better physical and mental shape than the attacker on the street. Through the incorporation of pad work, bag work, and partner drills students do become more physically and mentally fit. Students increase flexibility, endurance, cardio-vascular, and overall health. Advanced classes also focus on standing and ground grappling drills, split range drills, multiple attacker drills and mock combat situations.
AMERICAN VADHA KEMPO KARATE
American Vadha Kempo Karate is a "hybrid" system deriving from the traditional or "mother" art of Vadha. Vadha finds its origins in the ancient Himalayas (present day Tibet), over 3,000 years ago. According to one theory of the origin of the martial arts, a form of this ancient style known a Vajramusti was the predecessor to a majority of the martial arts practiced today. Vadha is a system that uses circular principles to redirect an opponent’s attack. These circular techniques, sometimes called "arcs", allow a student to yield to an opponent's force, ultimately causing that opponent to become unbalanced and vulnerable to multiple counters.
The founder of American Vadha Kempo, Professor and Grand Master John Salvaggio, revolutionized traditional Vadha much in the same way Bruce Lee did Wing Chun or Ed Parker did Chinese Kempo. Professor Salvaggio holds Black Belt rank in JuJitsu and Tae Kwon Do; he also has substantial experience in various forms of Kung Fu, Shotokan, Judo, Aikido, Go Ju, Tai Chi and a form of Navy Seal training known as Bukito. Advancing Vadha in many ways, Professor Salvaggio incorporated the term "Kempo" (a term which refers to the blend of hard and soft techniques) into the name of his art to signify the distinction from the traditional form. In blending the most effective aspects of these great art forms, American Vadha Kempo was born
AMSTERDAMS VECHTEN
Unarmed fighting method, known and used on a wide scale in Amsterdam up to the early 20th century.
ANIMAL STYLES
Using the basic principles of the way an animal defends itself for self-defence. Here is a partial list of some animal styles, and their technique. Some animals are styles (sub-sets of a system), and others are complete systems. And some animals have different personalities (sub-sets of the style).
* Bear - Mauling grappling style, powerful and overpowering.
* Boar - Rushing and butting, using elbows and knees.
* Bull - Charging and tackling.
* Cobra - Striking vital point, usually upper body.
* Crane - Grace & Balance. The crane is a graceful beautiful bird, whose beauty makes it look helpless. It uses its balance and grace (fluidity) against the opponent. It is good at out-fighting (fighting from a distance), not letting the opponent get too close, but using accuracy to hit with poison hand techniques.
* Deer - Fleet and Agile.
* Dragon - Rides the wind. The dragon flies, swoops, leaps, slashes; known for twirling & spinning motions, uses the momentum and whipping motion of the spin against the opponent. It uses movements and strikes from many other animals, and is difficult to predict.
* Eagle - A style utilizes the "Eagle Claw", a unique attack, usually to soft targets (eyes, throat, groin).
* Eagle Claw (C) - (This is a system of martial arts) this system is similar to jujitsu, trapping incoming strikes and taking down, and locking up the opponent. This is a long fist style (out-fighting); most strikes are aimed at pressure points.
* Leopard - Speed & Power. The leopard is quick and leaping; it likes to lunge in with attacks, and then get clear before the retaliation. It has a lot of in-out attacks using the quick body momentum to add power.
o Leopard (SNOW) - this is a variant of the leopard. The snow leopard walks on snow all day, so its paws are frozen (and more frail). So the snow leopard likes to lunge in like the leopard, but it uses its forearms, elbows & knees to strike (to protect its paws).
* Monkey Kung Fu (a.k.a Tai-Sing Pek Kwar or Ta Sheng Ch'uan) (Tai Sing) - Agile & Tricky. An awkward looking animal at best. It confuses the opponent, using movements that don't look feasible (and therefore weren't planned for) and very low stances. It can put on a showy display to confuse you and then hit you with something simple (or visa-versa). It will roll to absorb a hit or to get inside your guard. It is deceptive and dangerous. There are 5 sub-styles of Monkey Kung Fu, these are:
o Drunken Monkey - See Monkey, but add more deceptive movements, that give the practitioner the appearance of being intoxicated. It is the most difficult of the monkey styles to master.
o Lost Monkey - See Monkey, but add constant movement (changing footwork and direction constantly).
o Standing Monkey - See Monkey, but use more outfighting , more conventional stances , and less rolling (better for taller people).
o Stone Monkey - See Monkey , but add that this practitioner will absorb strikes, and exchange them.
o Wooden Monkey - See Monkey , but add this is the most aggressive of the monkey styles , it will literally jump on an opponent to get at him.
* Panther - Circling, lunging and ripping.
* Praying Mantis (C) (Tong Lun) ; A system that likes to trap oncoming strikes while simultaneously striking with the other hand / foot. And then utilizing many fast-handed strikes. A large person in this style is not afraid to use his body (butting , hipping , etc.) while speed will work for the smaller person.
o Eight Steps Praying Mantis ; Utilizes footwork for more in-fighting.
o Northern Praying Mantis ; Utilizes more kicks, more out-fighting.
o Seven Star Praying Mantis ; Translates as "always moving & changing your direction, in order to break down your opponent's guard."
