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#313545 - 01/09/07 07:07 AM A to Z of Martial Arts - A to C
Dobbersky Offline
Peace Works!!!!

Registered: 03/13/06
Posts: 921
Loc: Manchester United Kingdom
A - styles

An Indian martial art that is similar to Japanese Karate.
The World Agni Kempo Organization (WAKO) was founded in 1998 as the leading organization that received from the Great Teachers the Knowledge and a right to develop and partially disclose a system of secret martial art of SHAMBHALA - Agni Kempo, to improve old and to develop new methods and techniques, adapting them as much as possible to extreme life conditions of contemporary man. Teachers of Hierarchy of Light advised to denominate this system on the territory of Russia - Russian Kempo, in Ukraine - Old Russian Kempo. Agni Kempo is translated as Fiery, Lucid or Furious fisticuffs, main aspect of which is self-perfection in mastering the psychical energy.

Agni is a term that means psychical energy. WAKO admits as a member everyone, who decided to follow a way of self-perfection for progress of Love, Good and Justice on the Earth.
Any person (or group of people), irrespective of his nationality, colour of skin or religious convictions, may become a WAKO member, if he supports basic principles of the Organization. The main thing is to have great desire to learn depths and heights of Agni Kempo, to improve himself through this martial art.
Aikido emphasizes evasion and circular/spiral redirection of an attacker's aggressive force into throws, pins, and immobilizations as a primary strategy rather than punches and kicks.
Origin: Japan.
Aikido was founded in 1942 by Morihei Ueshiba (1883-1969). Prior to this time, Ueshiba called his art "aikibudo" or "aikinomichi". In developing aikido, Ueshiba was heavily influenced by Daito Ryu Aikijujitsu, several styles of Japanese fencing (kenjutsu), spear fighting (yarijutsu), and by the so- called "new religion": omotokyo. Largely because of his deep interest in omotokyo, Ueshiba came to see his aikido as rooted less in techniques for achieving physical domination over others than in attempting to cultivate a "spirit of loving protection for all things." The extent to which Ueshiba's religious and philosophical convictions influenced the direction of technical developments and changes within the corpus of aikido techniques is not known, but many aikido practitioners believe that perfect mastery of aikido would allow one to defend against an attacker without causing serious or permanent injury.
The primary strategic foundations of aikido are: (1) moving into a position off the line of attack; (2) seizing control of the attacker's balance by means of leverage and timing; (3) applying a throw, pin, or other sort of immobilization (such as a wrist/arm lock).
Strikes are not altogether absent from the strategic arsenal of the aikidoist, but their use is primarily (though not, perhaps, exclusively) as a means of distraction -- a strike (called "atemi") is delivered in order to provoke a reaction from the aggressor, thereby creating a window of opportunity, facilitating the application of a throw, pin, or other immobilization.
Many aikido schools train (in varying degrees) with weapons. The most commonly used weapons in aikido are the jo (a staff between 4 or 5 feet in length), the bokken (a wooden sword), and the tanto (a knife, usually made of wood, for safety). These weapons are used not only to teach defences against armed attacks, but also to illustrate principles of aikido movement, distancing, and timing.
A competitive variant of aikido (Tomiki aikido) holds structured competitions where opponents attempt to score points by stabbing with a foam-rubber knife, or by executing aikido techniques in response to attacks with the knife. Most variants of aikido, however, hold no competitions, matches, or sparring. Instead, techniques are practiced in cooperation with a partner who steadily increases the speed, power, and variety of attacks in accordance with the abilities of the participants. Participants take turns being attacker and defender, usually performing pre-arranged attacks and defences at the lower levels, gradually working up to full-speed freestyle attacks and defences.
There are several major variants of aikido. The root variant is the "aikikai", founded by Morihei Ueshiba, and now headed by the founder's son, Kisshomaru Ueshiba. Several organizations in the United States are affiliated with the aikikai, including the United States Aikido Federation, the Aikido Association of America, and Aikido Schools of Ueshiba.
Other major variants include:
* the "ki society", founded by Koichi Tohei, * yoshinkan aikido, founded by Gozo Shioda, * the kokikai organization, headed by Shuji Maruyama, * "Tomiki aikido" named after its founder, Kenji Tomiki.
Aiki-JUTSU Ancient system of combat based on jujutsu; founded by Shinra Saburo Yoshimitsu during the Kamakura period (1185-1336) in Japan. Also known as aiki-jutjutsu, it is the art from which aikido developed.
Sometime during the 13th century, a school existed to the north of Mt. Fuji that specialized in the teaching of aiki-jutsu. It was kept secret except to a few disciples, for the most part Japanese nobles of ancient lineage. This art had originated from keniutsu, and is said to have gradually become a method of combat superior to jujutsu.
The term Aiki, like ju, indicates a principle, a way of using the body as a weapon of combat. The method of Apiki is to use the coordinated power of kl in harmony with the circumstances of combat; by blending one's strategy with an opponent's, to attain full control over him and over the encounter.
In the late 1960's Jim Harrison founded the first Bushidokan School in Kansas City, Kansas. Harrison had studied judo and was top in his league. During this time he had also studied Okinawan Shorin-Ryu Karate and was top at this style as well.
Bushidokan is a combination of Judo, Okinawan Karate and JuJitsu, but it emphasizes a karate, which resembles Shotokan. Bushidokan trains students in effective street self-defence. Physical conditioning is very important and includes leg stretching and abdominal conditioning. Tournament fighting is also a large of part of Bushidokan training.
Beginning students learn seven basic stances, seven basic strikes (six linear and one circular), seven basic blocks (one of which is circular) and seven basic kicks. They also learn self-defence techniques that are not included in the "basic" seven. These techniques include a number of throws, a few soft (redirecting) blocks, and several wrist and hand locks. Two basic self-defence strategies, a direct counter and an indirect counter, are taught for each type of attack. Students also learn different sparring techniques, which they can use either in no contact or full contact sparring.
Bushidokan has only two "official" katas, but students are encouraged to learn other Shotokan katas as well.
Bushidokan is an external Martial Art with only mild references to the internal arts. At the end of the Taiso, which begins each class, Mizu No Kokoro ("mind like water"), is performed.
American Freestyle Kick Boxing means, The Boundless System of Fighting.
Coach Jason Porter founded the style in 1995. The first school opened in Endicott, NY in 1998. American Freestyle Kick Boxing is an eclectic, mixed martial art blending the hard and soft aspects from various martial styles that Coach Porter has trained in over the years. Being a student in the martial arts since 1980, Coach Porter has been fortunate enough to train in, and understand, numerous martial styles, and continues to do so today.

American Freestyle Kick Boxing is a boundless system, meaning that it is not limited by style or technique. It is believed that every style has something beneficial and practical to offer, whether it is in terms of technique, training, or philosophy. This system's philosophy is very similar to that of Jeet Kune Do and the late Bruce Lee's philosophy of No Way is the Way. An individual cannot depend on one non-eclectic system as containing everything they need to defend themselves in every situation. Understanding of many styles and ranges is necessary to adequately defend oneself.
It is also believed that every action provokes a typical reaction and it is the student's goal to understand these reactions and how to counter them. The opponents attack and the students flow reactions are repeatedly analysed and trained. However, once a student partakes in reality training and mock combat situations they must rely on trained reaction and learn to naturally flow with their opponent. To teach a student a set way to deal with a particular response is foolish, it is better to teach them to analyse the response in training and then have them flow using the tools they feel most comfortable with. To send an individual out onto the street with a set way to deal with a particular response will only get them hurt. When the unfortunate time comes to defend oneself their adrenaline is racing and it is to hard, if not impossible, to remember exactly, step for step, how to respond to an opponents attack. Many styles teach this approach and it is foolish. The American Freestyle Kick Boxing student is trained to flow with the opponents attack, this way they will be better equipped to deal with the situation and will more than likely come out of the confrontation with little or no personal injury.
The system also believes that people must be well versed in all ranges of self-protection in order to adequately defend themselves in any situation. This is similar in philosophy to No Way is the Way. Learning to defend yourself in just kicking range or punching range or any one range is foolish. No matter how well trained you are in that one range a confrontation can quickly and easily take you out the range your familiar with, then what, your in trouble. You have to be able to effectively protect yourself in all ranges of combat. This will not only make you more effective in defending yourself but will also confuse your attacker when you can so easily flow in and out of ranges.
It is also understood that we are all individuals and because of this everybody will have a particular style of defending themselves. It is believed that everyone is a "toolbox" and through training in American Freestyle Kick Boxing they are given various tools, which tools they use to defend themselves is entirely up to them. The system was designed knowing that everyone is different in body structure and athletic ability. Some people are varying quick, some are rooted, and some are aggressive. Likewise some are big, some small, some tall, and some short. For instance, a 20-year-old weighing 125 pounds will have a different means of defending themselves than a 20 year old weighing 250 pounds. Regardless of makeup, students are taught to fight within their means. They will learn movements and techniques both inside and outside of their makeup but it is up to them whether or not they feel it is one of their tools. Students will progress and become very effective within their style and athleticism. The system will teach them to be very effective using their tools and their style of self-defence whatever it happens to be.
The system does not promote fighting but it is believed that if one must defend themselves they should be able to do so very effectively, regardless of the situation.
American Freestyle Kick Boxing is an external, hard and soft style that incorporates both linear and circular techniques. In addition, much emphasis is placed on learning to zone on your opponent and learning to flow with whatever your opponent comes at you with. Stopping with one counter hit is not an option, students must learn to aggressively flow until the situation is dissolved and they no longer feel threatened.
The beginning student will focus primarily on the movements and techniques of such hard arts as Western Boxing, Thai Boxing, and Oyama Karate. Experienced students will add more movements and techniques from other various hard arts such as, Kali, Wing Chun, Savate, Penchak Silat and Folkstyle Wrestling. Experienced students will also become more effective using movements from such soft arts as Judo, Aikijutsu, and,Greco-RomanWrestling.
American Freestyle Kick Boxing teaches students how to defend themselves in six ranges of self-defence. These include Kicking, Punching, Trapping, Standing Grappling, Split, and Ground Grappling ranges. Beginning students focus mainly on the Kicking and Punching Ranges and as they progress the other ranges are incorporated. Regardless of experience, all students get some exposure to the various styles and ranges.
This system combines punching techniques with kicking, empty hand striking, trapping, joint manipulation, chokes, sweeps, throwing, pressure points, manoeuvrability, and positioning. It contains both outfighting and infighting techniques with the goal in most situations being to get inside for close-in striking, locking, and throwing. Students learn to realize that in most situations in order to throw or lock an opponent it is best to first "soften" them up with striking. This is why so much emphasis is put on the striking ranges early on in the students training. Without striking the other aspects are much harder. Joint manipulation and throws are considered ways to finish off the situation if there is an opportunity to do so. Nothing in this system is forced. The student learns to flow with what is offered and take only what they can easily and fluidly get. Don't resist the flow and don't force techniques or movements.
The system stresses following-up with techniques based on an opponent's reaction and not stopping with one hit. Again, students learn to understand how an opponent will typically respond to a specific technique and how they can best flow off of that response into a finish. Students learn to use the opponent's attacks and openings against themselves. Students are also taught to use the entire body when performing a movement or technique in order to provide the most power and leverage into their technique while maintaining control of their own body. Emphasis is put on fluidity, speed, balance, strength, endurance, flexibility, accuracy, and assertiveness.
There is a coloured belt system with a Black Belt typically taking from four to five years. Students are tested for belts with both a written test and a physical test. The written tests are designed to test the student's knowledge of the techniques they have learned. Knowing how to physically do something is not enough students must be able to explain how to perform the technique and why it is performed in a particular way. The physical test is not only testing your ability to perform various techniques but also your ability to spar and your mental toughness. Students do gain peer respect upon completion of testing and as one progresses through the ranks they also progress through a series of titles, titles they have earned through hard work and dedication. In addition to earning more respect from their fellow students, they also are given added responsibility. The titles are as follows: Assistant Instructor, Instructor, Coach, and Professor. Professor takes years to attain, even the founder of the style doesn't feel he is worthy of the Professor title.
American Freestyle Kick Boxing is a mixed martial art designed to deal with today's streets. It is believed that the classical or traditional martial arts are outdated for today's streets. This system is both practical and reality based. The style does not incorporate kata, a.k.a. forms, into the curriculum. Instead of spending time on forms this time is used for bag or pad work, partner drills, or sparring. Because the system is based on practicality an emphasis is put on sparring, which varies in contact depending on the student's ability level. As the student advances they begin to incorporate grappling into their sparring and eventually get to the point where they can effectively defend themselves against multiple attackers. Advanced students also begin dealing with mock combat situations. They learn to analyse various situations and how best to defend themselves in these situations.
Exercise and callisthenics are part of the class structure to insure that the student will be physically capable of defending themselves outside of the school. You must be in better physical and mental shape than the attacker on the street. Through the incorporation of pad work, bag work, and partner drills students do become more physically and mentally fit. Students increase flexibility, endurance, cardio-vascular, and overall health. Advanced classes also focus on standing and ground grappling drills, split range drills, multiple attacker drills and mock combat situations.
American Vadha Kempo Karate is a "hybrid" system deriving from the traditional or "mother" art of Vadha. Vadha finds its origins in the ancient Himalayas (present day Tibet), over 3,000 years ago. According to one theory of the origin of the martial arts, a form of this ancient style known a Vajramusti was the predecessor to a majority of the martial arts practiced today. Vadha is a system that uses circular principles to redirect an opponent’s attack. These circular techniques, sometimes called "arcs", allow a student to yield to an opponent's force, ultimately causing that opponent to become unbalanced and vulnerable to multiple counters.
The founder of American Vadha Kempo, Professor and Grand Master John Salvaggio, revolutionized traditional Vadha much in the same way Bruce Lee did Wing Chun or Ed Parker did Chinese Kempo. Professor Salvaggio holds Black Belt rank in JuJitsu and Tae Kwon Do; he also has substantial experience in various forms of Kung Fu, Shotokan, Judo, Aikido, Go Ju, Tai Chi and a form of Navy Seal training known as Bukito. Advancing Vadha in many ways, Professor Salvaggio incorporated the term "Kempo" (a term which refers to the blend of hard and soft techniques) into the name of his art to signify the distinction from the traditional form. In blending the most effective aspects of these great art forms, American Vadha Kempo was born
Unarmed fighting method, known and used on a wide scale in Amsterdam up to the early 20th century.
Using the basic principles of the way an animal defends itself for self-defence. Here is a partial list of some animal styles, and their technique. Some animals are styles (sub-sets of a system), and others are complete systems. And some animals have different personalities (sub-sets of the style).
* Bear - Mauling grappling style, powerful and overpowering.
* Boar - Rushing and butting, using elbows and knees.
* Bull - Charging and tackling.
* Cobra - Striking vital point, usually upper body.
* Crane - Grace & Balance. The crane is a graceful beautiful bird, whose beauty makes it look helpless. It uses its balance and grace (fluidity) against the opponent. It is good at out-fighting (fighting from a distance), not letting the opponent get too close, but using accuracy to hit with poison hand techniques.
* Deer - Fleet and Agile.
* Dragon - Rides the wind. The dragon flies, swoops, leaps, slashes; known for twirling & spinning motions, uses the momentum and whipping motion of the spin against the opponent. It uses movements and strikes from many other animals, and is difficult to predict.
* Eagle - A style utilizes the "Eagle Claw", a unique attack, usually to soft targets (eyes, throat, groin).
* Eagle Claw (C) - (This is a system of martial arts) this system is similar to jujitsu, trapping incoming strikes and taking down, and locking up the opponent. This is a long fist style (out-fighting); most strikes are aimed at pressure points.
* Leopard - Speed & Power. The leopard is quick and leaping; it likes to lunge in with attacks, and then get clear before the retaliation. It has a lot of in-out attacks using the quick body momentum to add power.
o Leopard (SNOW) - this is a variant of the leopard. The snow leopard walks on snow all day, so its paws are frozen (and more frail). So the snow leopard likes to lunge in like the leopard, but it uses its forearms, elbows & knees to strike (to protect its paws).
* Monkey Kung Fu (a.k.a Tai-Sing Pek Kwar or Ta Sheng Ch'uan) (Tai Sing) - Agile & Tricky. An awkward looking animal at best. It confuses the opponent, using movements that don't look feasible (and therefore weren't planned for) and very low stances. It can put on a showy display to confuse you and then hit you with something simple (or visa-versa). It will roll to absorb a hit or to get inside your guard. It is deceptive and dangerous. There are 5 sub-styles of Monkey Kung Fu, these are:
o Drunken Monkey - See Monkey, but add more deceptive movements, that give the practitioner the appearance of being intoxicated. It is the most difficult of the monkey styles to master.
o Lost Monkey - See Monkey, but add constant movement (changing footwork and direction constantly).
o Standing Monkey - See Monkey, but use more outfighting , more conventional stances , and less rolling (better for taller people).
o Stone Monkey - See Monkey , but add that this practitioner will absorb strikes, and exchange them.
o Wooden Monkey - See Monkey , but add this is the most aggressive of the monkey styles , it will literally jump on an opponent to get at him.
* Panther - Circling, lunging and ripping.
* Praying Mantis (C) (Tong Lun) ; A system that likes to trap oncoming strikes while simultaneously striking with the other hand / foot. And then utilizing many fast-handed strikes. A large person in this style is not afraid to use his body (butting , hipping , etc.) while speed will work for the smaller person.
o Eight Steps Praying Mantis ; Utilizes footwork for more in-fighting.
o Northern Praying Mantis ; Utilizes more kicks, more out-fighting.
o Seven Star Praying Mantis ; Translates as "always moving & changing your direction, in order to break down your opponent's guard."
* Praying Mantis (Southern) (C) This system is unrelated to praying mantis, and bears no resemblance to the insect. This is an in-fighting, short hand system, which utilizes quick aggressive attacks. This style has no real blocks, it avoids(or absorbs) the first punch and immediately counter attacks with a machine gun barrage of tight punches, and low kicks (often simultaneous). no changing of footwork, no blocking (too slow), just an all out blitz. They are known for their 1 inch punch, phoenix and palm strikes.
* Python - Grappling, crushing. Utilizes locks and holds with chokes.
* Scorpion - Grabs at pressure point or soft targets.
* Snake - Supple & Rhythmic endurance. The snake is fluent and supple, it will wrap up your limbs, destroy your balance, and use poison hand techniques. It likes to get in close and use grappling / throwing while striking many times in the process.
* Tiger - Strength & Tenacity. The tiger is good at in-fighting (fighting in close), it likes to maul the opponent, overpower him. The tiger is a strong style (good for stockier people, to use their strength). It throws an opponent one direction, and then uses the opponent's momentum against him.
* Viper - Strikes at vital point, usually lower body.
* White Crane (C) This is a defensive system utilizing long powerful high kicks as well as long arm attacks. There are four basic fist attacks taught (Chuin - straight punch , Pow - uppercut , Kup - circular overhead punch , Chow - roundhouse punch). This system uses the pivot of the whole body to put force behind its strike / kick, all of which are delivered from long range. A lot of quick ever-changing footwork.
This is one of the aspects of the Indian martial art of Kalarippayat. It involves combat training in weapons like the dagger, sword and shield, spear, mace, and a long flexible sword. Ankathari refers to metal weapons combat. The final stage begins with the mastery of the kattaram or short dagger used in close combat. The weapons used are the urumi or a paper thin sword as well as mace and spear which demand meticulous training because they can hurt the untrained user.
This is a Tibetan Buddhist martial art that emphasizes Meditation above all else. Students learn combat strictly from a defence point of view, since they are not supposed to be aggressive toward any creature. Patience, silence and concentration are considered the hallmarks of any advanced student of An Yin Kung Fu. Any student who as learned this style of combat has already taken a vow of silence for a year. During this year the student dose not speak, read, or receive any form of entertainment, they did this to the point where all they did all day was stare at a blank wall.
Ashihara Karate is named after Kancho Hideyuki Ashihara, a man who has devoted himself to the pursuit of the most rational, logical karate techniques.
The quintessence of Ashihara Karate lies in its innate rationality. It embraces a method, which is probably the most scientifically logical. As such, Ashihara Karate is the most vital and practical in real-fight situations. Ashihara Karate can be described as moving in circles. The symbol illustrates the principles of the most efficient movements of the human body. The human body has a natural inclination to move in circles and in three dimensions, this transposes to the movement of a sphere.
Circular movements mean that, rather than meeting an opponent head-on, you move around him, staying at his side or back, deflecting attacks and making yourself a difficult target.

