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#322452 - 02/15/07 12:59 AM some stats and studies
Ed_Morris Offline
Professional Poster

Registered: 11/04/05
Posts: 6772
came across these recently, not sure if it's useful or interesting...but I put them up for you to decide. These are just the abstracts - for the whole article, you may find them at the library or order online.

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No holds barred sport fighting: a 10-year review of mixed martial arts competition

G. Buse
British Journal of Sports Medicine 2006;40:169-172

This study sought to identify the most salient medical issues that may be associated with mixed martial arts competition by determining the types and proportions of match stoppages.

Publicly available video footage of 1284 men competing in 642 consecutive televised matches from November 1993 to November 2003 was reviewed to determine the reasons for which matches were stopped. Matches were sanctioned by either a United States or a Japan based mixed martial arts organization.

Of the 642 matches, 182 (28.3%) were stopped because of head impact, 106 (16.5%) because of musculoskeletal stress, 91 (14.1%) because of neck choke, 83 (12.9%) because of miscellaneous trauma, 173 (27.0%) because of expiration of match time, and seven (1.0%) because of disqualification.

Conclusions. Blunt force to the head resulted in the highest proportion of match stoppages. Further research is warranted to delineate the morbidity associated with participation in mixed martial arts

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Risk of cervical injuries in mixed martial arts

T. Kochhar, D. Back, B. Mann, and J. Skinner
British Journal of Sports Medicine 2005; 39:444-447

Mixed martial arts have rapidly succeeded boxing as the world’s most popular full contact sport, and the incidence of injury is recognized to be high. This study assessed qualitatively and quantitatively the potential risk for participants to sustain cervical spine and associated soft tissue injuries.

Four commonly performed maneuvers with possible risks to the cervical spine were analyzed with respect to their kinematics, and biomechanical models were constructed.

Motion analysis of two maneuvers revealed strong correlations with rear end motor vehicle impact injuries, and kinematics of the remaining two suggested a strong risk of injury. Mathematical models of the biomechanics showed that the forces involved are of the same order as those involved in whiplash injuries and of the same magnitude as compression injuries of the cervical spine.

Conclusions. This study shows that there is a significant risk of whiplash injuries in this sport, and there are no safety regulations to address these concerns.

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How boxers decide to punch a target: emergent behavior in nonlinear dynamical movement systems

R. Hristovski , K. Davids, D. Araújo, and C. Button
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2006) 5 (CSSI), 60 - 73

Previous research has shown how dynamical systems theory provides a relevant framework for investigating decision-making behavior in sport. The aim of this study was to adopt concepts and tools from nonlinear dynamics in examining effects of boxer-target distance and perceived punching efficiency on emergent decision-making during a typical practice task in boxing.

Conclusions. Results revealed the existence of critical values of scaled distances between boxers and targets for first time appearance and disappearance of a diverse range of boxing actions including jabs, hooks, and uppercuts. Reasons for the diversity of actions were twofold: 1) abrupt (qualitative) changes in the number of the possible punches, i.e. motor solutions to the hitting task; and 2), fine modification of the probabilities of selecting specific striking patterns.

Boxers were able to exploit the emerging perception of strikeability, leading to a changing diversity of selected actions and a cascade of abrupt changes in the perceptual-motor work space of the task. Perceived efficiency of a punching action by the participants also changed as a function of the scaled distance to a target and was correlated with the probability of occurrence of specific boxing actions. Accordingly, scaled distance-dependent perceived efficiency seems an important perceptual constraint in the training task of punching a heavy bag in boxers.

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Physiological profile of senior and junior England international amateur boxers

M. Smith
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2006) 5 (CSSI), 74 - 89

Despite worldwide popularity of amateur boxing, research focused on the physiological demands of the sport is limited. The physiological profile of Senior and Junior England international amateur boxers is presented. A gradual (8 to 21 days) and rapid (0 to 7 days) phase of body weight reduction was evident with 2.2 % weight loss occurring over the final 24-hours. An increase in body weight >4% was observed following a recovery period. High urine osmolality values were recorded during training and competition. High post-competition blood lactate values highlighted the need for a well-developed anaerobic capacity and the importance of not entering the ring in a glycogen depleted state. The aerobic challenge of competition was demonstrated by maximum heart rate values being recorded during 'Open' sparring. Mean body fat values of 9-10% were similar to those reported for other weight classified athletes. Normal resting values were reported for hematocrit, haemoglobin, bilirubin, and ferritin. No symptoms associated with asthma or exercise-induced asthma was evident. A well- developed aerobic capacity was reflected in the Senior VO2max. Senior lead hand straight punching force (head 1722 N and body 1682 N) was lower than the straight rear hand (head 2643 N and body 2646 N), lead hook (head 2412 and body 2414 N) and rear hook (head 2588 N and body 2555 N).

Conclusions. It was concluded that amateur boxing performance is dependent on the interplay between anaerobic and aerobic energy systems. Current weight making methods may lead to impaired substrate availability, leading to reduced competitive performance and an increased risk to a boxer’s health.

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A three-dimensional analysis of the center of mass for three different Judo throwing techniques

R. Imamura, A. Hreljac, R. Escamilla, and W. Edwards
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2006) 5 (CSSI), 122 - 131

Four black belt throwers (tori) and one black belt faller (uke) were filmed and analyzed in three-dimensions using two video cameras and motion analysis software. Average linear momentum in the anteroposterior (x), vertical (y), and mediolateral (z) directions and average resultant impulse of uke's center of mass (COM) were investigated for three different throwing techniques; harai-goshi (hip throw), seoi-nage (hand throw), and osoto-gari (leg throw). Each throw was broken down into three main phases; kuzushi (balance breaking), tsukuri (fit-in), and kake (throw).