* Praying Mantis (Southern) (C) This system is unrelated to praying mantis, and bears no resemblance to the insect. This is an in-fighting, short hand system, which utilizes quick aggressive attacks. This style has no real blocks, it avoids(or absorbs) the first punch and immediately counter attacks with a machine gun barrage of tight punches, and low kicks (often simultaneous). no changing of footwork, no blocking (too slow), just an all out blitz. They are known for their 1 inch punch, phoenix and palm strikes.
* Python - Grappling, crushing. Utilizes locks and holds with chokes.
* Scorpion - Grabs at pressure point or soft targets.
* Snake - Supple & Rhythmic endurance. The snake is fluent and supple, it will wrap up your limbs, destroy your balance, and use poison hand techniques. It likes to get in close and use grappling / throwing while striking many times in the process.
* Tiger - Strength & Tenacity. The tiger is good at in-fighting (fighting in close), it likes to maul the opponent, overpower him. The tiger is a strong style (good for stockier people, to use their strength). It throws an opponent one direction, and then uses the opponent's momentum against him.
* Viper - Strikes at vital point, usually lower body.
* White Crane (C) This is a defensive system utilizing long powerful high kicks as well as long arm attacks. There are four basic fist attacks taught (Chuin - straight punch , Pow - uppercut , Kup - circular overhead punch , Chow - roundhouse punch). This system uses the pivot of the whole body to put force behind its strike / kick, all of which are delivered from long range. A lot of quick ever-changing footwork.
ANKATHARI
This is one of the aspects of the Indian martial art of Kalarippayat. It involves combat training in weapons like the dagger, sword and shield, spear, mace, and a long flexible sword. Ankathari refers to metal weapons combat. The final stage begins with the mastery of the kattaram or short dagger used in close combat. The weapons used are the urumi or a paper thin sword as well as mace and spear which demand meticulous training because they can hurt the untrained user.
AN YIN KUNG FU
This is a Tibetan Buddhist martial art that emphasizes Meditation above all else. Students learn combat strictly from a defence point of view, since they are not supposed to be aggressive toward any creature. Patience, silence and concentration are considered the hallmarks of any advanced student of An Yin Kung Fu. Any student who as learned this style of combat has already taken a vow of silence for a year. During this year the student dose not speak, read, or receive any form of entertainment, they did this to the point where all they did all day was stare at a blank wall.
ASHIHARA KARATE
Ashihara Karate is named after Kancho Hideyuki Ashihara, a man who has devoted himself to the pursuit of the most rational, logical karate techniques.
The quintessence of Ashihara Karate lies in its innate rationality. It embraces a method, which is probably the most scientifically logical. As such, Ashihara Karate is the most vital and practical in real-fight situations. Ashihara Karate can be described as moving in circles. The symbol illustrates the principles of the most efficient movements of the human body. The human body has a natural inclination to move in circles and in three dimensions, this transposes to the movement of a sphere.
Circular movements mean that, rather than meeting an opponent head-on, you move around him, staying at his side or back, deflecting attacks and making yourself a difficult target.

Learning the techniques and forms of this "risk free" karate is pure pleasure. Punch without being punched! Fell your opponent without going down yourself! In striving to achieve the maximum performance of the human body, the chances of being injured are reduced and the probability of victory correspondingly increases. This is the philosophy of Ashihara Fighting Karate.
Hideyuki Ashihara (Ashiwara), the founder of Ashihara Fighting Karate, was born on December 5, 1944, in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. He opened his first karate school in 1965 and since then, he has devoted himself to the pursuit of the most rational, logical karate techniques. He passed away in 1995.

The ability of Kancho Hideyuki Ashihara in avoiding an attack by moving to the opponents back or blind side made him one of the most sought after teachers. This combination of defence and offence into one he later dubbed Sabaki. In 1980, he founded the New International Karate Organisation - Ashihara School. This school, at the time, grew into one of Japan's largest with member dojo's spread across the world. His karate has been acclaimed as the most practical.
ATEMI
Atemi was developed in Asia thousands of years ago. In China it became known as dim mak, (death touch) while the Japanese, called it Atemi; a system of strikes and painful joint holds aimed at one of the central nervous system's 365 "pressure points." Paradoxically many of these points are also used in the healing art of acupuncture, which began its development at about the same time.
For many years it remained exclusively in China but as Chinese and Japanese cultures intermingled, the art migrated to Japan. The early masters spent many hours researching human anatomy in their quest for atemi perfection. They toiled over anatomical charts and experimented on prisoners of war and criminals. They immersed themselves totally in this learning, committing to memory their secret knowledge, refining it as they progressed and keeping the secrets of Atemi within the confines of their immediate families or clans.
During the 15th century, the samurai warriors began to assimilate Atemi strikes into their systems of battlefield unarmed combat - the martial arts. Atemi strikes gave them several advantages: Atemi strikes require no flamboyant stances, no flashy movement, they are direct and decisive. The samurai could employ a fatal blow quickly to end a life threatening confrontation or a use a quick disabling strike that would render the opponent helpless but alive for interrogation. - minimum power, little effort and maximum effect.