Learning the techniques and forms of this "risk free" karate is pure pleasure. Punch without being punched! Fell your opponent without going down yourself! In striving to achieve the maximum performance of the human body, the chances of being injured are reduced and the probability of victory correspondingly increases. This is the philosophy of Ashihara Fighting Karate.
Hideyuki Ashihara (Ashiwara), the founder of Ashihara Fighting Karate, was born on December 5, 1944, in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. He opened his first karate school in 1965 and since then, he has devoted himself to the pursuit of the most rational, logical karate techniques. He passed away in 1995.

The ability of Kancho Hideyuki Ashihara in avoiding an attack by moving to the opponents back or blind side made him one of the most sought after teachers. This combination of defence and offence into one he later dubbed Sabaki. In 1980, he founded the New International Karate Organisation - Ashihara School. This school, at the time, grew into one of Japan's largest with member dojo's spread across the world. His karate has been acclaimed as the most practical.
Atemi was developed in Asia thousands of years ago. In China it became known as dim mak, (death touch) while the Japanese, called it Atemi; a system of strikes and painful joint holds aimed at one of the central nervous system's 365 "pressure points." Paradoxically many of these points are also used in the healing art of acupuncture, which began its development at about the same time.
For many years it remained exclusively in China but as Chinese and Japanese cultures intermingled, the art migrated to Japan. The early masters spent many hours researching human anatomy in their quest for atemi perfection. They toiled over anatomical charts and experimented on prisoners of war and criminals. They immersed themselves totally in this learning, committing to memory their secret knowledge, refining it as they progressed and keeping the secrets of Atemi within the confines of their immediate families or clans.
During the 15th century, the samurai warriors began to assimilate Atemi strikes into their systems of battlefield unarmed combat - the martial arts. Atemi strikes gave them several advantages: Atemi strikes require no flamboyant stances, no flashy movement, they are direct and decisive. The samurai could employ a fatal blow quickly to end a life threatening confrontation or a use a quick disabling strike that would render the opponent helpless but alive for interrogation. - minimum power, little effort and maximum effect.

B - Styles

Backhold Wrestling can be seen all over Scotland and the north of England from May to October, at Highland and Border Games. The rules are simple, once the closed hold with the right hand under the opponent's left is taken, the referee shouts "hold" or "wrestle" to commence the bout. The first wrestler to touch the ground or break their hold loses.
The sport is thought to be one of the earliest and most basic martial arts and is depicted on crosses and standing stones dating from the 7th and 8th centuries.
Variations of Backhold exist in at least ten other European countries, including Iceland, Albania and Sardinia. Today the sport is organised into District, National and European Championships. The English Cumberland & Westmorland Wrestling Association has since 1900 insisted that their competitions, open to any wrestler, are the World Championships.
On taking hold the wrestler stand up chest to chest, each placing their chin on their opponent's right shoulder and grasping them around the body, each placing their left arm above the right arm of their opponent.
When both wrestlers have got hold, the referee calls "hold" and the wrestlers. With the exemption of kicking, they are allowed to use every legitimate means to throw the other. If either party breaks their hold, they shall be declared the loser, if the other retains their grip both fall to the ground, the first person down loses.
Odd style where a partner guides from behind person and attacks with arms, hands, elbows
A combination of two of China's most renowned martial arts styles: Choy-Li-Fut and northern Shaolin. Bak-sing was founded by Tam-Sam during the Ch'ing dynasty. Tam-Sam had learned the Hung-Sing style of Choy-Li-Fut. Hung-Sing had been a student of the founder of the style, Chan Heung, who had combined the three family systems of Chou, Li, and Fut into the Choy-Li-Fut system.
Master Ku, a kung-fu practitioner famous for his remarkable "iron palm" was challenged by Tam-Sam to fight. Ku accepted, but neither fighter could best the other. They became friends, and Tam-Sam merged his Choy-Li-Fut style with Ku's Shao-lin, christening it the bak-sing Choy-Li-Fut system.
Bak-sing places heavy emphasis on sparring, kicking and long arm movements. A wide horse stance is most often used and force is believed to come mostly from the waist and shoulders. Many techniques involve simultaneous blocking and punching, or blocking and kicking. Bak-sing techniques are graceful and the fluidity of the supple long-arm movements, combined with the speed and dexterity of the quick, short-hand techniques, give this style a very artistic appearance.
Bakbakan Another "Martial Art" that was inspired by the need for a practical, effective combat style in the Philippines. In reality, there is nothing new about it; Bakbakan (Which means to fight or to maul), is nothing more than glorified brawling. However, a no-nonsense practitioner of this style will give even black belters nightmares. In a sense, it is much like Sarian.
Grandmaster Antonio "Tatang" Ilustrisimo is the revered head of the Kali Ilustrisimo system. It is this system that is the basis of Bakbakan's Kali system now referred to as Bakbakan Kali Ilustrisimo. This name change does not purport to take credit away from "Tatang" Ilustrisimo but to identify the system developed and structured by Bakbakan based on Grandmaster Ilustrisimo's concepts and strategy. It is these training methods and structure that differentiate the Bakbakan Kali Ilustrisimo practitioner from any other Kali Ilustrisimo claimant. The effectiveness of Bakbakan's system of training has been proven many times in many competitions both local and international.
Tulisan Knife-Fighting System, an off-shoot of the Bakbakan Kali Ilustrisimo system, is another of the arts practiced within Bakbakan that is fast growing in popularity. Based more on basic knife-fighting techniques and constant sparring rather than memorized pre-planned drills, Tulisan has proven its mettle in many sparring matches against knife-fighters from other systems.
Recognizing the need for ambidexterity and fluidity in the mastery of weapons, Bakbakan's research into the Philippine martial arts found its answer in the ancient system of Sinawali - a fighting style popular in the Central Luzon plains. Although not exclusively a double weapon system, Sinawali emphasizes double weapons training for obvious advantageous reasons.
Bakbakan's Sinawali Fighting System is a major stepping stone into the realm of Espada y Daga (Sword and Dagger). Once familiarity and ambidexterity has been achieved, it is a simple progression to switch from equal length weapons to short and long armaments. Research and development of Bakbakan's Sinawali system is credited to Rey Galang, with contributions from Antonio Diego and the late Edgar G. Sulite.
First, balisong is presented as a Filipino knife in most of the book on the subject. Balisong belongs to the practise of Filipino Martial Arts (FMA). That's true that the word & the culture of balisong have origins in Batangas, Philippines islands. Many legends exist about the fabulous use of balisong by Filipino warriors. One of them would have killed 29 opponents with his balisong (this legend is sometimes told to justify the balisong nickname "veintinueve"). But it is not sure that the concept of the balisong (a blade and two mobile half-handles) comes from the Philippines.
The oldest "balisong concept" knife I know is the Pied-Du-Roy, which has been dated before 1791. This knife is French, and can be seen in the Musée de la Coutellerie, in Thiers (centre of France -- with Laguiole, the most famous French "city of knives").
Collectors such as Chuck Gollnick managed to find "balisong concept" knives from European countries and estimated as made during the XIXth century.
In the Philippines, I have not heard of so old balisong. I may be wrong.
I hope that balisong lovers will manage to find older roots to understand the path of the "balisong concept" idea, from its birth to Batangas.
Bandesh is an Indian martial art. In keeping with the Hindu belief in the sanctity of human life, it practices using weapons without killing. In Bandesh competition, the winner is the one who takes the weapon from the other.
Bando is a martial art that comes from the Southeast Asian country of Myanmar (formerly Burma). It is also known as Thaing and may contain a subset of weapons skills called Banshei. Because of Myanmar's geographical proximity to Thailand, much of Bando's emptyhand techniques resemble those of Muay Thai kickboxing. The art was also influenced by fighting arts imported from nearby China. Bando emphasizes the use of knives but it uses foot and hand strikes, throws and joint locks, along with numerous other weapon techniques.
A Burmese art, influenced by both Chinese and Indian Martial Arts. Banshay embraces the use of sword, spear and staff.
A exceedingly rare style from Northern Africa, Baraqah is an Islamic discipline, derived largely from Sufi, one of the more mystical branches of the Moslem faith. It is not so much a fighting style as an expression of Islamic sacred science, designed to cultivate physical health and grace. As such, it is first and foremost a path to enlightenment; as with Tai Chi, the combative abilities it provides are secondary, though still quite effective in the hands of a master.
Spanish, name for the knife-fighting method of the gypsies, using 'la navajo' (folding knive), 'el cuchillo' (knive) and 'la tijera' (chisel ?). A Spanish book on this method was published in 1849.
Cutting sword technique. A rapid version of iaido or iaijutsu, the art of quick draw and cut with a sword. The art was founded by Sekiguichi Yahoumen Uji Nari in 1550 A.D. The art existed in every major castle in Japan. During the Satsuma/Meiji government battle, most of the castle Sekiguichi Shihan Dai sided with the Satsuma, except for the Higo Castle Shihan Dai. When the Satsuma lost, the Meiji government banned the public teaching of SGR Batto Jutsu everywhere but at the Higo Castle area
A personal protection art that emphasizes practicality, it is updated and refined at every opportunity. It has no 'sparring' applications and the principles can be very simple. Style is efficient, deadly and straight to the point. It's not intended for sport or playing around.
Most Asians (and, partially, Caucasian) kinds of wrestling are "belt wrestling" (i.e. wrestling with catching the belt) in Moslem variant. Static catching by two hands or by one only (in this case another hand is free for catching above the belt), lifting and throwing... There are no ground fighting. Competitions took place on special yard - "maidan".
MEDAN Style of benilat; weapons are used in mass fighting.
SILAT BUAH Secondary form of Malaysian benilat, used in actual combat. Generally practiced in semi-seclusion, its moves are passed from master to disciple under a vow of secrecy, reminiscent of Chinese kung-fu. Various forms of Silat buah can be found throughout the narrow peninsula of Malaysia, but the most popular forms are fist and finger attacking, grappling and gripping, and a spectacular style with high leaps and flying kicks.
TERELAK Style of benilat; breathing is stressed and great strength is required.
Bersilat "to do fighting" is a Malaysian martial art thought to have been derived from the Indonesian martial art of Pentjak Silat in the fifteenth century. Each school of Bersilat has two branches: Silat Pulat, which is a dance-like art used for public display, such at festivals; and Silat Buah, which is the combat version of the art. Bersilat emphasizes leg techniques but other types of empty hand combat are used. It is secretive art that is handed down through families.
Betawi (Batavia)is an area on Western Java settled by Sundanese Sumatrans in the distant past. It is considered a very dangerous place. In addition to identifying the Sumatran origins of this Silat, it connotes the study of the techniques of response to attacks from ambush, fighting multiple opponents- armed as they may come, vicious response to attack, and a preoccupation with personal freedom and responsibility to the community, the Family.
Binot is a rare Indian martial art that employ’s wrestling technique. Style in which an unarmed person defends against an armed opponent. Some believe it to be the oldest of this type of combat. It is very difficult to learn and dangerous to practice.
Boxing is often called the Western martial art, but it is more accurately identified as a martial sport. It probably originated in ancient Greece or Rome, as there is evidence that the Greek Pankration competitions included a boxing like event. The pugilistic sport then spread to most every Western country, and in the early 20th century it became a popular spectator sport. Boxing techniques have played an important role in the development of modern kickboxing, since they are often judged as being more effective than the hand techniques of the Asian martial arts. The techniques are now being added to the curriculum at many schools that teach eclectic martial arts.
Bojutsu is the art of the Bo (long staff). Since a wood stick is less dangerous to practice with than with a steel blade, wood weapons were used in Japanese feudal military arts schools.
Bok Pai, also known as the White Crane Style, is one of the major styles of Kung Fu. According to legend, a lama priest once witnessed a battle between a crane and an ape where the crane managed to win by using the agility of its long legs, huge wings, and pecking movements. It is one of the more aggressive martial arts. Training is rigorous, involving years of practicing uncomfortable stances, all designed to imitate the fighting positions of the crane. Study of posture, balance and energy circulation are all important. There are many monasteries and martial arts schools as well as a large number of teachers available in Bok Pai.
A Bok Pai master, entering combat, advances very slowly, preferring to meet the attacks of an opponent rather than rushing forward. Attacks can take the form of sweeping arm moves, rounded kicks and continuous turning movements. The form's man attack is the Crane Fist, a beak like formation of thumb and fingertips pointed together, striking iwth a forward-and-down pecking motion.
The philosophy of Bok Pai can be summed up in four words: sim, "to evade", jeet, "to intercept", Chun, "to penetrate," and chon, "to destroy." As part of the training, all initiates are required to fight bouts on the Mui-Fa-Jeong, the "Plum Flower Stumps," which are a series of 36 pillars (like telephone poles) separated from four to eight feet apart and driven into the ground. Combat actually takes place on the tops of the poles
Buryats have its own kind of wrestling - buhe barildaan ("wrestling of strong men"). Several clans have special kinds of martial arts. Most known is hara moriton ("black horsemen"), which include horseback riding, unarmed combat and using different tools (whip, lasso, belt etc). According to legends, this system was founded by legendary heroes - Azhirai Buhe and his assistant Haramtsagai-mergen. They were heads of military group, came to Baical Lake from Mongolia on the black horses and protect local habitants from evil tribes. Similar methods are known from other Siberian national minorities - for example, Tuvinians have kyuresh, karakyuresh, lamakyuresh etc.
Literally "evidence of a continent" - The existence of the art is evidence that the greater continent of Serak exists. The mystical style of Pendekar Paul. It came to him, in a flash of enlightenment in a single night, as a full blown system, unlike anything seen before. Major aspects of the art centre on the use of the fighting floor; positioning and angles of incidence, meridians of weakness and of power, the use of levers and fulcrums, mental preparedness-tenacity and ferocity. It is an art of great subtlety and sophistication.
Bul Kyo Mu Sool are the unique skills developed by Korean Buddhist Monks. In his travels to spread his religion, the Monk Bodhid Dharma recognized that many hours of sitting in quiet meditation created a need for some form of exercise to maintain health. In addition, travelling was a hazard due to highwaymen and robbers. Monasteries the world over are the birthplace of many inventions, and it is widely believed that Bhodhid Dharma developed a series of exercises that form the basis of Bul Kyo Mul Sool. The famous Shaolin Monks are an example of his influence. Meditation, acupressure points, the study of animal fighting techniques, and special "KI" breathing techniques are among some of the influences our art has borrowed from Bul Kyo Mu Sool.
Buno is a Tagalong word meaning wrestling it is an empty hand fighting system developed by the indigenous people of the Philippines Islands. There are literally hundreds of styles of Buno practiced throughout the Philippines. However, the Harimaw Buno formerly Harimaw Lumad (King Tiger Wrestling) style was particular to the Manyans, of Mindoro, Island and Infanta, Quezon in Luzoan Philippines. Harimaw Buno was the Preferred name by Gat Puno Abon "Garimot" Baet the founder and Grandmaster of the Harimaw Buno Federation.
Grandmaster Falipe "Garimot" Baet is the person responsible for bringing Harimaw Buno to the Laguna provinces. He studied Buno under his father's tutelage at the age of eight and continued his training in Calpran, Mindoro under two Mangyan Buno masters from 1946 through 1950.
The two masters were members of the Hannunu Mangyan tribe. Their style of Buno was regarded as a jewel of their culture and as such, was forbidden to outsiders. However, Grandmaster Jose "Uti" Baet would pave the way for his generations to come five years prior. Grandmaster Jose "Uti" Baet, father of Felipe, defeated the top two practitioners of Buno, brothers Guimo and Tino Lait, during the Harimaw Buno Competition in Umiray Infanta, Queson before the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in 1940. The superiority of his skill was such that the two brothers were defeated without injury. In their lifetine, it would prove to be their only defeat in over 20 years of active competition. Out of respect, the two brothers agreed to train his son, in secret if necessary.
At the age of 16, Felipe was directed by his father to seek out the two Mangyan brothers. The trip to Calapan, Mindoro would be a long one so Felipe gained the company of his best friend, Reuben "Ginto" Madrinan in his search for the Hannunu Mangyan tribe. His initial encounter with the Hannunu tribe proved to be less than encouraging. His request to study with them was rejected by the "Apo" (head tribesman) because he was an outsider. Fortunately, the lait brothers would come to know of his presence in the village and the identity of his father. Surreptitiously, they arranged for him to stay in the next village and train him as one of their own. Felipe underwent intense training with the two brothers for four years. He worked as a spear-fisherman at night and practiced Lumad (the Hannunu word for Buno) during the day in the hidden valley of the Mindoro Islands.
The training techniques employed were unusual by most standards, and demanding by any. He was made to perform the following tasks regularly until exhausted.
* Mud Training - For balance, mobility and endurance, the student is made to walk through stiff mud while on his knees.
* Water Training - For balance, endurance and perfection of breathing technique, a sack of rocks is tied to the student's body. He is then made to wrestle an in impaired opponent in various levels of water: waist-high to overhead depending on the student's ability.
* Canoe Training - This type of training addressed balance, lower body strength and endurance. Two canoes are brought together in parallel fashion, but not tied of fixed in any way. The student is made to stand in the front, one foot in the prow of each canoe. As the vessels are propelled forward, the student must hold them together. Note: as may be expected, the rower in each boat makes no effort to ease the student's difficulties, often paddling to separate the boats.
* Bamboo Training - This type of training addressed the use of proper stances and balance. Two wetted bamboo poles are straddled across a fast-moving river. The student is made to continuously cross the river on the poles, gripping with his toes, and using the proper footwork. Loss of balance results in a river ride that can easily carry a man more than a mile downstream before he can make shore. He then must return to the poles to try again.
* Tamaraw Training - Methods of off-balancing are emphasized in this type of training. The student is made to wrestle a pygmy carabao (indigenous to Mindoro island only) barehanded. The goal is to take the animal to the ground by any means.
* Log Training - Proper rolling and breathing technique are both emphasized in this drill. The student is presented with a wooden log approximately 6 feet long and 160 pounds in weight. He is then made to roll, holding the log pressed to his body, in water approximately knee-high in depth.
* Tree Climbing - The student is taught to climb trees very quickly and jump from heights greater than 12 feet. His ability to perform this exercise is continually challenged.
* Arnis (Weapons) Training - The student is made to learn, practice, and apply in combat the Doce Pares style of Arnis de Mano.
* Farming - Although unexpectedly common, a good days' work on the farm further tests the student's endurance and patience. It also re-enforces established footwork patterns which are just as useful on the farm as they are in combat.
The student's skills were periodically tested in a ritual manner. This usually involved the hunting of wild boar, deer or snakes without weapons. Performance during these tests was used to gauge the student’s level of achievement.
Buno, as a matter of course, is an empty hand practice. Although the knife, spear and bow and arrow play significant roles in hunting, the only true weapon of the Buno practitioner is the lubid. The lubid is a course twisted length of rope approximately four feet long, worn around the waist. Prior to his trip to Mindod, Felipe was educated in the use of his unique weapon by his father. The training focused on disarming, subduing, and controlling humans. His time in Mindoro focused on the hunting of animals. An animal was often brought down, restrained and kept barely alive using the lubid. Hunting forays often meant several days walk into the forests. From a practical point of view, carrying a live animal back to the village was easier than carrying a dead one and the freshness of the meat was preserved. Training primarily involved tying different kinds of knots, quickly and under duress.
With his training complete, Felipe became an undefeated Buno stylist in Calapan, Mindoro. His prowess as a master stick fighter was also established as he went undefeated in stick fighting competitions in the area. In 1950, he left Mindoro to return to his hometown in Paete, Laguna. This was, however, after overcoming a very strange occurrence during his stay with the Hannunu Tribe.
During his second year of training, it happened that a tribe woman became enamoured of Felipe. In order to assure his presence, she cast a spell to prevent him from ever leaving. as time passed, Felipe confided in his friend Ginto that his eyes seemed to perceive an impenetrable barrier surrounding the area perimeter. Although aware of the magic at work, he could do nothing to counter it. When the time came to leave, he would require his friend's assistance to dominate the mental apparitions. Ginto would eventually lead Felipe away with a blindfold securely fastened over his eyes under the cover of the night.
Upon his return to Paete, he encountered many challengers eager to see just how good the son of Grand Master Uti Baet had become. He easily defended all opponents. In a short time, he became the local champion of track and field events, Bunong Braso (arm wrestling) and Pinal Braso (finger wrestling). He would later join the Paete Arnis Club, a group of veteran stick fighters, and organize Arnis De Mano tournaments at every town fiesta. He remained an active stick fighter, maintaining an undefeated status in Laguna, Batanggas, Cavite, Rizal, Quezon, Bataan, and Mindoro. He was known throughout the provinces as "Hari ng Pitong Kabundukan" (King of the Seven Mountains).
In 1972, he began to instruct the Baranggay Police (village police) in stick fighting and Harimaw Buno techniques. He would later incorporate Buno as a part of Arnis De Mano hand applications. He believed that in order for Eskrima fighters to be complete, the theories and techniques of grappling, empty-hand and weapons combat must be mastered.
It should be noted, that for the most part, Felipe kept the core elements of his buno training a family secret thereby holding important elements of the system in reserve for his family's own protection.
Burmese boxing, head butts and throws were allowed but kicks to the groin and hair pulling were not
Bushidokan is an eclectic art of recent origin, founded by Jim Harrison in the late 1960's. Harrison has studied Judo and Shorin-Ryu karate extensively. The Bushidokan Art is a combination of Okinawan karate, judo, and some JJ, with the primary emphasis on karate. The karate portion of Bushidokan's training is quite similar to Shotokan - definitely Okinawan in ancestry. Bushidokan is best suited for those interested in effective street self-defence, tournament fighting, and fairly rugged physical conditioning.
Beginning students learn seven basic stances, seven basic strikes (six linear, one circular), seven basic blocks (one of which is circular) and seven basic kicks. Many of the self-defences taught incorporate techniques not included in the "basic" seven, thus exposing the student to a greater variety. These include a number of throws, a few soft (redirecting) blocks, and several wrist/hand locks. Two basic self-defence strategies - a direct counter and an indirect counter - are taught for each type of attack. Sparring is introduced as student’s progress, but is always optional, and ranges from "no contact" to "full contact".
Those viewing the Butoryu art for the first time are often heard to describe it as "that Chinese looking Karate style". Others say that it looks "kind of like Gongfu" (Guoshu). The truth is that is what it is. China the mother art, Okinawa the father... a marriage of Yin & Yang. The style taught at the Butokan is known formally as Butoryu Tsuruken - "Warrior/Scholar Style Crane-Fist". Te principles of Butoryu Tsuruken or Crane-Fist Boxing, forms the core of our study. Principles are the essence upon which the art is built and represent the essence of the Butoryu Tsuruken method.