Conclusions. For the harai-goshi and osoto-gari throws, impulse measurements were the largest within kuzushi and tsukuri phases (where collision between tori and uke predominantly occurs). Both throws indicated an importance for tori to create large momentum prior to contact with uke. The seoi-nage throw demonstrated the lowest impulse and maintained forward momentum on the body of uke throughout the entire throw. The harai-goshi and osoto-gari are considered power throws well-suited for large and strong judo players. The seoi-nage throw is considered more technical and is considered well-suited for shorter players with good agility. A form of resistance by uke was found during the kuzushi phase for all throws. The resistance which can be initiated by tori's push or pull allows for the tsukuri phase to occur properly by freezing uke for a good fit-in. Strategies for initiating an effective resistance include initiating movement of uke so that their COM is shifted to their left (for right handed throw) by incorporating an instantaneous "snap pull" with the pulling hand during kuzushi to create an opposite movement from uke.

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Incidence of injury in professional mixed martial arts competitions

G. Bledsoe, E. Hsu, J. Grabowski, J. Brill, and G. Li
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2006) 5 (CSSI), 136 - 142

Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) competitions were introduced in the United States with the first Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) in 1993. In 2001, Nevada and New Jersey sanctioned MMA events after requiring a series of rule changes. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of injury in professional MMA fighters.

Data from all professional MMA events that took place between September 2001 and December 2004 in the state of Nevada were obtained from the Nevada Athletic Commission. Medical and outcome data from events were analyzed based on a pair-matched case-control design. A total of 171 MMA matches involving 220 different fighters occurred during the study period. There were a total of 96 injuries to 78 fighters.

Conclusions. Of the 171 matches fought, 69 (40.3%) ended with at least one injured fighter. The overall injury rate was 28.6 injuries per 100 fight participations or 12.5 injuries per 100 competitor rounds. Facial laceration was the most common injury accounting for 47.9% of all injuries, followed by hand injury (13.5%), nose injury (10.4%), and eye injury (8.3%). With adjustment for weight and match outcome, older age was associated with significantly increased risk of injury. The most common conclusion to a MMA fight was a technical knockout (TKO) followed by a tap out. The injury rate in MMA competitions is compatible with other combat sports involving striking. The lower knockout rates in MMA compared to boxing may help prevent brain injury in MMA events.

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#322453 - 02/15/07 12:09 PM Re: some stats and studies [Re: Ed_Morris]
MattJ Offline
Free Rhinoplasty!
Prolific

Registered: 11/25/04
Posts: 15634
Loc: York PA. USA
Interesting to see the apparent disparity between these two articles:

Quote:

Motion analysis of two maneuvers revealed strong correlations with rear end motor vehicle impact injuries, and kinematics of the remaining two suggested a strong risk of injury. Mathematical models of the biomechanics showed that the forces involved are of the same order as those involved in whiplash injuries and of the same magnitude as compression injuries of the cervical spine.

Conclusions. This study shows that there is a significant risk of whiplash injuries in this sport, and there are no safety regulations to address these concerns.




And this one -

Quote:

The most common conclusion to a MMA fight was a technical knockout (TKO) followed by a tap out. The injury rate in MMA competitions is compatible with other combat sports involving striking. The lower knockout rates in MMA compared to boxing may help prevent brain injury in MMA events.




So, while MMA is dangerous because of of possible cervical spine damage, it's rate of KO's compared to boxing makes the brain injury amount somewhat lower. Not quite sure of what to make of that.
_________________________
"In case you ever wondered what it's like to be knocked out, it's like waking up from a nightmare only to discover it wasn't a dream." -Forrest Griffin

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#322454 - 02/15/07 12:45 PM Re: some stats and studies [Re: MattJ]
butterfly Offline
Professional Poster

Registered: 08/25/04
Posts: 3012
Loc: Torrance, CA
Easy...don't want to get pile driven into the mat...and don't want to get hit in the head!

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#322455 - 02/15/07 11:15 PM Re: some stats and studies [Re: MattJ]
Umbra_777 Offline
Member

Registered: 07/03/06
Posts: 148
Quote:

Interesting to see the apparent disparity between these two articles:

Quote:

Motion analysis of two maneuvers revealed strong correlations with rear end motor vehicle impact injuries, and kinematics of the remaining two suggested a strong risk of injury. Mathematical models of the biomechanics showed that the forces involved are of the same order as those involved in whiplash injuries and of the same magnitude as compression injuries of the cervical spine.

Conclusions. This study shows that there is a significant risk of whiplash injuries in this sport, and there are no safety regulations to address these concerns.




And this one -

Quote:

The most common conclusion to a MMA fight was a technical knockout (TKO) followed by a tap out. The injury rate in MMA competitions is compatible with other combat sports involving striking. The lower knockout rates in MMA compared to boxing may help prevent brain injury in MMA events.




So, while MMA is dangerous because of of possible cervical spine damage, it's rate of KO's compared to boxing makes the brain injury amount somewhat lower. Not quite sure of what to make of that.




Also notice that the first article says that most matches stop because of head trama, while the last said that most matches stop by tap out. (Although looking at it, I wonder if the last one could have been from the early days of MMA when strikers were still figuring out how to deal with groundfighters?)

-Umbra

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#322456 - 02/16/07 08:56 AM Re: some stats and studies [Re: Ed_Morris]
JohnL Offline
Professional Poster

Registered: 03/24/03
Posts: 4309
Loc: NY, NY, USA
Quote:

Conclusions. Of the 171 matches fought, 69 (40.3%) ended with at least one injured fighter.




Considering the object of the exercise is to cause physical harm to your opponent so he either gives up or can no longer continue, having only 40% sustain what they consider to be an injury is a pretty low figure.
_________________________
John L

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