B - Styles

BACKHOLD WRESTLING
Backhold Wrestling can be seen all over Scotland and the north of England from May to October, at Highland and Border Games. The rules are simple, once the closed hold with the right hand under the opponent's left is taken, the referee shouts "hold" or "wrestle" to commence the bout. The first wrestler to touch the ground or break their hold loses.
The sport is thought to be one of the earliest and most basic martial arts and is depicted on crosses and standing stones dating from the 7th and 8th centuries.
Variations of Backhold exist in at least ten other European countries, including Iceland, Albania and Sardinia. Today the sport is organised into District, National and European Championships. The English Cumberland & Westmorland Wrestling Association has since 1900 insisted that their competitions, open to any wrestler, are the World Championships.
On taking hold the wrestler stand up chest to chest, each placing their chin on their opponent's right shoulder and grasping them around the body, each placing their left arm above the right arm of their opponent.
When both wrestlers have got hold, the referee calls "hold" and the wrestlers. With the exemption of kicking, they are allowed to use every legitimate means to throw the other. If either party breaks their hold, they shall be declared the loser, if the other retains their grip both fall to the ground, the first person down loses.
BAJAWAH (TIDJU)
Odd style where a partner guides from behind person and attacks with arms, hands, elbows
BAK-SING CHOY LI FUT
A combination of two of China's most renowned martial arts styles: Choy-Li-Fut and northern Shaolin. Bak-sing was founded by Tam-Sam during the Ch'ing dynasty. Tam-Sam had learned the Hung-Sing style of Choy-Li-Fut. Hung-Sing had been a student of the founder of the style, Chan Heung, who had combined the three family systems of Chou, Li, and Fut into the Choy-Li-Fut system.
Master Ku, a kung-fu practitioner famous for his remarkable "iron palm" was challenged by Tam-Sam to fight. Ku accepted, but neither fighter could best the other. They became friends, and Tam-Sam merged his Choy-Li-Fut style with Ku's Shao-lin, christening it the bak-sing Choy-Li-Fut system.
Bak-sing places heavy emphasis on sparring, kicking and long arm movements. A wide horse stance is most often used and force is believed to come mostly from the waist and shoulders. Many techniques involve simultaneous blocking and punching, or blocking and kicking. Bak-sing techniques are graceful and the fluidity of the supple long-arm movements, combined with the speed and dexterity of the quick, short-hand techniques, give this style a very artistic appearance.
BAKBAKAN
Bakbakan Another "Martial Art" that was inspired by the need for a practical, effective combat style in the Philippines. In reality, there is nothing new about it; Bakbakan (Which means to fight or to maul), is nothing more than glorified brawling. However, a no-nonsense practitioner of this style will give even black belters nightmares. In a sense, it is much like Sarian.
Grandmaster Antonio "Tatang" Ilustrisimo is the revered head of the Kali Ilustrisimo system. It is this system that is the basis of Bakbakan's Kali system now referred to as Bakbakan Kali Ilustrisimo. This name change does not purport to take credit away from "Tatang" Ilustrisimo but to identify the system developed and structured by Bakbakan based on Grandmaster Ilustrisimo's concepts and strategy. It is these training methods and structure that differentiate the Bakbakan Kali Ilustrisimo practitioner from any other Kali Ilustrisimo claimant. The effectiveness of Bakbakan's system of training has been proven many times in many competitions both local and international.
Tulisan Knife-Fighting System, an off-shoot of the Bakbakan Kali Ilustrisimo system, is another of the arts practiced within Bakbakan that is fast growing in popularity. Based more on basic knife-fighting techniques and constant sparring rather than memorized pre-planned drills, Tulisan has proven its mettle in many sparring matches against knife-fighters from other systems.
Recognizing the need for ambidexterity and fluidity in the mastery of weapons, Bakbakan's research into the Philippine martial arts found its answer in the ancient system of Sinawali - a fighting style popular in the Central Luzon plains. Although not exclusively a double weapon system, Sinawali emphasizes double weapons training for obvious advantageous reasons.
Bakbakan's Sinawali Fighting System is a major stepping stone into the realm of Espada y Daga (Sword and Dagger). Once familiarity and ambidexterity has been achieved, it is a simple progression to switch from equal length weapons to short and long armaments. Research and development of Bakbakan's Sinawali system is credited to Rey Galang, with contributions from Antonio Diego and the late Edgar G. Sulite.
BALISONG
First, balisong is presented as a Filipino knife in most of the book on the subject. Balisong belongs to the practise of Filipino Martial Arts (FMA). That's true that the word & the culture of balisong have origins in Batangas, Philippines islands. Many legends exist about the fabulous use of balisong by Filipino warriors. One of them would have killed 29 opponents with his balisong (this legend is sometimes told to justify the balisong nickname "veintinueve"). But it is not sure that the concept of the balisong (a blade and two mobile half-handles) comes from the Philippines.
The oldest "balisong concept" knife I know is the Pied-Du-Roy, which has been dated before 1791. This knife is French, and can be seen in the Musée de la Coutellerie, in Thiers (centre of France -- with Laguiole, the most famous French "city of knives").
Collectors such as Chuck Gollnick managed to find "balisong concept" knives from European countries and estimated as made during the XIXth century.