Technique oriented martial arts are limited. However, Butoryu Crane-Fist technique embodies the concepts and principles at the heart of the art (Photo 1, left: Ron Goninan Shinshii demonstrating the "Tile Palm" of the Kokuokakuken Kata inside the Butokan Honbu).
Based primarily upon the teachings of Yabiku Takaya Sensei, Sifu Yap Leong, Feeding Crane-Fist Adviser Shifu Paul Wollos and Ron Goninan's own personal experiences, Butoryu Tsuruken strives for the essence of Tsuruken (Crane Boxing) via the paragon that is kata.

C - Styles

Roman boxing
French, single handed. As traditional associated disciplines the use of baton, crooked cane, knive and whip are studied. The original length of the canne was given by the distance between the spine and the tip of the middle finger of the weapon arm, fully stretched sideways.
This is a very acrobatic, very energetic Brazilian martial art.
Origin: Angola and Brazil
Capoeira is the common name for the group of African martial arts that came out of West Africa and were modified and mixed in Brazil. These original styles included weapons, grappling and striking as well as animal forms that became incorperated into different components and sub styles of the popular art.
In the 1500's, black slaves from Africa were used in Brazil to build he empire of the sugar cane. These slaves lacked a form of self-defence, and in a way quite parallel to Karate, they developed a martial-art with the things they had in hand, namely, sugar cane knives and 3/4 staffs. Being slaves, they had to disguise the study of the art, and that is how the dance came into it. Their hands were manacled for most of the time, so the art uses a lot of standing on the hands feet up, and some moves are directed to fighting mounted enemies.
In the early 1800's Capoeira was outlawed in Brazil, especially in its "home state" of Bahia, where gangs utilized it as their personal fighting style against police. Capoeira was born in the "senzalas", the places where the slaves were kept, and developed in the "quilombos", the places where they used to run to when they fled from their enslavers.
Capoeira consists of a stylised dance, practiced in a circle called the "roda", with sound background provided by percussion instruments, like the "agogo", the "atabaqui", etc. The "Berimbau" is a non-percussion instrument that is always used on rodas.
Capoeira relies heavily on kicks and leg sweeps for attacks and dodges for defences. Is not uncommon to not be taught any kind of hand strike of parry, though arm positioning for blocks is taught.
The "ginga", the footwork of Capoeira, consists in changing the basic stance (body facing the adversary, front leg flexed with body weight over it, the other leg stretched back) from the right leg to the left leg again and again.
Capoeira also puts a heavy emphasis on ground fighting, but not grappling and locks. Instead, it uses a ground stance (from the basic stance, you just fall over your leg stretched back, flexing it, and leaving the front leg stretched ahead), from which you make feints, dodges, kicks, leg sweeps, acrobatics, etc. Hand positioning is important but it's used only to block attacks and
ensure balance, though street fighting "capoeiristas" use the hands for punches.
When fighting, it is rare to stop in one stance, and in this case, you just "follow" your opponent with your legs, preventing him from getting close, or preparing a fast acrobatic move to take advantage when he attacks. The rest of the time, you just keep changing stances,
feinting, and doing the equivalent of boxing "jabs".
After a through warm-up, standing exercises are done, with emphasis on the "ginga", the footwork characteristic of the art, and on the basic kicks: "bencao", a front-stomping kick, "martelo", a roundhouse kick, "chapa", a side-kick, "meia-lua", a low turning kick, "armada", a high turning kick, "queixada", an outside-inside crescent kick. Then walking sequences are done, with the introduction of sommersaults, backflips and headstands, in couples and individual. Some more
technical training follows, with couples beginning a basic and slow "jogo", and then the whole class forms and goes for "roda" game for at least 30 minutes. Capoeira conditions and develops the muscles, especially the abdominal muscles.
Regional: Capoeira in a more artistic, open form, giving more way to athletic prowess and training.
Angola: a more closed, harder style that is closest to the original African systems that came to Brazil.
Iuna: a totally athletic and artistic form of the art, where the couple inside the "roda" play together, as opposed to one against the other.
In a street fight, no-holds-barred competition, or Catch match, the basic strategy remains the same: to hook (submit) your opponent as quickly as possible while absorbing the least amount of punishment. Catch Wrestling teaches one to control an opponent, concentrating on balance, leverage, and technique to control one's opponent and ultimately hook him.
Old time Hookers (masters of Catch Wrestling) did this as a job. Traditional Hookers would travel across the country accepting challenge matches, and the rules were extremely broad. A Hooker could lose a challenge match by getting thrown, taken down, pinned, or even by not beating his opponent within a certain period of time. The emphasis thus became on control, quickness, and efficiency. Traditional Hookers had to learn to defend takedowns, to defend against throws, and to submit quickly. This became the heart of Catch Wrestling.
To a Hooker, fights should NEVER last for 2-3 hours. Learning to control from the feet to the ground is the key to ending a fight quickly. If you can't control a man, you can't submit him. And if you are finding yourself fighting for a submission for hours on end, you are probably not properly controlling your opponent.
Finally, hooks differ in kind from those taught in jiu-jitsu and judo. "Use your whole body as a weapon, use his whole body as a target" is the motto. A Catch Wrestler should be close to a hook at practically all times, in any position. You can submit a person using your back, knees, head and shins. Hookers employ more crippling holds and fewer slow, gradual pressure holds. As judo and jiu-jitsu are the gentle arts, Catch Wrestling can be viewed as the antithesis. It is not for everybody, but there is no question that it is effective. It is also NOT BETTER THAN JUDO OR JIU-JITSU, just different.
Stated in the simplest terms, Catch Wrestling teaches you how to effectively, efficiently, and quickly control and defeat your opponent. As the name suggests, Catch Wrestling's foundation is in traditional wrestling. Thus, a Catch practitioner must as much learn takedowns, control, and positioning as hooks. To "Use Your Whole Body as a Weapon and His Whole Body as a Target" you must first learn control. Endurance and conditioning training, rooted in the basics of takedowns, defences, and control, are the first concepts drilled and learned.
Striking, gouging and nerve attacks also come right away as part of conditioning. The sooner you start having it done to you, the sooner the body adjusts.
Lastly, hooks are learned. The main distinction between amateur wrestlers and Catch Wrestlers is that there are no illegal holds. There is so much more to hooking than armbars and chokes. A Catch Wrestler should understand the science behind body manipulation. Leg locks, shin locks, hip cranks, forearm locks, bicep compressions, and neck cranks are all incorporated into catch training. It doesn't matter if you are on top, bottom, sideways, or upside down. Once you understand the physiology behind hooks, you can apply them from any position, in a powerful and crippling manner.
In its ultimate form, Catch Wrestling is as much a psychological battle as it is a physical one. You train to bait your opponent and continuously control. You train to hook your opponent from any position. You train to maintain control and dominate from beginning to end.
Celtic wrestling is an ancient European wrestling style. Two competitors shake hands, face each other chest-to-chest, wrap their arms around each other and grasp their hands behind the opponent's back. Without releasing the grip behind the opponent's back, each competitor tries to make his or her opponent touch the ground with any body part other than the feet.
Chang Chuan is a long fist Chinese boxing style developed by Mater Kuo I around the first century AD. It appears to be the origin of many Wushu arts. It is characterized by strong stances, high kicks, and a variety of hand techniques. Its movements are so graceful that they have been used by the Chinese Opera. It has recently become a popular style in forms competition.
Is an ancient Chinese martial art, considered a Northern style. Practitioners contend from long range, darting swiftly to the attack. High, long leaps are important in ch'a ch'uan to cover distances quickly. Not widely practiced in China today, it was developed in the 14th to the 17th centuries by Chinese Moslems of Sinkiang, Chinghai, and Kansu, in the west and south of China, and is primarily still practiced by them.
Cha Yon Ryu ("Natural Way") is an eclectic, fairly new martial art founded in 1968 by Kim Soo of Houston, Texas, who remains Director of the system. Tae Kwon Do contributes kicking techniques, strong stances and direct, linear strikes and blocks, as does Shotokan Karate. With
the study of movements from Okinawa te (Okinawa), the Cha Yon Ryu practitioner starts to add techniques with some angularity to his/her repertoire, and eventually progresses to the fluid, circular movements of Ch'uan Fa Kung Fu. Hapkido is the martial art from which are drawn
defences against chokes, grabs and armed attacks, as well as various throwing and falling techniques. Students strive to fulfill The Dojang Hun (Training Hall Oath): Seek perfection of character, Live the way of truth, Endeavor, Be faithful, Respect your seniors, and Refrain from violent behaviour.
A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.


#313546 - 01/09/07 07:27 AM Re: A to Z of Martial Arts - C to D [Re: Dobbersky]
Dobbersky Offline
Peace Works!!!!