In the Philippines, I have not heard of so old balisong. I may be wrong.
I hope that balisong lovers will manage to find older roots to understand the path of the "balisong concept" idea, from its birth to Batangas.
BANDESH
Bandesh is an Indian martial art. In keeping with the Hindu belief in the sanctity of human life, it practices using weapons without killing. In Bandesh competition, the winner is the one who takes the weapon from the other.
BANDO (NABAN, THAING)
Bando is a martial art that comes from the Southeast Asian country of Myanmar (formerly Burma). It is also known as Thaing and may contain a subset of weapons skills called Banshei. Because of Myanmar's geographical proximity to Thailand, much of Bando's emptyhand techniques resemble those of Muay Thai kickboxing. The art was also influenced by fighting arts imported from nearby China. Bando emphasizes the use of knives but it uses foot and hand strikes, throws and joint locks, along with numerous other weapon techniques.
BANSHAY
A Burmese art, influenced by both Chinese and Indian Martial Arts. Banshay embraces the use of sword, spear and staff.
BARAQAH
A exceedingly rare style from Northern Africa, Baraqah is an Islamic discipline, derived largely from Sufi, one of the more mystical branches of the Moslem faith. It is not so much a fighting style as an expression of Islamic sacred science, designed to cultivate physical health and grace. As such, it is first and foremost a path to enlightenment; as with Tai Chi, the combative abilities it provides are secondary, though still quite effective in the hands of a master.
BARATERO
Spanish, name for the knife-fighting method of the gypsies, using 'la navajo' (folding knive), 'el cuchillo' (knive) and 'la tijera' (chisel ?). A Spanish book on this method was published in 1849.
BATTO JUTSU
Cutting sword technique. A rapid version of iaido or iaijutsu, the art of quick draw and cut with a sword. The art was founded by Sekiguichi Yahoumen Uji Nari in 1550 A.D. The art existed in every major castle in Japan. During the Satsuma/Meiji government battle, most of the castle Sekiguichi Shihan Dai sided with the Satsuma, except for the Higo Castle Shihan Dai. When the Satsuma lost, the Meiji government banned the public teaching of SGR Batto Jutsu everywhere but at the Higo Castle area
BELADIRI
A personal protection art that emphasizes practicality, it is updated and refined at every opportunity. It has no 'sparring' applications and the principles can be very simple. Style is efficient, deadly and straight to the point. It's not intended for sport or playing around.
BELT WRESTLING
Most Asians (and, partially, Caucasian) kinds of wrestling are "belt wrestling" (i.e. wrestling with catching the belt) in Moslem variant. Static catching by two hands or by one only (in this case another hand is free for catching above the belt), lifting and throwing... There are no ground fighting. Competitions took place on special yard - "maidan".
BENILAT
MEDAN Style of benilat; weapons are used in mass fighting.
SILAT BUAH Secondary form of Malaysian benilat, used in actual combat. Generally practiced in semi-seclusion, its moves are passed from master to disciple under a vow of secrecy, reminiscent of Chinese kung-fu. Various forms of Silat buah can be found throughout the narrow peninsula of Malaysia, but the most popular forms are fist and finger attacking, grappling and gripping, and a spectacular style with high leaps and flying kicks.
TERELAK Style of benilat; breathing is stressed and great strength is required.
BERSILAT
Bersilat "to do fighting" is a Malaysian martial art thought to have been derived from the Indonesian martial art of Pentjak Silat in the fifteenth century. Each school of Bersilat has two branches: Silat Pulat, which is a dance-like art used for public display, such at festivals; and Silat Buah, which is the combat version of the art. Bersilat emphasizes leg techniques but other types of empty hand combat are used. It is secretive art that is handed down through families.
BETAWI
Betawi (Batavia)is an area on Western Java settled by Sundanese Sumatrans in the distant past. It is considered a very dangerous place. In addition to identifying the Sumatran origins of this Silat, it connotes the study of the techniques of response to attacks from ambush, fighting multiple opponents- armed as they may come, vicious response to attack, and a preoccupation with personal freedom and responsibility to the community, the Family.
BINOT
Binot is a rare Indian martial art that employ’s wrestling technique. Style in which an unarmed person defends against an armed opponent. Some believe it to be the oldest of this type of combat. It is very difficult to learn and dangerous to practice.
BOXING
Boxing is often called the Western martial art, but it is more accurately identified as a martial sport. It probably originated in ancient Greece or Rome, as there is evidence that the Greek Pankration competitions included a boxing like event. The pugilistic sport then spread to most every Western country, and in the early 20th century it became a popular spectator sport. Boxing techniques have played an important role in the development of modern kickboxing, since they are often judged as being more effective than the hand techniques of the Asian martial arts. The techniques are now being added to the curriculum at many schools that teach eclectic martial arts.
BOJUTSU
Bojutsu is the art of the Bo (long staff). Since a wood stick is less dangerous to practice with than with a steel blade, wood weapons were used in Japanese feudal military arts schools.
BOK PAI KUNG FU
Bok Pai, also known as the White Crane Style, is one of the major styles of Kung Fu. According to legend, a lama priest once witnessed a battle between a crane and an ape where the crane managed to win by using the agility of its long legs, huge wings, and pecking movements. It is one of the more aggressive martial arts. Training is rigorous, involving years of practicing uncomfortable stances, all designed to imitate the fighting positions of the crane. Study of posture, balance and energy circulation are all important. There are many monasteries and martial arts schools as well as a large number of teachers available in Bok Pai.
A Bok Pai master, entering combat, advances very slowly, preferring to meet the attacks of an opponent rather than rushing forward. Attacks can take the form of sweeping arm moves, rounded kicks and continuous turning movements. The form's man attack is the Crane Fist, a beak like formation of thumb and fingertips pointed together, striking iwth a forward-and-down pecking motion.
The philosophy of Bok Pai can be summed up in four words: sim, "to evade", jeet, "to intercept", Chun, "to penetrate," and chon, "to destroy." As part of the training, all initiates are required to fight bouts on the Mui-Fa-Jeong, the "Plum Flower Stumps," which are a series of 36 pillars (like telephone poles) separated from four to eight feet apart and driven into the ground. Combat actually takes place on the tops of the poles
BUHE BARILDAAN WRESTLING
Buryats have its own kind of wrestling - buhe barildaan ("wrestling of strong men"). Several clans have special kinds of martial arts. Most known is hara moriton ("black horsemen"), which include horseback riding, unarmed combat and using different tools (whip, lasso, belt etc). According to legends, this system was founded by legendary heroes - Azhirai Buhe and his assistant Haramtsagai-mergen. They were heads of military group, came to Baical Lake from Mongolia on the black horses and protect local habitants from evil tribes. Similar methods are known from other Siberian national minorities - for example, Tuvinians have kyuresh, karakyuresh, lamakyuresh etc.
BUKTI NEGARA
Literally "evidence of a continent" - The existence of the art is evidence that the greater continent of Serak exists. The mystical style of Pendekar Paul. It came to him, in a flash of enlightenment in a single night, as a full blown system, unlike anything seen before. Major aspects of the art centre on the use of the fighting floor; positioning and angles of incidence, meridians of weakness and of power, the use of levers and fulcrums, mental preparedness-tenacity and ferocity. It is an art of great subtlety and sophistication.
BUL KYO MU SOOL
Bul Kyo Mu Sool are the unique skills developed by Korean Buddhist Monks. In his travels to spread his religion, the Monk Bodhid Dharma recognized that many hours of sitting in quiet meditation created a need for some form of exercise to maintain health. In addition, travelling was a hazard due to highwaymen and robbers. Monasteries the world over are the birthplace of many inventions, and it is widely believed that Bhodhid Dharma developed a series of exercises that form the basis of Bul Kyo Mul Sool. The famous Shaolin Monks are an example of his influence. Meditation, acupressure points, the study of animal fighting techniques, and special "KI" breathing techniques are among some of the influences our art has borrowed from Bul Kyo Mu Sool.
BUNO
Buno is a Tagalong word meaning wrestling it is an empty hand fighting system developed by the indigenous people of the Philippines Islands. There are literally hundreds of styles of Buno practiced throughout the Philippines. However, the Harimaw Buno formerly Harimaw Lumad (King Tiger Wrestling) style was particular to the Manyans, of Mindoro, Island and Infanta, Quezon in Luzoan Philippines. Harimaw Buno was the Preferred name by Gat Puno Abon "Garimot" Baet the founder and Grandmaster of the Harimaw Buno Federation.
Grandmaster Falipe "Garimot" Baet is the person responsible for bringing Harimaw Buno to the Laguna provinces. He studied Buno under his father's tutelage at the age of eight and continued his training in Calpran, Mindoro under two Mangyan Buno masters from 1946 through 1950.
The two masters were members of the Hannunu Mangyan tribe. Their style of Buno was regarded as a jewel of their culture and as such, was forbidden to outsiders. However, Grandmaster Jose "Uti" Baet would pave the way for his generations to come five years prior. Grandmaster Jose "Uti" Baet, father of Felipe, defeated the top two practitioners of Buno, brothers Guimo and Tino Lait, during the Harimaw Buno Competition in Umiray Infanta, Queson before the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in 1940. The superiority of his skill was such that the two brothers were defeated without injury. In their lifetine, it would prove to be their only defeat in over 20 years of active competition. Out of respect, the two brothers agreed to train his son, in secret if necessary.
At the age of 16, Felipe was directed by his father to seek out the two Mangyan brothers. The trip to Calapan, Mindoro would be a long one so Felipe gained the company of his best friend, Reuben "Ginto" Madrinan in his search for the Hannunu Mangyan tribe. His initial encounter with the Hannunu tribe proved to be less than encouraging. His request to study with them was rejected by the "Apo" (head tribesman) because he was an outsider. Fortunately, the lait brothers would come to know of his presence in the village and the identity of his father. Surreptitiously, they arranged for him to stay in the next village and train him as one of their own. Felipe underwent intense training with the two brothers for four years. He worked as a spear-fisherman at night and practiced Lumad (the Hannunu word for Buno) during the day in the hidden valley of the Mindoro Islands.