Registered: 03/13/06
Posts: 921
Loc: Manchester United Kingdom
This is one of Manipur's most ancient martial arts. The fighting equipment comprises a sword and a shield, now modified to a stick encased in soft leather and a shield made of leather. The contestants fight a duel, and victory goes to the person, who scores the maximum points. In ancient times, sword and spears were used by the contestants. Victory in this martial art, depends more on skill, than brawn and brute force.
The competition is held on a flat surface, within a circle, with a diameter of 7 meters. There are two lines of one metre length each in the circle, with a space of two metres between them. The 'cheibi' stick is 2 to 2.5 feet in length, and the shield is 1 metre in diameter.
One of the most ancient and strangest martial arts in existence. Even its name, Chi Hsuan Men means "Unusual Style." Started in the 5th Century B.C. as a defence system for the bureaucrat class of the ancient Chinese dynasties. All the movements involve the use of "the white hade fan," actually a fanlike metal weapon used for both disarming opponents and poking them.
The Chi Hsuan Men master will attempt to calm any enemy with both a relaxed pose and with friendly words. Then, preferably when the enemy is off-guard, the fan can be whipped out of the sleeves and used either to disarm or attack. Masters are extremely rare and usually train only one or two students at a time, treating them as apprentices.
Similar to Aikido, though more direct in its approach, Chin-Na is a collection of locking, throwing and displacing methods taken from a group of Chinese Martial Arts.
The purpose of Chin-Na is to lock, dislocate, or displace the bones and joints of the body so as to cause pain and injury, bringing the opponent under control through pain-compliance and disability, as opposed to striking. Chin-Na also incorporates the use of Pressure Points used to emphasize the vulnerabilities of certain control positions.
The Chito-Ryu Karate was created in Tokyo from an expert of Okinawa, Doctor Tsuyoshi Chitose (1898-1984). The Chito-Ryû is composed of elements of Shôrin-Ryû and Naha-Te. Master Chitose first studied under the direction of master Aragaki before pursuing with Chotoku Kyan (1870-1945).
At various times, Chitose had the opportunity to practise under the direction of many experts, like Chôjun Miyagi (founder of the Gôjû-Ryû), Kenwa Mabuni (founder of the [censored]ô-Ryû) and Moden Yabiku (1882-1945 founder of Ko-Bu-Jutsu).
The Chito-Ryû is composed therefore of elements of Shôrin-Ryû and Naha-Te. Master Chitose introduced Karate in Japan between 1915 and 1920, even before Chôki Motobu and Gichin Funakoshi and was maybe the first men of Okinawa to present this art to the Japanese.
Northern Chinese style of kung-fu originating in the Gao-Yang county of Hopei province, where it is still practiced. Ch'o chiao contains difficult, high-kicking movements, perhaps more than any other system of kung-fu. Because of its flamboyance, the style is suited to the Chinese opera, whose members are often practitioners. Wang-Yu is a famous exponent of the style in China.
Self-defence martial art. Choi Kwang-Do (The art of Grand Master Kwang Choi) is a dynamic, innovative approach to martial arts training. It is based on traditional, martial arts philosophy that emphasizes the ideal of personal and social development being paramount, rather than sports competition. The development of good manners, courtesy, self-discipline, self-confidence, and good social adjustment can be considered primary objectives of this art, along with self-defense.
Born March 2, 1942 in Tae Gu City, Korea, Kwang Jo Choi began his formal study of martial arts at age 12 under the famous Master Instructor, Dong Ju Li. Kwang Jo Choi began his study of Tae Kwon-Do (Korean hand and foot fighting art) under its founder, General Choi Hong Hi. He taught self defense to the Korean Army and National Police.
For some time, Master Choi had felt that many of the traditional techniques were too stylised and rigid for practical self defense. He discovered that many of these same techniques could actually harm the body and, over the long term, be detrimental to one's health and longevity. Also, Master Choi saw too much importance being placed on sports competition with the winning of trophies taking precedence over the ideals of personal and human development. Based on these observations, coupled with years of research and practical experience, Master Choi created Choi Kwang Do. It was officially introduced on March 2, 1987.
Chow-Gar style is from Southern China. It was founded by Chow Lung, who learned hung-gar, one of the five basic southern systems originating in the Shao-lin temple, from his uncle who added the pa-kua staff maneuvers to his nephew's training before passing away. The Choy style was taught to him by Choy-Kau. Later, after a three-year residence at the temples he opened his own school in Canton. In 1915 Gen. Lee-Fook-Lam appointed Chow-Lung an instructor in the Chinese army.
Master Chan Heung, the founder of Choy Li Fut, was born in the Kwang-Tung province of China on July 10, 1806. At the age of seven, Chan began to study Gung Fu from his uncle, who had trained in the Shaolin temple. Mentally and physically superior for his age, the young boy made rapid progress in the martial arts. By age 15, Chan was the leading boxer in his area. When he was 17, he studied under his uncle's senior classmate, a Shaolin expert named Li Yau Shan. Within several years, Chan had absorbed all the teachings of Master Li. One day, Chan's instructor said, "Your uncle and I spent 20 years in the Shaolin temple. It is unbelievable how you could master all that we know in only half that time. Any further instruction will need to come directly from a Shaolin priest. But most of these monks have disappeared from the area. The only one I know of is a wandering priest named Choy Fok. Unfortunately, he is leading a life of seclusion and does not like to be bothered." Yearning for further knowledge, Chan Heung decided to seek out the nomadic monk.
Arriving at Mount Lau Foo, Chan Heung searched until he was able to locate the Shaolin priest. Reading Chan's letter of introduction, Choy Fok said, "I gave up practicing martial arts a long time ago. So if you have come here to acquire skill and strength in boxing, I'm afraid that I cannot help you. I am just too old. The remaining years of my life are being devoted to a thorough research of Buddhism. You may stay and study our religion together if you wish." Instead of being discouraged, Chan Heung knelt down and humbly accepted the monk's offer to become a disciple of Buddha.
Although the study of religion took up most of Chan's time, he still maintained a high interest in the martial arts. In his leisure hours, therefore, Chan Heung continued to practice the Shaolin style of combat he had learned. One early morning, Chan was performing foot sweeps against bamboo stumps in a heavily wooded area. He also kicked rocks up into the air, smashing them to pieces as they fell. Suddenly the monk appears and asked, "Is that all you can do?" Pointing to a 50-60-lb. rock nearby, Choy Fok said, "Try your best to kick it up." Summoning all his power, Chan Heung Swept his foot against the rock and sent it into the air. Proud of his feat, Chan waited for the monk to show an expression of praise. Without saying a word, however, Choy Fok calmly walked over to the boulder and thrust his right foot beneath the heavy object. He spun around in a quick graceful motion and sent the rock flying more than 12 feet away. By now, Chan Heung realized that the priest still possessed some sort of super-normal power. Chan immediately asked the monk to teach him. Satisfied with Chan Heung's character and patience, the monk Choy Fok agreed and for the next eight years, taught his new student everything that he knew of Gung Fu.
At the age of 29, Chan left the monk and returned to his native village, analyzing everything that he had learned. Finally, in the year 1836, Chan Heung founded a new method of fighting. Chan named the system after his two instructors Choy and Li. The suffix Fut, which meant Buddha, was then added to pay homage to the Shaolin temple from which his predecessors had come. Chan Heung's fame as a boxing expert soon became known, and he was persuaded by village elders to set up a school in a nearby temple.
Choy Li Fut is one of the most powerful styles of Wushu. It relies on very powerful hand and arm techniques. Four main hand techniques are used, including the straight punch, the back fist, the uppercut and the hook punch. It incorporates oriental medicine and philosophy. The emphasis is on learning through forms practice and many hands and weapons forms are taught, most of which have between one hundred and three hundred moements. Speed, balance and power are all important elements in this style of Wushu, which also combines hard and soft techniques. Many full contact fighters follow this system.
Practitioners can also learn numerous weapons including the double hook swords and the staff, plus the nine dragon trident, which is exclusive to this style.
"Cornish wrestling". This is very similar to Japanese Judo, the main difference is that the practitioner is not allowed to go to ground when making a throw; he must stay on his feet.
Cornish wrestling originated, surprisingly enough in Cornwall, and is yet another regional variation of wrestling and should in no way be confused with Devonish, Lancaster or any of the other regional variations that exist in the UK.
There are NO ground techniques in Cornish Wrestling. In sport, holds can only be made on the jackets worn by the competitors. There are about 14 tradional techniques. Also, in sport, if a competitor places his hand or knee on the ground while executing a throw, the throw does not count, therefore all throws must be executed from a standing position. This is significant for the martial aspects of this style.
At the start of a match, the lapels of the jackets are twisted together and tucked under the left arm. the competitors then shake hands. This is the wrestlers' signal to each other that they are ready to start. As in Gouren the object is to "back" your opponent. In Cornish wrestling, "pins" refer to the shoulders and hips. A "back" is where three pins touch the ground directly after a throw. A fall where less than three pins touch, or when the "hitch" is broken must be wrestled over. A back ends the bout.
The throwing techniques operate on the "double twist" principle where an wrestler's leg or head is twisted in one direction, and the rest of their body is pulled, or pushed in the opposite direction. (Using the jacket of course.) The throws are not really comparable to the throws in any mainstream style of wrestling. (I, for one get infuriated when this style gets compared to judo, because judo it aint!)
As to the martial aspect: The manual of Cornish Wrestling, put out by the Federation of Old Cornwall Societies some years ago states: "...the thrower will genarally lose his balance and fall fractionally later than his opponent;" This is significant in a fighting situation. In sport, wrestlers endeaver to fall clear of their opponent to avoid injuring them, however, when someone crashes to the ground from a standing postion, with the full weight of their opponent on top of them, there is a strong possibility for injury.
Mr. Colin Roberts, a cornishman who teaches these techniques, was asked about this, he actually said that Cornish wrestling evolved the way it did because it was safer to land on your back, and minimsed the chance of injury. However, it is also significant to note that wrestlers are taught to grip tight to their opponent's jacket when thrown, and not put their arm down to soften the impact of a throw, b/c of the possibility of landing on the arm, not only with your own full weight, but also with the full weight of your opponent. Imagine trying to finish a fight with an arm broken in this manner.
Cuong Nhu is another eclectic, fairly new martial art, founded in 1965 by Master Ngo Dong in Vietnam. The first US school opened in Gainesville FL in 1971. Cuong Nhu is an integrated martial art blending hard aspects ("cuong" in Vietnamese) from Shotokan Karate, Wing Chun Kung Fu, and American Boxing, with influences from the soft ("nhu" in Vietnamese) arts of Judo, Aikido, and Tai Chi, in addition to Vovinam, a Vietnamese martial art using both hard and soft
techniques. In keeping with its inclusive nature, Cuong Nhu instruction extends beyond the traditionally martial to public speaking, poetry, paintint, and philosophy. There is a strong
emphasis on developing self control, modesty, and a non-defeatist attitude.
Beginning students focus on the hard, linear arts, mostly modified Shotokan Karate techniques and katas. Experienced students add movements from more advanced softer, circular arts such as Aikido and Tai Chi. All levels get some exposure to the entire range of styles. Training emphasizes moral and philosophical development, and students discuss the "Code of Ethics" and selections from Cuong Nhu philosophy in class. As with other styles, belt color indicates rank as certified by regional testing.

D - Styles

Daito-ryu Aiki-Jujutsu is an old Jujutsu style presumably founded my Minamoto, Yoshimitsu in the eleventh century. Originally, it was only practised by the highest ranking Samurais in the Takeda family in the Kai fiefdom in northern Japan.
Feudal overlord Takeda, Shingen died in 1573, and his kinsman Takeda, Kunitsugu moved to the Aizu fiefdom, where he became Jito - overseer of the fief. Kunitsugu introduced Daitoryu Aikijujutsu at the Aizu fiefdom, where the secret fighting art only was taught to the feudal lords and the highest ranking samurais and ladies in waiting.
The feudal system was broken down after 1868 when the Meiji restoration begun. Saigo, Tanomo (1829-1905), the heir to Daito-ryu gave the system to Takeda, Sogaku (1859-1943) and instructed him to pass it on to future generations. Takeda, Sogaku first used the term "Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu" in the beginning of the twentieth century and taught the art of it to many students.
Takeda, Sogaku taught Daito-ryu from the beginning of the twentieth century until his death in 1943 two of his best known students were Ueshiba, Morihei, founder of Aikido and Choi, Yong Sul, founder of Hapkido.
Other prominent 20th century Daito-ryu masters include Horikawa, Kodo (1894-1980); Takuma, Hisa (1895-1979); Hakaru, Mori (1931-), the current director of the Daitoryu Aikijujutsu Takumakai; Sagawa, Yukiyoshi (1902-); Takeda, Tokimune (1916-1993), son of Takeda, Sogaku; Katsuyuki, Kondo (1945-); and Okamoto, Seigo (1925-), who is often considered the most progressive teacher of Daitoryu Aikijujutsu.
Description and Training:
The way of teaching Daitoryu comes from Takeda, Sogaku's students in the same manner as the understanding, feeling and character of the techniques. Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu has four levels of techniques: Shoden (Lowest), Chuden (advanced), Okuden (highest) and Hiden (secret techniques).
The training in Daito-ryu starts with Shoden, where the student learns ukemi (falling and rolling), taisabaki (moving the body), tesabaki and ashisabaki (movements of the hands and feet and legs), defense against grappling, and continues with defense against punches, kicks and weapons, as for instance short and long staffs (tanbo, jo and chobo) and knives and swords (tanto and katana). There are techniques that can be done from standing, sitting or lying positions. The first transmission scroll Hiden Mokuroku describes the first 118 jujutsu techniques from the Shoden level.
These are advanced jujutsu techniques with large soft movements as known from Aikido. The actual aiki training consists of a combination of these techniques and those from Shoden. At this level of training it is allowed to use some amount of force, several steps and large movements.
When doing Okuden all movements should be as small as possible. Breathing, reflexes, circles and timing are used instead of muscles; the techniques are small and fast, and it is not necessary to hold an attacker in order to throw him. The reflexes of the attacker are used against him. He gets a soft shock, similar to an electric shock activating his reflexes, and it becomes easy to manipulate the body of the attacker so it is felt as an extension of one's own.
These are the secret techniques. The real aiki consists always of soft techniques that only work properly when the whole body and proper breathing is used. The attacker is touched easily, you are as glued to him, and the techniques are so small that even experienced budokas cannot see what is happening. However, the most fascinating part of Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu is that it is unnecessary to use physical power for incapacitating the attacker his own force is turned against him.
French, combination of traditional fighting methods: lutte parisienne, chausson, panache, canne de combat et baton (and associated weapons) and boxe-francaise-savate. More emphasis on the real fighting (combat de rue) than with the sport-oriented methods of Boxe francaise and canne.
The Degerberg method of Martial Arts is a compilation of many system like Western Boxing, Kali, Jun Fan Gung Fu, Judo, Ju-Jitsu, just to name a few. Based in Chicago, Master Fred Degerberg has made it his life's work to giving back in the martial arts. He and his wife, Katie, created one of the largest and best schools in the world
Senegalese fight discipline
Doce Pares (12 Pairs), was founded in 1932 following a meeting of the most senior Masters of the Filipino Martial Arts from Cebu and neighbouring islands.
In total there were 24 Masters, hence the name, 12 Pairs. The objective of the Doce Pares society was to bring together the most prominent styles and masters and to research and refine the various styles to form one complete system that could be spread throughout the Philippines.
At the founding of Doce Pares, Lorenzo Saavereda, then recognised as the foremost Eskrimador in Cebu City, became it's first Grandmaster. He was supported by three other top-rated masters; Teodoro and Frederico Saavedra - Lorenzo's nephews - and Filemon Canete. Later, Teodoro Saavedra rose to prominence as the best fighter in the Doce Pares society.
Master Eulogio Canete, Filemion's elder brother, was elected first president of Doce Pares and remained in that position until his death in 1988.
During the Second World War, Master Teodoro Saavedra, an active guerrilla fighter, was captured and killed by the occupying Japanese forces. Shortly after his death Master Ciriaco Canete, also a resistance fighter, emerged as Doce Pares' foremost fighter and innovator.
In the early 1950's eskrima techniques and tactics were analysed, devised, modified and systematised by master Ciriaco Canete, based mostly on actual combat experience with rival Eskrimadors belonging to rival associations. Among his many contributions to the development of eskrima is the art of Eskrido, a combination of Judo, Ju-jitsu and Eskrima techniques applied at close range.
In Philippine fiestas, a traditionally important part of the celebrations is an Eskrima contest among the best eskrimadors from various regions of the country. These competitions are fierce with no holds barred, there are no rules to govern the fight, nor are there any prizes at stake other than the reputations of the combatants and their Eskrima schools. (Grandmaster Canete likens these times to the wild west).
The combatants willingly fight without protection and most often the fight is brutal and bloody. The fight stops only when one fighter is defeated and unable to continue or if a signal of surrender is given. Such was the training ground of Grandmaster "Cacoy" Canete who fought in many such tournaments and challenges. In more than 100 such fights he tasted not one single defeat.
Today the Doce Pares continues to flourish from its Headquarters in Cebu City under the direction of Grandmaster Ciriaco "Cacoy" Canete, at 82 years of age he still continues to train daily and is always ready to defend his reputation as "unbeatable "Cacoy"
The Filipino Dumog is a very rare art today. Dumog can be found mostly in the Southern part of Negros Island and in the island of Panay in the province of Antique. This can be found in small barrios mostly farmers where Dumog became a past time, an entertainment and a form of survival. According to one farmer I came to have personal discussion with few Dumog lessons, Dumog was a normal practice used by the farmers to catch the Carabao by the horn to control and wrestle down. To control the Carabao, the rope is entangled around the neck or at the nose rope holder made of rattan hooked to the Carabao's nose. The rope is used to pull the Carabao to brought to a place where a farmer makes them rest. The act of controlling the Carabao catching the horn and wrestling down to the ground is called Dumog. A Dumog expert has a well-built body with sturdy legs and broad shoulders. His legs are spread far apart when he walks and normally he doesn't wear shoes. To build the legs for strength and resistance, the mud pit (a knee high) is the training area. A farmer dip both feet into the sticky mud and take a high stride moving in circular motion until the mud is softened. It could take hours but that builds the legs as strong as the legs of the Carabao after several months or years of training. This is done as an exercise. For the Arms and Shoulder, the farmers cut a strong branch of a tree and tried to bend it until the branch either breaks or bends. For Power Push, the farmer will position himself in front of the big tree, sometimes a coconut tree and use the legs to balance and both hands push the tree. The farmer moved around the coconut tree and execute a vigorous push and repeatedly doing until the farmer felt tired then he stopped. For the Hand Grip, the farmer takes a rope and ties the other end against the tree and while holding the end of the rope, the farmer turns around in full force. The Head Butts, the banana tree is used as the object, but the head butting is started by running towards the direction of the banana tree, the head hits the banana tree with vigorous force that sometimes the banana tree falls down and that ends the training for the day. The Dumog has a lot of foot work, namely the squaring/parallel footwork (the Baka) the Footwork (Panikang) the feet twisting (Palubid) strong footage (Pamigas) footclipping (Pangipit), forward push (Pasudsud), foot deflection (Palapas) Lampasu, (foot drag), foot smashing (Panglinas), footbar (Pangligwat), ability to balance and deliver vigorous throw (Haboy). Dumog has sophisticated hand work called Pangamut which will be explained under the technical fighting structure.
During the celebration of the Saints, to include the Thanksgiving ceremony for the first harvest of the rice field, corn fields, several entertainment are prepared for the big show. Like Carabao race, Horse fight, Dog fight, Cock fight (Bulang), Spider fight, Sipa (kicking contest with chicken feather wrap with cloth and a peso coin inside). The Sipa takraw (a volleyball by using the feet). The Kali fight using the hardwood (Lampusanay), leg wrestling (pi-ol) then the Dumog.
Winners are given awards, a dozen chicken eggs, a fighting cock, a sack of rice, a sack of corn, one gallon of coconut wine (Tuba), bunch of bananas, 2 dozens of coconut fruits and many others. These entertainment sports were considered cultural in nature but what count most is at the coronation of the Queen in the evening, there are contest for the native dances like the Tinikling (bamboo dance) the Maglalatik (coconut shell dance), Pandango sa ilaw (candle dance), the Itik-itik (a bird dance.)
Dumog is considered as a natural sport and a natural ground combat fighting art. In most cases, if there are feuds between family against family, the first to be called to be the middle man to pacify the trouble is the Dumoguero because the presence of the Dumoguero scares everybody. Some will always say, "Don't kid around, the Dumoguero, he will plaster you to the wall or the Dumoguero will plant your head into the ground".
The presence of the Dumoguero during fistfight or a drunkard turns wild, the situation will be settled immediately. There was a story about a stranger who became the guest of a family in a barrio. This man happens to be a thief. But in the barrio people are always very accommodating and very hospitable. Of course the stranger was easily accepted and he was able to win the sympathy of the barrio people. Then one evening, someone had shouted that he lost all of his money he kept under the pillow. Money from the sale of rice that day. Then immediately without delay, the headman of the Barangay hit the empty can and everybody gathered asking what happened and they were told that the stranger had something to do with the lost money. They looked for the stranger but they couldn't find him within the vicinity. Then suddenly a small boy came running shouting that he saw a man running toward the town probably to take a ride with a passenger bus or to go somewhere. Without delay, the Dumoguero ran towards the town and when he reached the town, he went to the passenger bus and he found the stranger hiding at the back of the bus. He immediately caught the stranger by the collar of his shirt and brought him outside the bus. He dragged him to the ground in front of many people. First he held him by the head and he applied pressure to the neck area so he can confess to tell the truth. Then his pockets were searched and there they found the stolen money. After they took the money, the stranger was held by the left arm and without delay his left arm was twisted. Then the Dumoguero close in beside the stranger. He suddenly made a body twist wrecking the arm, then he grab the stranger and went down inserting his right shoulder between his legs and brought the stranger to the ground breaking his spinal and smashing his head to the ground until the face, the head were completely unrecognizable. The Dumogueros are fierce people. Fear has no place in their daily life. They are conditioned to fight against all odds.
Dux Ryu Ninjitsu's self-defense techniques are geared to the individual, thus the individual progress is faster, finding personal self-defense practical for today's threats and builds around one's own strengths and weaknesses. Another factor, separating Dux Ryu Ninjitsu from traditional Martial Arts, is that training is not addressed to fighting only under ideal conditions like in school, but in fluctuating situations and environments. For example, one v. multiple attackers, fighting in the dark, in a crowd or hallway, on slippery ground, such as wet grass, where a fight strategy emphasizing kicking would be rendered useless.
After the student has become proficient in hand to hand, hand to weapon self-defense, he/she is introduced to "Inpo:" the ancient art of escape: climbing, herbology, emergency first aid, acupressure, water safety, outdoor survival skills and a host of other rewarding and enjoyable skills, all of which can be employed in self-defense so that one can go anywhere in the world and, under the most extreme conditions, survive.
The purpose of Dux Ryu Ninjitsu lies not in victory or defeat but in the perfection of one's character. Dux Ryu Ninjitsu is not solely self-defense or physical conditioning, but enhances one's self-worth and develops character and maturity. This is instilled in all students, helping them find self- confidence and discipline, putting them on a pathway to higher achievement outside the "Dojo."
A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.