The training techniques employed were unusual by most standards, and demanding by any. He was made to perform the following tasks regularly until exhausted.
* Mud Training - For balance, mobility and endurance, the student is made to walk through stiff mud while on his knees.
* Water Training - For balance, endurance and perfection of breathing technique, a sack of rocks is tied to the student's body. He is then made to wrestle an in impaired opponent in various levels of water: waist-high to overhead depending on the student's ability.
* Canoe Training - This type of training addressed balance, lower body strength and endurance. Two canoes are brought together in parallel fashion, but not tied of fixed in any way. The student is made to stand in the front, one foot in the prow of each canoe. As the vessels are propelled forward, the student must hold them together. Note: as may be expected, the rower in each boat makes no effort to ease the student's difficulties, often paddling to separate the boats.
* Bamboo Training - This type of training addressed the use of proper stances and balance. Two wetted bamboo poles are straddled across a fast-moving river. The student is made to continuously cross the river on the poles, gripping with his toes, and using the proper footwork. Loss of balance results in a river ride that can easily carry a man more than a mile downstream before he can make shore. He then must return to the poles to try again.
* Tamaraw Training - Methods of off-balancing are emphasized in this type of training. The student is made to wrestle a pygmy carabao (indigenous to Mindoro island only) barehanded. The goal is to take the animal to the ground by any means.
* Log Training - Proper rolling and breathing technique are both emphasized in this drill. The student is presented with a wooden log approximately 6 feet long and 160 pounds in weight. He is then made to roll, holding the log pressed to his body, in water approximately knee-high in depth.
* Tree Climbing - The student is taught to climb trees very quickly and jump from heights greater than 12 feet. His ability to perform this exercise is continually challenged.
* Arnis (Weapons) Training - The student is made to learn, practice, and apply in combat the Doce Pares style of Arnis de Mano.
* Farming - Although unexpectedly common, a good days' work on the farm further tests the student's endurance and patience. It also re-enforces established footwork patterns which are just as useful on the farm as they are in combat.
The student's skills were periodically tested in a ritual manner. This usually involved the hunting of wild boar, deer or snakes without weapons. Performance during these tests was used to gauge the student’s level of achievement.
Buno, as a matter of course, is an empty hand practice. Although the knife, spear and bow and arrow play significant roles in hunting, the only true weapon of the Buno practitioner is the lubid. The lubid is a course twisted length of rope approximately four feet long, worn around the waist. Prior to his trip to Mindod, Felipe was educated in the use of his unique weapon by his father. The training focused on disarming, subduing, and controlling humans. His time in Mindoro focused on the hunting of animals. An animal was often brought down, restrained and kept barely alive using the lubid. Hunting forays often meant several days walk into the forests. From a practical point of view, carrying a live animal back to the village was easier than carrying a dead one and the freshness of the meat was preserved. Training primarily involved tying different kinds of knots, quickly and under duress.
With his training complete, Felipe became an undefeated Buno stylist in Calapan, Mindoro. His prowess as a master stick fighter was also established as he went undefeated in stick fighting competitions in the area. In 1950, he left Mindoro to return to his hometown in Paete, Laguna. This was, however, after overcoming a very strange occurrence during his stay with the Hannunu Tribe.
During his second year of training, it happened that a tribe woman became enamoured of Felipe. In order to assure his presence, she cast a spell to prevent him from ever leaving. as time passed, Felipe confided in his friend Ginto that his eyes seemed to perceive an impenetrable barrier surrounding the area perimeter. Although aware of the magic at work, he could do nothing to counter it. When the time came to leave, he would require his friend's assistance to dominate the mental apparitions. Ginto would eventually lead Felipe away with a blindfold securely fastened over his eyes under the cover of the night.
Upon his return to Paete, he encountered many challengers eager to see just how good the son of Grand Master Uti Baet had become. He easily defended all opponents. In a short time, he became the local champion of track and field events, Bunong Braso (arm wrestling) and Pinal Braso (finger wrestling). He would later join the Paete Arnis Club, a group of veteran stick fighters, and organize Arnis De Mano tournaments at every town fiesta. He remained an active stick fighter, maintaining an undefeated status in Laguna, Batanggas, Cavite, Rizal, Quezon, Bataan, and Mindoro. He was known throughout the provinces as "Hari ng Pitong Kabundukan" (King of the Seven Mountains).
In 1972, he began to instruct the Baranggay Police (village police) in stick fighting and Harimaw Buno techniques. He would later incorporate Buno as a part of Arnis De Mano hand applications. He believed that in order for Eskrima fighters to be complete, the theories and techniques of grappling, empty-hand and weapons combat must be mastered.
It should be noted, that for the most part, Felipe kept the core elements of his buno training a family secret thereby holding important elements of the system in reserve for his family's own protection.
BURMESE BOXING
Burmese boxing, head butts and throws were allowed but kicks to the groin and hair pulling were not
BUSHIDOKAN
Bushidokan is an eclectic art of recent origin, founded by Jim Harrison in the late 1960's. Harrison has studied Judo and Shorin-Ryu karate extensively. The Bushidokan Art is a combination of Okinawan karate, judo, and some JJ, with the primary emphasis on karate. The karate portion of Bushidokan's training is quite similar to Shotokan - definitely Okinawan in ancestry. Bushidokan is best suited for those interested in effective street self-defence, tournament fighting, and fairly rugged physical conditioning.
Beginning students learn seven basic stances, seven basic strikes (six linear, one circular), seven basic blocks (one of which is circular) and seven basic kicks. Many of the self-defences taught incorporate techniques not included in the "basic" seven, thus exposing the student to a greater variety. These include a number of throws, a few soft (redirecting) blocks, and several wrist/hand locks. Two basic self-defence strategies - a direct counter and an indirect counter - are taught for each type of attack. Sparring is introduced as student’s progress, but is always optional, and ranges from "no contact" to "full contact".
BUTORYU
Those viewing the Butoryu art for the first time are often heard to describe it as "that Chinese looking Karate style". Others say that it looks "kind of like Gongfu" (Guoshu). The truth is that is what it is. China the mother art, Okinawa the father... a marriage of Yin & Yang. The style taught at the Butokan is known formally as Butoryu Tsuruken - "Warrior/Scholar Style Crane-Fist". Te principles of Butoryu Tsuruken or Crane-Fist Boxing, forms the core of our study. Principles are the essence upon which the art is built and represent the essence of the Butoryu Tsuruken method.

Technique oriented martial arts are limited. However, Butoryu Crane-Fist technique embodies the concepts and principles at the heart of the art (Photo 1, left: Ron Goninan Shinshii demonstrating the "Tile Palm" of the Kokuokakuken Kata inside the Butokan Honbu).
Based primarily upon the teachings of Yabiku Takaya Sensei, Sifu Yap Leong, Feeding Crane-Fist Adviser Shifu Paul Wollos and Ron Goninan's own personal experiences, Butoryu Tsuruken strives for the essence of Tsuruken (Crane Boxing) via the paragon that is kata.

C - Styles

CAESTUS
Roman boxing
CANNE DE COMBAT
French, single handed. As traditional associated disciplines the use of baton, crooked cane, knive and whip are studied. The original length of the canne was given by the distance between the spine and the tip of the middle finger of the weapon arm, fully stretched sideways.
CAPOEIRA
Intro:
This is a very acrobatic, very energetic Brazilian martial art.
Origin: Angola and Brazil
History:
Capoeira is the common name for the group of African martial arts that came out of West Africa and were modified and mixed in Brazil. These original styles included weapons, grappling and striking as well as animal forms that became incorperated into different components and sub styles of the popular art.
In the 1500's, black slaves from Africa were used in Brazil to build he empire of the sugar cane. These slaves lacked a form of self-defence, and in a way quite parallel to Karate, they developed a martial-art with the things they had in hand, namely, sugar cane knives and 3/4 staffs. Being slaves, they had to disguise the study of the art, and that is how the dance came into it. Their hands were manacled for most of the time, so the art uses a lot of standing on the hands feet up, and some moves are directed to fighting mounted enemies.
In the early 1800's Capoeira was outlawed in Brazil, especially in its "home state" of Bahia, where gangs utilized it as their personal fighting style against police. Capoeira was born in the "senzalas", the places where the slaves were kept, and developed in the "quilombos", the places where they used to run to when they fled from their enslavers.
Description:
Capoeira consists of a stylised dance, practiced in a circle called the "roda", with sound background provided by percussion instruments, like the "agogo", the "atabaqui", etc. The "Berimbau" is a non-percussion instrument that is always used on rodas.
Capoeira relies heavily on kicks and leg sweeps for attacks and dodges for defences. Is not uncommon to not be taught any kind of hand strike of parry, though arm positioning for blocks is taught.
The "ginga", the footwork of Capoeira, consists in changing the basic stance (body facing the adversary, front leg flexed with body weight over it, the other leg stretched back) from the right leg to the left leg again and again.
Capoeira also puts a heavy emphasis on ground fighting, but not grappling and locks. Instead, it uses a ground stance (from the basic stance, you just fall over your leg stretched back, flexing it, and leaving the front leg stretched ahead), from which you make feints, dodges, kicks, leg sweeps, acrobatics, etc. Hand positioning is important but it's used only to block attacks and
ensure balance, though street fighting "capoeiristas" use the hands for punches.
When fighting, it is rare to stop in one stance, and in this case, you just "follow" your opponent with your legs, preventing him from getting close, or preparing a fast acrobatic move to take advantage when he attacks. The rest of the time, you just keep changing stances,
feinting, and doing the equivalent of boxing "jabs".
Training:
After a through warm-up, standing exercises are done, with emphasis on the "ginga", the footwork characteristic of the art, and on the basic kicks: "bencao", a front-stomping kick, "martelo", a roundhouse kick, "chapa", a side-kick, "meia-lua", a low turning kick, "armada", a high turning kick, "queixada", an outside-inside crescent kick. Then walking sequences are done, with the introduction of sommersaults, backflips and headstands, in couples and individual. Some more
technical training follows, with couples beginning a basic and slow "jogo", and then the whole class forms and goes for "roda" game for at least 30 minutes. Capoeira conditions and develops the muscles, especially the abdominal muscles.