#313547 - 01/09/07 07:30 AM Re: A to Z of Martial Arts - E to G [Re: Dobbersky]
Dobbersky Offline
Peace Works!!!!

Registered: 03/13/06
Posts: 921
Loc: Manchester United Kingdom
E – Styles

(classic) Several types were practised during religious ceremonies, processions and as sport or game in ancient Egypt. More 'modern' visitors to Egypt reported similar stick fencing still to exist in the 18th century. Stick fencing is still popular, particularly during the Ramadan (Islamic fasting month).
Eskrido, founded by Grandmaster "Cacoy" Canete incorporates joint locks, throws and chokes from Judo, Ju-jitsu and Aikido which are incorporated into the close range stick sparring methods. Eskrido is also known as Stickgrappling.

F - Styles

Northern style of kung-fu; dates at least to the Ming period. It is very simple in its approach. Also called ba-fan.
The sport of fencing is fast and athletic, a far cry from the choreographed bouts you see on film or on the stage. Instead of swinging from a chandelier or leaping from balconies, you will see two fencers performing an intense dance on a six-feet-by-40-feet strip. The movement is so fast the touches are scored electrically - more like Star Wars than Errol Flynn.
The Weapons
Foil, épée and sabre are the three weapons used in the sport of fencing. While it is not unusual for fencers to compete in all three events, they generally choose to develop their skills in one weapon. Until recently, women were permitted to compete only in foil, but now the USFA & FIE offer national competitions for women in épée and sabre. Women's épée was added to the World Championships in 1989 and was held for the first time at the Olympic Games in 1996.
Foil and épée are point-thrusting weapons. Sabre is a point-thrusting as well as a cutting weapon. The target areas differ for the three weapons, though all three are scored electrically.
The main object of a fencing bout (what an individual "game" is called) is to effectively score 15 points (in direct elimination play) or five points (in preliminary pool play) on your opponent before he scores that number on you. Each time a fencer scores a touch, she receives a point. Direct elimination matches consist of three three-minute periods.
The foil has a flexible rectangular blade, approximately 35 inches in length, weighing less than one pound. Points are scored with the tip of the blade and must land within the torso of the body.
The valid target area in foil is the torso, from the shoulders to the groin, front and back. It does not include the arms, neck, head and legs. The foil fencer's uniform includes a metallic vest (called a lamé) which covers the valid target area, so that a valid touch will register on the scoring machine. A small, spring-loaded tip is attached to the point of the foil and is connected to a wire inside the blade. The fencer wears a body cord inside his uniform which connects the foil to a reel wire, connected to the scoring machine.
There are two scoring lights on the machine. One shows a green light when a fencer is hit, and one shows a red light when her opponent is hit. A touch landing outside the valid target area (that which is not covered by the lamé) is indicated by a white light. These "off target" hits do not count in the scoring, but they do stop the fencing action temporarily.
The épée (pronounced "EPP-pay"), the descendant of the dueling sword, is similar in length to the foil, but is heavier, weighing approximately 27 ounces, with a larger guard (to protect the hand from a valid hit) and a much stiffer blade. Touches are scored only with the point of the blade. The entire body is the valid target area.
The blade is wired with a spring-loaded tip at the end that completes an electrical circuit when it is depressed beyond a pressure of 750 grams. This causes the coloured bulb on the scoring machine to light. Because the entire body is a valid target area, the épée fencer's uniform does not include a lamé. Off-target hits do not register on the machine.
The sabre is the modern version of the slashing cavalry sword, and is similar in length and weight to the foil. The major difference is that the sabre is a thrusting weapon as well as a cutting weapon (use of the blade). The target area is from the bend of the hips (both front and back), to the top of the head, simulating the cavalry rider on a horse. The sabre fencer's uniform includes a metallic jacket (lamé), which covers the target area to register a valid touch on the scoring machine. The mask is different from foil and épée, with a metallic covering since the head is valid target area.
Just as in foil, there are two scoring lights on the machine. One shows a green light when a fencer is hit, and one shows a red light when the opponent his hit. Off-target hits do not register on the machine.
Style of Chinese kung-fu, known as the Phoenix Eye, originating in China's Hopu province and developed by Kew Soong In the fong ngan system, the basic blow is delivered with the foreknuckle fist (from which the style takes its name). Palm fist, finger poke, ridge hand, and knife hand techniques also are taught. The style's only kick is the front snap kick, delivered low to the groin area. There are no formal stances in the style. Instead, practitioners learn to crowd an opponent, enticing him to make a wrong move. A fong ngan practitioner never retreats from an attack, but moves into it or, if necessary, jumps to the side while counterattacking. Fong ngan employs tripping and leg-hooking throws, techniques that are always followed up by a "killing" blow or strike. The style emphasizes kuen (forms), proper breathing, speed, and form. There are four-man and two-man exercises, the latter closely resembling sparring.
Style of kung-fu; also, the five priests who escaped the burning of the original Shaolin Temple.
A tiger claw system of kung-fu; the style emulates the movement of the tiger There is a fu-chiao federation in New York City headed by Wai Hong.
A style of Kung Fu that uses both hard and soft techniques

G - Styles

Gatka is one of the most esoteric martial arts. It is a battle-tested, ancient martial art that survives today as part of the Sikh culture. Sikhism was founded in the Punjab region of India in the fifteenth century by Guru Nanak, started the religion as an alternative to the dominant Hindu and Muslim faiths. Devout Sikhs follow several tenets of the religion, the most visible is the turban worn by Sikh men. Gatka specializes in sword "shaster" and shield fighting, but includes other weapons, including the staff "lathi," the quoit "chakram," and the exotic "chakar," which looks like a wagon wheel with weights at the end of each spoke. The chakram and chakar are weapons unique to Gatka. The chakar is wielded by grasping the centre (the hub of the "wagon wheel") and spinning it around, striking opponents with the weights. The chakram is basically a flat steel hoop with the outside edge honed to a sharp edge. The chakram is spun around the index finger and let fly to at the target. The chakram is the favorite weapon of television's Xena: Warrior Princess. Gatka has been used effectively for centuries. Besides the numerous conflicts and wars in Punjab or the famous Sikh regiments of World War II, Sikhs armed with lathi were used as riot police in the rough-and-tumble streets of 1930's Shanghai. Although training in Gatka may be hard to find for non-Sikhs, the art is exciting to watch in cultural demonstrations.
Gensei Ryu Karate finds it's root's in the type of Okinawa-karate called Shuri-te. Shuri-te was founded by Sokon Matsumura (1809-1901). In general one can say that most modern Karate styles have some degree of connection with Matsumura, who taught people as famous as Itosu, Kyan, Asato and Funakoshi. Funakoshi introduced karate to Japan in the early 1920's.
Sokon Matsumura was born into a well-known shizoku (noble) family who lived in the Okinawa town of Yamagawa. As an adult he found work as bodyguard for the last three rulers of the Ryu Kyu Islands. The Ryu Kyus are a bunch of islands south of Japan, of witch Okinawa is the largest.
In his life Matsumura visited China twice to learn Chinese martial arts.
One of Matsumura's lesser known students was Bushi Takemura who settled down on the northern part of Okinawa as a farmer. Takemura created a version of Kushanku Kata which is still practised in Gensei Ryu Karate today.
It was at this time Takemura came to know the Kishimoto family, of which Soko Kishimoto (1866-1945) became Takemura's student.
Takemura died 85 years old.
Soko Kishimoto was born in the town of Yabu which is situated in Northern Okinawa. Even as a youngster Kishimoto was prone by a bad temper and the will to learn Okinawa-te (Original name for Okinawa-karate). Besides Okinawa-te he also came to learn Kobudo (weapons training); particularly Sai (short trident) and Bo (long staff) were emphasised.
Kishimoto later moved to an area close to the town of Nago. Here he came to be known as Nago No Agari. While he was young, Kishimoto was known as a bit of a ruffian; however as he grew older he also grew calmer. It is known that Kishimoto was challenged by the young and promising Ankichi Arakaki (circa 1927). This resulted in Arakaki's death.
Kishimoto only had eight students throughout his life.
Kishimoto died in 1945, during The Battle of Okinawa.
Glima is the national sport of Iceland. Glima is similar to wrestling. It is illegal to kick or strike. Each participant wears three leather belts: one around each thigh and one around the waist, the thigh-belts are fastened by straps to the waist-belt. These straps are used for gripping the opponent. In a match the two wrestlers constantly walk around each other and try to bring down the opponent using eight basic techniques.. The match ends when one of the wrestlers falls down.
The Vikings and other Norse practiced this grappling art. Often this grappling art was demonstrated in matches at festivals. Glima grapplers wore special belts in order to get a grip on each other. Glima used tripping, lifting, and throwing to bring the opponent to the ground. Eight basic tricks have survived to today. Glima techniques went with the Vikings to Iceland and the sport is the national sport of Iceland today. There are heroic stories of Glima matches that are almost 1000 years old, some even between men and women. It is unknown if Glima was used in a combative form, but as in most grappling arts, combat was likely its origin.
Bushido Karate Dojo is a branch of the Japanese Goju-ryu tree. This is Gogen Yamagushi's art. Kanryo Higaonna, a leading nineteenth century Karate master, combined the techniques of Naha-te and the teachings of Shurite plus added different moves from the Chinese art, Shao Lin Chuan to creat a new art. Higaonna studied in Okinawa under Karate masters Sekon Matsumura, Arakaki and Shao Lin Chuan under master Doruku for approximately ten years in Fukien Province, China.
Chojun Miyagi, a student of Higaonna, is given the credit of naming this new system of Karate. In 1929, there was a large martial arts convention in Kyoto, Japan. Master Miyagi could not attend so instead, he sent a student, Shinsato to be his replacement. Each person at the convention was asked what style did they train in. At this time, there was no namefor what Shinsato was practicing. Feeling his art would be looked down upon and given amateur status, he quickly picked Hankry-ryu, which means the Way of Half Hard. When Shinsato told Master Miyagi what had happened, Miyagi liked the idea. He then took this idea one step further. Quoting from the Chinese poem, Eight Poems of the Fist: "Everything in the universe is breathing hard and soft." It is from this that the art Miyagi studied had a new name. Goju-ryu, the way of hard and soft. Indeed, the word Goju means hard-soft. Go is the Japanese word for hardness and Ju is the word for softness. This system is based on the Oriental concept that all hardness and stiffness is not good. At the same time, all softness and too much gentleness can be harmful.The two should complement each other. This combination of the two gives Goju Karate its beautiful, disciplined movements, filled with the grace and flowing form.
But lest anyone believe that Goju is merely a beautiful style of dance with little of the art of defense, he need only watch two Goju practicioners square off in Kumite against one another. The action is fast, extremely fast. It relies on an aggressive style of attack, with the emphasis on delivering blows "hard" but with easy effort and in rapid succession. The opponents don't have much time to stand still and to look cautiously for openings. They are exchanging kicks from side to side and aiming blows from the outside, left and right. Many Goju techniques actually look like the flapping of a bird's wings. Many blocks and strikes are in the form of slaps, though the slaps usually feel a lot more bear-like when one is on the receiving end. Though graceful and bird-like in appearance, they are delivered with a powerful snap. The overall movements of the entire system is based upon speed. There is a great deal of moving in and out quickly and weaving from side to side, in contrast to the hard schools which concentrate more on straightforward ovements. Naturally, all this fast motion lends itself to graceful and artistic techniques.
Another fact of Goju is the extreme closeness with which the blows are delivered in Kumite. The school emphasizes control of motions and a student is supposed to be able to stop a punch or kick only fractions of an inch from target.
But even with all this emphasis on speed, the study of the traditional Kata is still underscored. Goju, with its love of graceful and delicate movements could be expected to venerate the historical Kata. Many Goju men feel that the Kata is usually more dynamic and far more beautiful than Kumite. There is another form of Kata for which the school is famous and without which no explanation of the Goju system would be complete. That is the school's breathing Kata. No one who has ever witnessed a Goju man practicing his breathing Kata under a full head of steam will ever forget the experience. It is an awesome and, to those of a more timid turn, sometimes frightening experience. A good Goju man can be heard half a block away and more while engaged in breathing exercises. Once warmed up, he will stride across the floor rippling every muscle from head to foot while engaged in powerful animal-like breathing. The effect can be quite spetacular.
Form of jujutsu developed by Tatsu Tanaka, who opened a dojo in Tokyo in 1952. Finding classical jujutsu unsuited to his tastes, he decided to modernize the system by eliminating injurious techniques.Kicking and striking techniques were removed, as was leg tripping, and emphasis placed on atemlwaza (vital point technique), kansetsu-waza (locking techniques), and nage-waza (throwing techniques). Tanaka's main purpose is to promote good health through vigorous exercise and proper knowledge of self-defense
Round about the year 2600 BC wrestling and hand to hand combat named "GO-TI" , which could be translated as "horn gore" existed. It consisted of wearing horns on the heads of the contestants and goring at each other. This sport was so popular that it was handed from generation to generation until today. On the occasion of festivals the natives of Shanshi, Honan and Manchuria are still entertaining themselves with the traditional "GO-TI" dance. To escape being gored called for some pretty fancy footwork, which in turn resulted in the beginning of unarmed combat. In due course, the sport was modified by the removal of the horns.
The Gosoku-ryu style is a tough and rapid karate school (go-toughness, soku-speed, ryu-direction, but also softness). The combination of these characteristics is best exhibited by cats, who have fast, agile defensive moves, but at the same time full of power and paralysing, dynamic counterattacks. These are the characteristics of this highly effective style of self-defence, which, apart from traditional karate techniques (basing mostly on the Shotokan style), includes modern ways of defence that developed in the recent years. Permeation of tradition with modernity, power with speed, defence with incessant attacks is the feature that distinguishes the techniques of the style's founder - master Takayuki Kubota 10 dan. The entire life of the master testifies of the effectiveness of his karate-do (tough times after the war, personal bodyguard of the American ambassador in Japan, expert of the Japanese police, and currently of the American one and FBI in close combat, president of the International Karate Association (IKA), actor and choreographer of fights in Hollywood). Studying the Gosoku-ryu style, the practitioner learns stances from traditional karate styles, modern self-defence, kobudo, and finally proceeds to a highly individualised study of Gosoku-ryu techniques. Master Kubota managed to unite two apparently opposite directions in the development of karate from Okinawa: shorin-ryu and shorei-ryu.
A German encyclopedia describes Great Russian wrestling as involving mostly tripping, and placing more reliance on skill than strength. This was then compared German backhold wrestling, where strength was more important than skill.
A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.