Sub-Styles:
Regional: Capoeira in a more artistic, open form, giving more way to athletic prowess and training.
Angola: a more closed, harder style that is closest to the original African systems that came to Brazil.
Iuna: a totally athletic and artistic form of the art, where the couple inside the "roda" play together, as opposed to one against the other.
CATCH - AS - CATCH CAN WRESTLING
In a street fight, no-holds-barred competition, or Catch match, the basic strategy remains the same: to hook (submit) your opponent as quickly as possible while absorbing the least amount of punishment. Catch Wrestling teaches one to control an opponent, concentrating on balance, leverage, and technique to control one's opponent and ultimately hook him.
Old time Hookers (masters of Catch Wrestling) did this as a job. Traditional Hookers would travel across the country accepting challenge matches, and the rules were extremely broad. A Hooker could lose a challenge match by getting thrown, taken down, pinned, or even by not beating his opponent within a certain period of time. The emphasis thus became on control, quickness, and efficiency. Traditional Hookers had to learn to defend takedowns, to defend against throws, and to submit quickly. This became the heart of Catch Wrestling.
To a Hooker, fights should NEVER last for 2-3 hours. Learning to control from the feet to the ground is the key to ending a fight quickly. If you can't control a man, you can't submit him. And if you are finding yourself fighting for a submission for hours on end, you are probably not properly controlling your opponent.
Finally, hooks differ in kind from those taught in jiu-jitsu and judo. "Use your whole body as a weapon, use his whole body as a target" is the motto. A Catch Wrestler should be close to a hook at practically all times, in any position. You can submit a person using your back, knees, head and shins. Hookers employ more crippling holds and fewer slow, gradual pressure holds. As judo and jiu-jitsu are the gentle arts, Catch Wrestling can be viewed as the antithesis. It is not for everybody, but there is no question that it is effective. It is also NOT BETTER THAN JUDO OR JIU-JITSU, just different.
Stated in the simplest terms, Catch Wrestling teaches you how to effectively, efficiently, and quickly control and defeat your opponent. As the name suggests, Catch Wrestling's foundation is in traditional wrestling. Thus, a Catch practitioner must as much learn takedowns, control, and positioning as hooks. To "Use Your Whole Body as a Weapon and His Whole Body as a Target" you must first learn control. Endurance and conditioning training, rooted in the basics of takedowns, defences, and control, are the first concepts drilled and learned.
Striking, gouging and nerve attacks also come right away as part of conditioning. The sooner you start having it done to you, the sooner the body adjusts.
Lastly, hooks are learned. The main distinction between amateur wrestlers and Catch Wrestlers is that there are no illegal holds. There is so much more to hooking than armbars and chokes. A Catch Wrestler should understand the science behind body manipulation. Leg locks, shin locks, hip cranks, forearm locks, bicep compressions, and neck cranks are all incorporated into catch training. It doesn't matter if you are on top, bottom, sideways, or upside down. Once you understand the physiology behind hooks, you can apply them from any position, in a powerful and crippling manner.
In its ultimate form, Catch Wrestling is as much a psychological battle as it is a physical one. You train to bait your opponent and continuously control. You train to hook your opponent from any position. You train to maintain control and dominate from beginning to end.
CELTIC WRESTLING
Celtic wrestling is an ancient European wrestling style. Two competitors shake hands, face each other chest-to-chest, wrap their arms around each other and grasp their hands behind the opponent's back. Without releasing the grip behind the opponent's back, each competitor tries to make his or her opponent touch the ground with any body part other than the feet.
CHANG CHUAN
Chang Chuan is a long fist Chinese boxing style developed by Mater Kuo I around the first century AD. It appears to be the origin of many Wushu arts. It is characterized by strong stances, high kicks, and a variety of hand techniques. Its movements are so graceful that they have been used by the Chinese Opera. It has recently become a popular style in forms competition.
CH'A CH'UAN
Is an ancient Chinese martial art, considered a Northern style. Practitioners contend from long range, darting swiftly to the attack. High, long leaps are important in ch'a ch'uan to cover distances quickly. Not widely practiced in China today, it was developed in the 14th to the 17th centuries by Chinese Moslems of Sinkiang, Chinghai, and Kansu, in the west and south of China, and is primarily still practiced by them.
CHA YON RYU
History:
Cha Yon Ryu ("Natural Way") is an eclectic, fairly new martial art founded in 1968 by Kim Soo of Houston, Texas, who remains Director of the system. Tae Kwon Do contributes kicking techniques, strong stances and direct, linear strikes and blocks, as does Shotokan Karate. With
the study of movements from Okinawa te (Okinawa), the Cha Yon Ryu practitioner starts to add techniques with some angularity to his/her repertoire, and eventually progresses to the fluid, circular movements of Ch'uan Fa Kung Fu. Hapkido is the martial art from which are drawn
defences against chokes, grabs and armed attacks, as well as various throwing and falling techniques. Students strive to fulfill The Dojang Hun (Training Hall Oath): Seek perfection of character, Live the way of truth, Endeavor, Be faithful, Respect your seniors, and Refrain from violent behaviour.
_________________________
A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.

Ken