#313548 - 01/09/07 07:35 AM Re: A to Z of Martial Arts - H to I [Re: Dobbersky]
Dobbersky Offline
Peace Works!!!!

Registered: 03/13/06
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Loc: Manchester United Kingdom
H - styles

Hand to hand sports trained young men as warriors and athletes. The Hawaiians had wrestling contests in the makahiki too. The best wrestlers came from different places. They fought to see who was the best wrestlers on the island. There were wrestling contest in each ahupua'a (district) also. People watched the fight. The fighters grabbed each other and tripped them. The winner knocked the other fighter to the ground for victory. Wrestling was a game enjoyed by the chief. The chief would cheer for who he thinks would win. If its man he wanted to win lost he would crown the other wrestler.
Although hakko-ryu ju-jutsu was founded in 1941, it inherits a century-old legacy of classical bujutsu (warrior arts) used by the samurai of feudal Japan. Indeed. Hakko-ryu founder Ryuho Okuyama (1901-1987) and his son Nidai Soke Ryuho (Toshio) Okuyama come from a long line of prominent bushi (warriors), the Genji clan. As a student of Hakko-ryu, you can trace the origins of your art as far back as the 8th Century A.D.
Although there are sketchy references to martial art techniques dating as far back as 23 B.C., the first generally acknowledged that the Japanese grappling system was developed by Prince Teijun Fujiwara, 6th son of Japan's 56th Emperor Seiwa Fujiwara (850-880 AD.). The techniques were inherited by Teijun's son, Tsunemoto, who was given the name Minamoto. His descendants are known as the Seiwa Genji .and his aikijutsu techniques were kept as a secret family art. With them, the Minamoto clan rose to become the most powerful warriors in all of Japan in only four generations.
This is the style of the Heron. Some typical movements are for instance positions on one leg only or attacks with joined fingers in the eyes, and so on.

This Korean art is sometimes confused with Aikido, since the Korean and Japanese translation of the names is the same.
Hapkido history is the subject of some controversy. Some sources say that the founder of Hapkido, Choi, Yong Sul was a houseboy/servant (some even say "the adopted son") of Japanese Daito Ryu Aikijujutsu GrandMaster Takeda, Sokaku. In Japan, Choi used the Japanese name Yoshida, Tatsujutsu since all immigrants to Japan took Japanese names at that time. Choi's Japanese name has also been given as Asao, Yoshida by some sources. According to this view, Choi studied under Takeda in Japan from 1913, when he was aged 9, until Takeda died in 1943. However, Daito Ryu records do not reflect this, so hard confirmation has not been available. Some claim that Choi's Daito Ryu training was limited to attending seminars.
Ueshiba, Morihei, the founder of Aikido, was also a student of Takeda (this is not disputed). Hapkido and Aikido both have significant similarities to Daito Ryu Aikijujutsu, so it would seem that Hapkido's link to it is real, regardless of how and where Choi was trained.
Choi returned to Korea after Takeda's death and began studying Korean arts and teaching Yu Sool or Yawara (other names for jujutsu), eventually calling his kwan ("school") the Hapki Kwan. Ji, Han Jae, began studying under Choi and eventually started his own school, where he taught what he called Hapkido, after the grandmaster's school. Along the way, Hapkido adopted various techniques from Tang Soo Do, Tae Kyon, and other Korean kwans (schools).
Korean sources may tend to emphasize the Korean arts lineage of Hapkido over the Aikijujutsu lineage, with some even omitting the Aikijujutsu connection. However, as noted above, the connection can be seen in the techniques.
Ji now calls his system Sin Moo Hapkido. He currently lives and teaches in California, as does another former Choi student, Myung, Kwang Sik, who is GrandMaster of the World Hapkido Federation.
Some other Choi Hapkido students are still living. Chang, Chun Il currently teaches in New York City, and Im, Hyon Soo lives and teaches in Korea. Both of these men were promoted to 9th dan by Choi. One of the first Hapkido masters to bring the art to the western culture was Han, Bong Soo.
In the 1970's and 80's Hapkido was taught as the style of choice to elite South Korean armed forces units.
Hapkido combines joint locks, pressure points, throws, kicks, and strikes for practical self-defense. More soft than hard and more internal than external, but elements of each are included. Emphasizes circular motion, non-resistive movements, and control of the opponent.
Although Hapkido contains both outfighting and infighting techniques, the goal in most situations is to get inside for a close-in strike, lock, or throw. When striking, deriving power from hip rotation is strongly emphasized.
Training varies with organization and instructor. As a general rule, beginners concentrate on basic strikes and kicks, along with a few joint locks and throws. Some of the striking and kicking practice is form-like, that is, with no partner, however, most is done with a partner who is holding heavy pads that the student strikes and kicks full power.
Advanced students add a few more strikes and kicks as well as many more throws, locks, and pressure points. There is also some weapons training for advanced students - primarily belt, kubatan, cane, and short staff.
Some schools do forms, some do not. Some do sparring and some do not, although at the advanced levels, most schools do at least some sparring. Many Hapkido techniques are unsuitable for use in sparring, as their use would result in injury, even when protective gear is used. Thus, sparring typically uses only a limited subset of techinques.
There is generally an emphasis on physical conditioning and excercise, including "ki" exercises.
Harimau style from Sumatra. In this method, the practitioner's movement pattern resembles the antics of a tiger (the name of Harimau), with heavy emphasis on staying close to the ground using crouching, lying, sitting and semi-squat positions. The leg strength and flexibility required is impressive and the Harimau stylist can use his hands like extra feet or his feet like extra hands. He can start the fight from the ground position or will invite his opponent into a trap then take him to the ground. Other types of Sumatran Silat are Menangkabau, Podang, Sterlak, Lintau and Kumango. On the other hand, many Javanese styles use a percentage weighting that is more balanced between hand and legwork. Many Javanese styles require the practitioner to move in close against the enemy in an upright position, then use various hand and foot moves to express the techniques.
Northern Chinese style of kung-fu requiring great agility; the monkey style of kung-fu.
Hisardut is the unique, elite martial art technique developed in 1995 by Shihan Moti Horenstein and Shihan Miki Erez. Survival is based on the martial art taught in the Israeli Special Forces, Survival incorporates the most powerful elements of Mas Oyama, full contact Karate, Judo, Ju-Jitsu, Kickboxing, Thaiboxing, Grappling and the Israeli Defense Forces self-defense technique Krav Maga. In combining these prominent self-defense styles,Shihan Miki Erez along with Shihan Moti have developed a way to unleash an inner force powerful enough to disarm any attacker in any situation. Uniting mind and body control into one technique in which every move creates a specific reaction on the part of the opponent, Survival has three clear goals: defend, attack and overpower.
HOJO JUTSU IS THE FEUDAL martial skill of restraining a prisoner with rope. It was practiced by the Warrior class and in particular the samurai, who acted as police officers. The word hojo is made up of the character 'ho', which is also pro- nounced 'tori' and means to catch, seize or arrest someone, the character 'jo', which is also pronounced 'nawa' and means rope, and of course the word 'jutsu', meaning art or skill. The actual characters can then be read in English as either 'torinawa jutsu' or 'hojo jutsu'. However, both meanings remain the same. The main reason for tying someone up is because a need has arisen to keep them alive and take them captive, or prevent their escape. This was often the case during Japan's feudal period, particularly when the captured enemy was thought to be able to be persuaded to part with vital information, or be used in an ex- change deal for someone of import- ance who had been captured by the other side. There were various other reasons why rope tying was employed in Japan. One further purpose was to secure prisoners who were to be brought before a magistrate and tried for crimes they had committed.
The art of gunnery or firearms
Also known as Lama kung-fu, Hop-Gar became prominent during the Ch'ing dynasty in China as the official martial system of the Manchu Emperor and his guard. It was, and still is, a style for fighting, not for exercise or dancing. More than three hundred years ago, in the Ming dynasty, a Tibetan priest named Dai-Dot laid the groundwork for the Lama kung-fu style, creating the "lion roar" martial system. According to legend, Dai-Dot was stricken with enlightenment one day and, pointing one finger toward the sky and one toward the earth, he fell to his hands and knees and roared like a lion. Lion roar, composed of eight fists, eight steps, eight fingers, eight grips, and eight kicks, was taught in the Ting-Juck-Lui-Yam Temple by the Kay-Lam Buddha. Lama passed through many generations of Tibetan priests at the temple before reaching the hands of the Lama Jickbowloklowtow, whose Chinese name was Ng-Mui, a famous personality in Chinese kung-fu novels. He is credited with devising the mui-fa-jeong (plumflower stumps) atop which kung-fu was practiced.
The Lama style is composed of four main subdivisions: white crane, ta-mo, wei-t'ol, and law-horn. Ng-Mui taught the compete Lama style to only one student, named Hing-Duk, leaving his other disciples to make full styles of their respective subdivisions.
Hing-Duk passed the Lama style to Wong-Yan-Lum, who brought it to the emperor's palace in Peking, where he was employed to instruct the Imperial guard. When the Manchu dynasty collapsed, Wong left the Forbidden City and changed the style's name to Hop-Gar. To establish a reputation in southern China, he constructed a stage in Canton, challenging all comers and besting more than 150 kung-fu masters. For this he gained the number-one seat in the prestigious group of martial artists known as the Canton -Ten-Tigers. Wong-Yan-Lum passed the Hop-Gar style to Ng-Yim-Ming, who brought it to the U.S. Ng-Yim-Ming, before his death in the early 1970s, appointed one official representative to carry on the Hop-Gar system, Chin-Dai-Wei (David Chin).
Hop-Gar is composed of 12 short-hand and 12 long-hand maneuvers, and 8 forms employing empty-hand and weaponry techniques. The most important aspect of the style is its footwork, called kay-men-bo, used atop Ng-Mui's mui-fa-jeong, a series of stumps driven into the ground. Technique and form, according to Hop-Gar philosophy, are a means to an end; one learns through formalized training but, finally becomes free, discarding all that is not natural and spontaneous.
For students who wish to study martial arts for self-defense purposes, the Hsing Chen program teaches an extremely effective means of dealing with an attacker. Training in this program involves the study of close distance fighting, joint trapping and breaking, throws and takedowns, hand and foot striking as well as weapons training. Because Hsing Chen Kung Fu is not dependent on strength but on a mastery of angles and the mechanics of the body, it is an ideal self-defense system for men and women.
Hsing Yi Ch'uan is one of the three orthodox "internal" styles of Chinese martial art (the other two being T'ai Chi Ch'uan and Pa Kua Chang). "Hsing" refers to form and "Yi" to the mind or intent.
"Ch'uan" literally means fist and denotes a method of unarmed combat. Hsing Yi Ch'uan is commonly refered to as "Form and Mind" or "Form and Will" boxing. The name illustrates the strong emphasis placed on motion being subordinate to mental control.
Origin: Shan Hsi Province, China.
The exact origins of Hsing Yi Ch'uan are unknown. The creation of the Art is traditionally attributed to the famous general and patriot Yueh Fei (1103- 1141) of the Sung Dynasty. There is, however, no historical data to support this claim. The style was originally called "Hsin Yi
Liu He Ch'uan" (Heart Mind Six Harmonies Boxing). The Six Harmonies refer to the Three Internal Harmonies (the heart or desire coordinates with the intent; the intent coordinates with the ch'i or vital energy; the ch'i coordinates with the stength), and the Three External Harmonies (the shoulders coordinate with the hips; the elbows coordinate with the knees and the hands coordinate with the feet).

The earliest reliable information we have makes reference to Chi Lung Feng (also known as Chi Chi Ke) of Shan Hsi Province as being the first to teach the art of Hsin Yi Liu He Ch'uan. Chi Lung Feng was active near the end of the Ming Dynasty (early 1600's) and was a master of spear fighting (he had the reputation of possessing "divine" skill with the spear). He is recorded as stating "I have protected myself in violent times with my spear. Now that we are in a time of "peace" and our weapons have all been destroyed, if I am unarmed and meet the unexpected, how shall I defend myself?" In answer to his own question, Chi Lung Feng reportedly created a style of weaponless combat based on his expertise with the spear. He refered to his art as "Liu He," the Six Harmonies.
Chi Lung Feng had two very famous students. One was from from He Bei province and was named Ts'ao Chi Wu. The other was from He Nan Province and was named Ma Hsueh Li. It was at this point in history that the Hsin Yi Liu He Ch'uan (now also refered to as Hsing Yi Ch'uan) divided into three related yet separate styles, the Shan Hsi, He Nan and He Bei schools. After spending 12 years studying Hsin Yi Ch'uan with Chi Lung Feng, Ts'ao Chi Wu entered the Imperial Martial Examinations and placed first (this was the most prestigious honor one could possibly win as a martial artist in old China, and assured the victor a high government position). Ts'ao passsed on his art to two brothers, Tai Lung Pang and Tai Lin Pang.
Tai Lung Pang passed his Art on to Li Luo Neng (also known as Li Neng Jan). Li holds the distinction of being the greatest Hsing Yi Boxer in the styles' history and one of the top Chinese boxers of all time. Li Luo Neng taught his art in his native Shan Hsi Province and also taught a great number of students in He Bei Province (his duties as a bodyguard involved escorting various members of wealthy families to and from He Bei). Two of Li's most famous Shan Hsi students were Sung Shi Jung and Che Yi Chai. His most famous He Bei student was the formidable Kuo Yun Shen (who reportedly defeated all comers with his "Beng Ch'uan," a straight punch to the body). Kuo Yun Shen passed on his art to Wang Fu Yuan, Liu Ch'i Lan and Sun Lu Tang among others; Liu Ch'i Lan passed on the Art to the most famous practitioners of this century, including Li Ts'un Yi and Chang Chan Kuei (also known as Chang Chao Tung). There are many practitioners of all three sub-systems active today, and Hsing Yi Ch'uan is still a popular and well respected style of martial art in China.
The art is divided into two main systems, the Ten Animal and Five Element respectively. The Five element system is further divided into two major branches, the He Bei and Shan Hsi styles. The Ten animal style is closest to the original Hsin Yi Liu He Ch'uan in form and practice. The movements in the forms are patterned after the spirit of various animals in combat, including the Dragon, Tiger, Monkey, Horse, Chicken, Hawk, Snake, Bear, Eagle and Swallow. The Five Element based systems have five basic forms (including Splitting, Drilling, Crushing, Pounding, and Crossing) as the foundation of the art. These basic energies are later expanded into Twelve Animal forms which include variations of the animal forms found in the Ten Animal styles as well as two additional animals, the Tai (a mythical bird) and the Tuo (a type of water lizard, akin to the aligator). Training in all systems centers on repetitive practice of single movements which are later combined into more complicated linked forms.
The direction of movement in Hsing Yi Ch'uan forms is predominately linear. Practitioners "walk" through the forms coordinating the motions of their entire bodies into one focused flow. The hands, feet and torso all "arrive" together and the nose, front hand and front foot are along one verticle line when viewed from the front (san jian hsiang chiao). The arms are held in front of the body and the practitioner lines up his or her centerline with opponent's centerline. A familiar adage of Hsing Yi Ch'uan is that "the hands do not leave the (area of the) heart and the elbows do not leave the ribs." There are few kicks in the style and the techniques are of a predominately percussive nature. Great emphasis is placed upon the ability to generate power with the whole body and focus it into one pulse which is released in a sudden burst.
Hsing Yi is characteristically aggressive in nature and prefers to move into the opponent with a decisive blow at the earliest opportunity. The style prizes economy of motion and the concept of
simultaneous attack and defense. As the name of the style implies, the form or "shape" of the movements is the outward, physical manifestation of the "shape" of one's intent. A fundamental principle underlying all styles of Hsing Yi Ch'uan is that the mind controls and leads the movement of the body.
Training in He Nan (Ten Animal) Hsin Yi Liu He Ch'uan includes basic movements designed to condition and develop the striking ability of the "Seven Stars" (the head, shoulders, elbows, hands, hips, knees and feet). From there the student will progress to learning the basic animal forms. Form practice consists of repeating single movements while walking foward in various straight line patterns. Later, the single movements are combined into linked forms. The techniques are
relatively simple and straightforeward and rely on the ability to generate force with almost any part of the body (the Seven Stars). Also included at more advanced levels are weapons forms (including the straight sword, staff and spear).
The Five Element based styles of Hsing Yi Ch'uan (Shan Hsi and He Bei) traditionally begin training with stance keeping (Chan Chuang). The fundamental posture is called "San Ti" (Three Bodies) or "San Ts'ai" (Three Powers, refering to heaven, earth and man). It is from this
posture that all of the movements in the style are created and most teachers place great emphasis upon it. After stance keeping the student begins to learn the Five Elements (Wu Hsing). These are the basic movements of the art and express all the possible combinations of motion which produce percussive power. After a certain level of proficiency is acquired in the practice of the Five Elements, the student goes on to learn the Twelve Animal and linked forms. The Twelve Animal forms are variations of the Five Elements expressed through the format of the spirit of animals in combat. There are several two-person combat forms which teach the student the correct methods of attack and defense and the applications of the techniques practiced in the solo forms. Five Element based styles also include weapons training (the same weapons as the He Nan styles).
As mentioned above, Hsing Yi Ch'uan is divided into three related yet distinct styles: He Nan Hsin Yi Liu He Ch'uan and Shan Hsi/He Bei Hsing Yi Ch'uan.
He Nan Hsin Yi Liu He Ch'uan is characterized by powerful swinging movements of the arms and the ability to strike effectively with every part of the body. This system is very powerful and aggressive in nature and the movements are simple and straightforeward.
He Bei style Five Element Hsing Yi Ch'uan emphasizes larger and more extended postures, strict and precise movements and powerful palm and fist strikes.
Shan Hsi style Five Element Hsing Yi Ch'uan is characterized by smaller postures with the arms held closer to the body, light and agile footwork and a relatively "softer" approach to applying
technique (Shan Hsi Hsing Yi places a greater emphasis on evasiveness than the other styles).
Southern style of Chinese kung-fu stressing powerful hand techniques, delivered from strong low stances. As the story goes, five monks, called the Five Ancestors, escaped from the Shaolin Temple during its destruction by government troops. One monk, Chi-Sim, made his way to southern China, taking refuge among the boat people, where he was recruited by a floating opera troupe to teach martial arts Chi-Sim reportedly modified his Shaolin style accordingly; kicks and the more intricate balancing maneuvers found in northern strains of Shaolin were excluded.
The origination of the style is credited to Fong-T'sai after his escape from the Shaolin Temple. Another source holds that the originators of the style were Ng-Mui and Mui-Hin.
The system is based on the movements of the five animals: dragon, snake, tiger, leopard, and crane. A famous exponent of this system is Yuen-Yik-Kai, in Hong Kong.
Form of northern Chinese kung-fu dating to the 12th
Hung Ga Gung Fu is a traditional gungfu style originating from the southern Siulam monastery. The style is said to be created between 1770 and 1800 by the legendary Hung Heigun. Hung Heigun combined his Siulam Lohon style with Black Tiger and White Crane style, forming a first basic version of the style. Much later, around 1900, the famous Wong Feihung changed the style completely. Based on exchange with other styles many techniques were added and sets were rechoreographed and newly developed. The stances became wider and deeper and the style was changed into a five animal style, namely Dragon, Snake, Tiger, Panther and Crane.
Hwa Rang Do is a comprehensive martial arts system whose training encompasses unarmed combat, weaponry, internal training and healing techniques. Translated, Hwa Rang Do means "the way of flowering manhood".
In March 1942 present day founder of Hwa Rang Do, Dr. Joo Bang Lee and his brother, Joo Sang Lee was introduced to the Buddhist monk Suahm Dosa by their father, who was a personal friend of the monk, and they began their formal training aged 5 & 6.
The brothers lived and trained as the sole students with the monk mostly in weekends and during School vacations but also trained in other martial arts when they were unable to train under Suahm Dosa. Influences include Boxing, Yudo, Komdo, and Tang Soo Do. In addition the Lee Brothers attained Master level of Dae Dong Ryu Yu Sul (modern name - Hapkido) from its founder Choi Yong Sool in October 1956.
In April 1960 Dr. Joo Bang Lee created and founded his martial art by combining Suham Dosa's techniques with the other systems he had trained. He choose the name Hwa Rang Kwan to describe his system and this also marked the first time the Hwa Rang was used publicly in
connection with unarmed Korean martial arts. There is no way of knowing if the techniques Suahm Dosa taught the brothers actually was the martial art of the Silla Hwa Rang, or another form of monk martial art.
In 1967, at the request of President Park, Dr. Joo Bang Lee organized the unification of the Korean martial arts and directed the Unified Korean Martial Arts Exposition on May 27, 1968 at the Jang Chung Sports Arena in Seoul. Since it was difficult for all martial art organization leaders to agree on methods of administration, this organization was also disbanded shortly after the exposition.
Following the dissolution, Dr. Joo Bang Lee concentrated his efforts solely on the development of his martial art to the exclusion of all other martial arts. He renamed it Hwa Rang Do translated to mean "The Way of the Flowering Manhood". (Do - represents "the way" or the "martial art"). Also this marked the first time the character for "Way" was used in connection with the Hwa Rang and the unarmed martial arts.
In 1968, Head Grandmaster Joo Sang Lee introduced Hwa Rang Do to the United States of America. Dr. Joo Bang Lee became the system's supreme grandmaster upon Suahm Dosa's death in 1969. He immigrated to America in 1972 and founded the World Hwa Rang Do Association and since then Hwa Rang Do has spread all over the world. Today Dr. Joo Bang Lee presides over the World Hwa Rang Do Association, Hwa Rang Do World Headquarters in Downey, California (USA).
Hwa Rang Do is a combination of UM (soft/circular movement) and YANG (hard/linear movement). The Mu Sul (martial aspects) of Hwa Rang Do can be further explained in four distinct - though interconnecting - major paths of study.
NAE GONG - deals with developing, controlling, and directing one's Ki, or internal energy force, through breathing and meditation exercises in conjunction with specific physical techniques.
WAE GONG - Wae gong includes more than 4000 offensive and defensive combative applications. Combining elements predominantly tense and linear in nature with those soft and circular, these techniques mesh to form a natural fighting system. This phase includes full instruction in all hand strikes and blocks (trapping and grabbing as well as deflection applications, using the hands, wrist, forearm, elbows, arms and shoulders), 365 individual kicks, throws and falls from any position and onto any surfaces, human anatomical structure as it pertains to combat applications (knowing and utilizing the body's weak points to effectively control the opponent, regardless of their size), joint manipulation and breaking, finger pressure-point application, prisoner arrest, control and transport, grappling applications, forms, offensive choking and flesh-tearing techniques, defense against multiple opponents, breaking techniques, counter-attacks, and killing techniques.
MOO GI GONG - involves the offensive and defensive use of the over 108 traditional weapons found within 20 categories of weaponry. By learning these various weapon systems, the practitioner can most effectively utilize any available object as a weapon as the situation
SHIN GONG - is the study, development, and control of the human mind in order to attain one's full potential and mental capabilities. Techniques are taught to achieve an increase in one's total awareness, focus, and concentration levels. Included are instruction in : controlling one's mind; development of the "sixth sense"; memory recall; the study of human character and personalities; practical psychology; visualization; the art of concealment and stealth as utilized by special agents (Sulsa); as well as advanced, secretive applications. Hwa Rang Do teaches both the martial art (mu-sul) and healing art (in-sul). If one is able to injure or worse, then he/she should know how to heal as well, once again maintaining harmony through balance of opposites. First aid applications, revival techniques are taught in conjunction with the traditional full studies of acupuncture, Royal Family acupressure, herbal and natural medicines, and bone setting.
A typical training session includes Meditation (beginning and end of class). Total body stretching and warm-up exercises. Basic punching and kicking practice. Ki power exercises. "Basic-8" combination drills (which vary by belt rank). Two-man countering techniques (vary by belt rank). Open session which may include: sparring, tumbling, grappling, sweeps, or advanced techniques. Self-defense techniques. Cool down exercises. Hwa Rang Do code of ethics.

I - styles

The Art of drawing the sword for combat.This art is very old, and has strong philosophical and historical ties to Kenjutsu. It was practiced by Japanese warriors for centuries. The object is to draw the sword perfectly, striking as it is drawn, so that the opponent has no chance to defend against the strike. Training is usually practiced in solo form (kata), but also has partner forms (kumetachi).
Sub-Styles: Muso Shinden Ryu, Muso Jikishin Ryu, and others.
A traditional game of the Indian state of Mizoram, Inbuan resembles combat-wrestling. The sport is played in a circle, 15 to 16 feet in diameter, on a carpet or grass. The winner, is the one who succeeds in lifting his opponent off the ground, using strength, skill and rapid movement of the arms and legs. By using the legs, the aim is to loosen the grip of an opponent's legs or feet, but kicking is prohibited.
The contest is conducted over three rounds, each of 30 to 60 second duration, or till one of the players is lifted off the ground. Stepping outside the ring and bending of knees is not permitted. The belt or catch-hold rope, around the waist, has to remain tight all through the game.
Inbuan as a sport became known only, after the Mizos migrated from Burma to the Lushai hills. It is said, that it was invented in the village of Dungtland in 1750 A.D. It is a game of strength, which every newcomer to the village had to demonstrate, when matched against the strongest man in the village.
Ikkaku Ryu Jutte-jutsu or forked truncheon art first appeared during Muromachi jidai becoming popular with law enforcement during the Edo period. The art form originated with the third successor to the Shindo Muso Ryu, Matsuzaki, Gonemon.
Irish collar and Elbow wrestling as practiced in the 19th century greatly resembled the wrestling in Cornwall and the Breton wrestling(gouren). This suggests an almost pan-celtic style of wrestling that may have had it's origin in a time when the celtic peoples dispersed themselves over the British isles.
The Irish cudgel/cane which is known by many names, the most popular used by Anglo writers being Shillelagh, has come to symbolize Irish culture almost as much as the Shamrock. Often seen nowadays as a tourist favorite at airport gift shops. A quaint little twisted knobby stick complete with a green bow and a nifty painted shamrock can be found anywhere there may be a tourist looking for an Irish souvenir. This handy little item has very little to do with the oaken or blackthorn cudgel of the early 19th century and earlier.
From a young age Irish boys were exposed to the traditions of the bata, when they came of age to carry a stick it was as if the journey into manhood had taken place. A young man was taught by his father to hold the bata tightly so as not to be taken unaware at the fair. Many young Irishmen practiced with the stick regularly. Constant sparring was needed so as not to lose face at the fair or Pattern. Each faction had a trainer which they called the Maighistir Prionnsa or fencing master who taught the use of the bata.
While the stick was carried by the Irishman most everywhere he went, it was at the fair, wake or pattern that most of the fights broke out. To quote an Irishman at the funeral of his father in northern Leinster "Tis a sad day, when my father is put into the clay, and not even one blow struck at his funeral." This quote helps show the Irish view towards rowdiness at funerals and wakes in the early 1800's. The Factions were sure to be present at both wakes and fairs often roughing up a person who had refused to join them but more often fighting members of other factions over some insult real or imaginary or even just for the love of fighting.
A little about the Faction fights: Faction fighting was prevalent from the seventeenth century up until the famine of the 1840's. Most often the factions were members of certain families or of political groups. Some of the more infamous factions were named Shanvest, Caravats, The Three year Olds, The four Year Olds, Coffeys, Reaskawallaghs, Cooleens, Black Mulvihills, Bogboys, Tobbers. Sometimes the fights would consist of hundreds or even thousands of men and women. The weapon of choice was the Bata. Although other weapons were brought to the fights guns were rarely used (at least by the faction fighters...the police trying to control the riots are a different story all together) Women used rocks, often wrapped up in a sock at their weapon, leaving the stick play to the men. Even though the women were free to hurl stones at the men and to wallop them with their loaded socks it was considered a foul play to hit a woman with a stick. A large staff called a wattle was sometimes seen during the faction fights as well as the odd sword that had perhaps been in the family for years. Some fighters specialized in the use of two sticks. This was called the Troid de bata or two stick fight. The stick held in the off hand was used as a shield. There are reports of people using a rocks in their offhand to bludgeon their opponents when they got inside and there is even mention of bayonets being used in the offhand. After the 1840's the Factions fights became fewer and farther between. The last recorded Faction Fight was at a fair in Co Tipperary in 1887.
Fights with the bata were not always of the faction variety, some were sport while others were conflicts of a more personal nature. One tradtion at fair was for a man to drag his coat on the ground behind him and exclaim"Who'll tread on the tail of my coat?" or to ask a crowd "Who'll say black is the white of my eye?" These combats were not always a deady duel, often they were friendly if somewhat rough contests. The bata was held somewhat towards the lower middle of the stick and was snapped out with the wrist rather than swung like a tradional cudgel. it was a simple art in terms of numbers of techniques. yest it took years of practice just as any other weapon to achieve mastery of. Sir john Barrington a member of Irish Parliament wrote in his 1790 book titled "Personal Sketches of His Own Times" wrote that the stickfights were exhibitions of skill...."like sword exercises and did not appear savage. Nobody was disfigured thereby, or rendered fit for a doctor. I never saw a bone broken or a dngerous contusion from what was called 'whacks' of a shillelagh (which was never too heavy)."
Isshinryu Karate-do was founded by Master Tatsuo Shimabuko. This style was officially recognized on January 15, 1954. For 32 years Master Shimabuko studied Goju-ryu, Shorin-ryu and Kobudo. He formed the Isshinryu style utilizing the best techniques of each art. Isshinryu was known as the "Master Style" because of its approval by all the Okinawan Karate Masters before becoming officially recognized. A student from a traditional Japanese Karate Dojo visiting an Isshinryu Dojo would find this style of martial arts odd. Stances are high and kicks are low. The traditional "corkscrew" punch is not used at all, rather a vertical fist with the thumb on top locking the fist is utilized. Also, blocks are executed vertically. Hard bone to bone are not used. Instead, the blocking area is the muscle found between the ulna and radial bone. Isshinryu is simple and direct. The system is based on 15 upper body techniques, 15 lower body techniques, 8 empty hand Kata and 5 weapon Kata. Master Shimabuku believed that no 2 people were exactly the same and each would have to adapt their techniques to their own needs at a given moment. The Kanji that form the word Isshinryu translates as "One Heart Method". This Kanji also means concentration. Isshinryu truly means to clear your consciousness of all useless or wasteful thoughts. Allow your mind to concentrate on your ultimate goal only.
This style was created in 1952 from Ryûshô Sakagami (1915-1933). He was the disciple of Kenwa Mabuni (founder of [censored]ô-Ryû) and from Moden Yabiku (Ko-Bu-Jutsu). The Itôsu-Ryû uses higher stances than [censored]ô-Ryû and also almost all traditional weapons of Okinawa like Nunchaku, Tonfa, Bo and Saï.
A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.


#313549 - 01/09/07 07:43 AM Re: A to Z of Martial Arts - J to K [Re: Dobbersky]
Dobbersky Offline
Peace Works!!!!

Registered: 03/13/06
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Loc: Manchester United Kingdom
J - Styles

An indigenous Black American fighting art, it was started in the 19th Century America, when slaves were first institutionalized and needed to defend themselves. It evolved secretly within the U.S. penal system, with regional styles reflecting the physical realities in specific institutions, e.g., Comstock style, San Quentin style, and others
A non-classical form of Chinese Kung-fu that was founded by Bruce Lee in the 1960's. It is a fluid art that, at times, resembles many other martial arts, since it absorbs what is useful form other arts and rejects that which is useless. "Jeet" means to stop, "kune" means fist, and "do" means way, thus it is "the way of the intercepting fist.". Jeet-kune-do is formless and constantly changing. Its main tenet is "absorb what is useful, reject what is useless, add what is specifically your own." Since Lee's death in 1973, the art has evolved into two variations: original Jeet-kune-do, which is promoted as the art Lee practiced until his death; and Jeet-kune-do concepts, which applies Lee's strategies and philosophies to martial arts techniques drawn from various Indonesian, Philippine, and Thai styles. Jeet-kune-do is renowned for its street effectiveness and is almost never used in competition. Training includes instruction in kicking, punching, trapping, and grappling. Jeet-kune-do emphasizes simplicity. There are no set techniques, it emphasizes improvised problem solving. Sparring emphasizes blocking and attacking at the dame time along a centerline.

Quick throws, attacks and counterattacks, Chin Na (joint locks), kicking, fist and palm strikes and more . . . Jing Quan Dao "Combat Tactics of Chinese Police" is the modern hardcore combat system of China. Jing Quan Tao literally means "way of the alert fist", but Jing also means police. Since many law enforcement officers implement this method. Master Alexander Tao - a Guinness Book of World Records holder and master of the ancient fighting arts of Shaolin Temple Wudang Mountain and Liang Mountain developed this new martial art for actual street combat situations.
It is a powerful kick boxing art developed as the result of dedicated research and training over a 20 year period. It includes a combination of techniques from many other powerful Kung Fu styles and practices.
The comprehensive scientific research on Jing Quan Dao involves the noted eight training systems, which develop both a trainee's inner strong mind and outer toughness. Such five functional features have been proven in body sculpting, self-defense, kick boxing and in-ring competition, Kung Fu movie roles, on-stage exciting martial arts show, and Qi Kung treatment to disease. It is not only the graceful and swift body movement arts in martial arts, but also a powerful weapon in a trainer's mind and body.
Jing Quan Dao has been shown in more than a dozen countries, and received a wide range of endorsements, has been commended in the Kung Fu circle, and has produced outstanding winners.
Jing Quan Dao is the rediscovery of diverse stunts from China with thousands of years of history, and it has contributed to the development of Kung Fu worldwide.
Jing Quan Dao's training consists of four levels: entry, intermediate, advanced, and super, including module, schema, kickboxing, and Qi Kung. It has been formed into an explicit full vertical training course. The comprehensiveness and availability of this powerful Kung Fu can be effectively used in to train military or police special force.
Jogo do Pau ("stick fencing" is a possible translation to English) has developed in the North of Portugal (Alto Minho and Trás-os-Montes) as a self-defence art that could help survive bad encounters with robbers, or serve for violent action (rival families or villages, settlement of issues, etc).
There is strong evidence that its technique has most probably derived from a dance in India, which would have been imported and adapted after the Discoveries, a plausible reasoning since it was never practised in Galiza (the neighbouring region of North-West Spain, with close linguistic and cultural ties with Minho and Trás-os-Montes); whatever proves to be true, it certainly has nothing to do with the Robin Hood stories or with the dance known as the Pauliteiros de Miranda (related to Asturain folklore).
True to its probable Asiatic origin, it is an art of combat with great mobility and high efficiency. At least until the beginning of the 20th century the masters of Jogo do Pau were very sought and earned substantial revenue from the lessons they gave. There are numerous references, including in novels, to the devastating effects that the so-called "rixas de pau" (Jogo do Pau battles) and "varrer de feira" (literally, market sweeping), and to the bad reputation that the fighters earned because of that; not least, the guerrila set up by Zé do Telhado against the Napoleon invasion of the North (and other historical episodes) has used Jogo do Pau.
During the 19th century the Jogo do Pau was brought to the region of Lisbon by a northern master, who adapted it producing a hybrid technique with that of the sabre. In this "school", Jogo do Pau is rather exhibitional, and the bellic character of the original form of the North is secondary. It was integrated in the sports modalities of clubs such as the Ginásio Clube Português and the Ateneu Comercial de Lisboa, and enjoyed a great following as a second sport for gymnastics athletes, for example. Many of the fundamental aspects of the original fight, however, namely th fight against more than one adversary, are totally absent from the Lisbon variant. The image to the right shows Mestre (master) Gameiro executing a defence in the Jogo da Cadeira (Jogo do Pau sitting on a chair), typical of the Lisbon school.
The rapid decline of Jogo do Pau in the North, during the 20th century, was the consequence of two factors: the growing use of guns for the same purpose, and emigration. Towards the end of the seventies only a few of the ancient players remained in the North, aged, not practising for tens of years and isolated, and some schools in Cabeceiras de Basto, Salto (Montalegre) and Fafe. In the Lisbon school, the players born between 1910 and 1930 were the only memory of the generation that lived through the best years of this school, providing a continuity to the seventies, when young practicioners were able to collect the heritage. Among these younger players the name of Nuno Corvello Russo (who is in all photos in this page) is of the highest relevance to ensuring that continuity. Apart from the schools at the G. C. P. and the A. C. L., I also knew of the school led by Mestre Chula at Alhos Vedros and another at Poceirão. I practised Jogo do Pau always at the G. C. P. between 1976 and 1983, first under Armando Sacadura and later with Nuno Russo.
The role of Nuno Russo in the maintenance and development of Jogo do Pau is nothing less than of a saviour. He has developed an excellent technique at the A. C. L., and visited the North frequently, acquainting himself especially with the school of Cabeceiras de Basto, to master the traditional art of the North, with great success as well; he has also interviewed and filmed old players and masters in the North. Thanks to this activity a substantial repository could be compiled and organized, invaluable not only for its sports content but also ethnographically. Beyond that, by teaching at the G. C. P., the Fuzileiros (who correspond to the Marines special troops), at Physical Education Faculties, etc., he has contributed to atracting the interest in the modality by new players
An ancient form of Chinese combat, where close range grappling techniques are emphasised
Japanese method of using the jo (long stick), practiced at Waseda University in Tokyo and in lesser known dojo in Japan and abroad. Jojutsu is reputed to have been invented by the great swordsman Muso Gunnosuke about 400 years ago, after a bout with wooden swords won by the legendary Miyamoto Musashi.
According to this tradition Gunnosuke withdrew to a Shinto shrine and after a period of purification, meditation, and training with the staff, created the art of the jo, blending techniques of spearfighting and swordsmanship with those of other, minor methods of combat. He named his style Shindo-Muso ryu and challenged Musashi again. This time, Gunnosuke mounted an effective defense and penetrated Musashi's own two-sword strategy.
The modern study of the jo, known as jodo (way of the stick), usually leads to other arts and weapons, such as the heavy club (tanjo), the chained sickle (kusari-gama), the fast draw (iai), as well as to blows in karate and kempo or throws in judo and aikido.
Jojutsu, as adapted for modern police purposes, is referred to as keibo soho, or police stick art.
Judo is a sport and a way to get in great shape, but is also very useful for self-defense.
Judo is derived from Jujutsu (see Jujutsu). It was created by Professor Jigoro Kano who was born in Japan in 1860 and who died in 1938 after a lifetime of promoting Judo. Mastering several styles of jujutsu in his youth he began to develop his own system based on modern sports principles. In 1882 he founded the Kodokan Judo Institute in Tokyo where he began teaching and which still is the international authority for Judo. The name Judo was chosen because it means the "gentle way". Kano emphasised the larger educational value of training in attack and defense so that it could be a path or way of life that all people could participate in and benefit from. He eliminated some of the traditional jujutsu techniques and changed training methods so that most of the moves could be done with full force to create a decisive victory without injury.
The popularity of Judo increased dramatically after a famous contest hosted by the Tokyo police in 1886 where the Judo team defeated the most well-known jujutsu school of the time. It then became a part of the Japanese physical education system and began its spread around the world. In 1964 men's Judo competition became a part of the Olympics, the only eastern martial art that is an official medal sport. In 1992 Judo competition for women was added to the Olympics.
Judo is practiced on mats and consists primarily of throws (nage-waza), along with katame-waza (grappling), which includes osaekomi-waza (pins), shime-waza (chokes), and kansetsu-waza (armbars). Additional techniques, including atemi-waza (striking) and various joint locks are found in the judo katas. Judo is generally compared to wrestling but it retains its unique combat forms. As a daughter to Jujutsu these techniques are also often taught in Judo classes.

Because the founder was involved in education (President of Tokyo University) Judo training emphasizes mental, moral and character development as much as physical training. Most instructors stress the principles of Judo such as the principle of yielding to overcome greater strength or size, as well as the scientific principles of leverage, balance, efficiency, momentum and control. Judo would be a good choice for most children because it is safe and fun.
Judo training has many forms for different interests. Some students train for competition by sparring and entering the many tournaments that are available. Other students study the traditional art and forms (kata) of Judo. Other students train for self-defense, and yet other students play Judo for fun. Black belts are expected to learn all of these aspects of Judo.
Because Judo originated in modern times it is organized like other major sports with one international governing body, the International Judo Federation (IJF), and one technical authority (Kodokan). There are several small splinter groups (such as the Zen Judo Assoc.) who stress judo as a "do" or path, rather than a sport.
Unlike other martial arts, Judo competition rules, training methods, and rank systems are relatively uniform throughout the world.
Old, practical, fighting art. A parent to Judo, Aikido, and Hapkido.
The begining of Ju-jutsu can be found in the turbulent period of Japanese history between the 8th and 16th Century. During this time, there was almost constant civil war in Japan and the classical
weaponed systems were developed and constantly refined on the battle field. Close fighting techniques were developed as part of these systems to be use in conjunction with weapons against armoured, armed apponents. It was from these techniques that Ju-jutsu arose.
The first publicly recognised Ju-jutsu ryu was formed by Takenouchie Hisamori in 1532 and consisted of techniques of sword, jo-stick and dagger as well as unarmed techniques.
In 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu brought peace to Japan by forming the Tokugawa military government. This marked the beginning of the Edo period of Japanese history (1603-1868), during which waring ceased to be a dominant feature of Japanese life.
In the beginning of this period there was a general shift from weaponed forms of fighting to weaponless styles. These weaponless styles were developed from the grappling techniques of the weaponed styles and were collectively known as ju-jutsu. During the height of the Edo period, there were more than 700 systems of jujutsu.
The end of the Edo was marked by the Meiji Restoration, an abortive civil war that moved power from the Shogun back to the Emperor. A large proportion of the Samurai class supported the Shogun during the war. Consequently, when power was restored to the Emperor, many things
related to the Samurai fell into disrepute. An Imperial edict was decreed, declaring it a criminal offence to practice the old style combative martial arts. During the period of the Imperial edict,
Ju-jutsu was almost lost. However, some masters continued to practice their art "under-ground", or moved to other countries, allowing the style to continue. By the mid twenty century, the ban on ju-jutsu in Japan had lifted, allowing the free practicing of the art.
The style encompasses throws, locks, and striking techniques, with a strong emphasis on throws, locks, and defensive techniques. It is also characterized by in-fighting and close work. It is a circular, hard/soft, external style.
Training is practical with a heavy emphasis on sparring and mock combat.
There are many sub-styles, each associated with a different "school" (Ryu). Here is a partial list: Daito Ryu, Danzan Ryu, Shidare Yanagi Ryu, Hokuto Ryu, Hontai Yoshin Ryu, Sosuishi Ryu, Kito Ryu, Kyushin Ryu.
A more modern addition to this list is "Gracie Jujutsu", so named because of its development by the Gracie family of Brazil. Gracie Jujutsu (or GJJ as it has come to be known on rec.martial-arts) has a heavy emphasis on grappling/groundfighting. The Gracies have come into public promenence over the past year or two through a series of "no rules" martial arts contests known as the Ultimate Fighting Championships (UFC), some of which have been won by Royce pronounced "Hoyce" in the Portugese language) Gracie.
Jung Sim Do is a Traditional Korean Martial Art that encompasses the three major Martial Arts of Korea. These being Tae Kwon Do, Hap Ki Do, and Yu Do. The techniques of these styles are then taught under the Philosophy of Jung Sim Do; meaning straight mind, or single mind, way. This philosophy stresses the traditional oriental principles and values, such as rigorous mental and physical discipline, concentration, and most importantly respect; for others as well as oneself. These are virtues that seems to be in short supply in our modern "quick fix" society.
The true martial arts are not a sport. Sparring, and self-defense are important, but they are not the ultimate goal. Control. Control of body and mind was the original focus of these arts and should be today. In the martial arts world of today, most people are concerned with what rank they hold, and how much better they are than someone else. The only real competition in the martial arts should come from within. This is everyone's worst enemy, themselves.
The martial arts can mean different things to different people. For some they are the perfect vehicle for achieving physical fitness, while others regard them as an ideal means of self-protection in an ever increasing violent age, but they are much more. Martial arts can lead to a path of self-discovery and self-renewal and it is completely up to you which path to take and how much you can achieve.

K - styles

Kabaddi is a rare and unusual style, which grew out of yoga and Dhyana Buddhism. Monks of ancient India were said to hold great power, but to use that power they had to achieve such a state of tranquillity that it could not be used offensively. The combative uses of these techniques are collectively known as Kabaddi, and it is one of the most difficult styles to master, simply because of the sheer level of control required.
Hawaiian form of stick fighting
An eclectic martial art that is a blend of Karate, Judo, Kempo, and Boxing, from which arts it takes its name.
Kajukenbo was synthesized in the Palomas settlements of Hawaii during the years 1949-1952. Five practitioners of their respective martial arts developed Kajukenbo to complement each others styles to allow effective fighting at all ranges and speeds. The last living founder of Kajukenbo is Sijo Adriano D. Emperado who practiced kempo and escrima. (Other founders are P.Y.Y. Choo, Frank Ordonez, J. Holck, and Professor C. Chang). It was decided that kempo would be the
scafolding around which Kajukenbo was built. The arts drawn upon to found Kajukenbo are Tang soo do, judo, ju-jitsu, kempo, and chu'an fa gung fu (Chinese boxing); hence the name Ka-ju-kem-bo (Tang Soo Do was shortened as a form of karate, even though that is technically incorrect).
To test the effectiveness of their origional techniques the five founders would get into fights around the Palomas settlements (the worst slum in Hawaii at the time). If the technique succeeded
consistently in streetfighting it was kept as part of the system. From these field test came Kajukenbo's Quins (known as the Palomas sets (forms or kata)), Natural laws (self-defense), Tricks (close-quarters fighting), and grab arts (escapes).
Kajukenbo concentrates on being an effective art at all ranges of fighting, kicking -> Punching -> Trapping -> Grappling. While many schools of karate and Korean martial arts concentrate on kata, Kajukenbo stresses the self-defence movements over the relatively fewer forms in the art. The reasoning behind this is that a practitioner must be capable of defending himself in streetfighting situations before turning inward to perfect the 'art' of Kajukenbo. At higher levels there is meditative and chi training, but the author cannot comment further at his level of experience.
Kajukenbo stresses the following-up of techniques based on an opponents reactions and not stopping with just one hit. The reasoning is that while one should strive to end a fight with the fewest techniques nessesary, it is important to know how an opponent will respond to attacks, and how best to take advantage of his reactions. A major ethical point behind my instruction was, "If he starts the fight, you decide when the fight is over."
The training is physically intense and very demanding. Exercise is a part of the class structure to insure that practitioners will be physically capable of defending themselves outside of the dojo. The warm-up and callistenics typically last 1/3 of the class period. Emphasis is placed on bag work (kick, punching, elbows, and knees) as well as sparring and grappling (contact with control). After a certain amount of time training, students begin to throw real punches at each other and their partner is expected to react appropriately or face the consequences. Learning to absorb and soften an impact is also a major facet of training. Quins (kata) are performed to fine-tune a person's movements while working with partners for self defense teaches a student how to manipulate an opponent and follow up on his reactions.
Kajukenpo, formed in 1970 by Algene Caraulia, and headquartered in Cleveland, Ohio. Kenpo Karate is considered to be a sub-style of Kajukenbo (see Separate entry on Kenpo) and is very close to "the original" Kajukenbo. Tum Pai, created in part by Sifu Al Dacascos, is adminstered by Sifu Jon Loren, and incorporates more of the soft, internal Chinese arts.
Kajukenbo Chuan Fa was created by Dela Cruz and Professor Emperado and has been taken over by Leonard Endrizzi and Bill Owens. It includes more Chinese martial arts than Kenpo Karate and is softer but no less rigorous.
Wun Hop Kuen Do is the newest sub-style - the personal expression of Sifu Dacascos, containing the original syllabus but with more Chinese and Filipino influence.
Kalaripayit is an ancient Indian martial art that uses pressurepoint strikes, yoga stretching, and venous strangely shaped weapons. Its name literally means "battlefield training." Many researchers theorize that it was the basis upon which the Chinese martial arts developed because they contend that Bodhidharma, the Chinese Buddhist monk who taught at Shaolin Temple, would have learned Kalaripayit in India and transplanted it, along with his religion, to China. Few kalaripayit practitioners teach anywhere in the world-even in India. Much of the art is said to have degenerated into a martial dance.
Kalari Payat is the grappling art of India. Each one of the Kalari Payat techniques is a complete finishing tactic, which enables the person to get into the enemy and put him under control. Although it has developed over the centuries, there are techniques that very much resemble Pankration, and it is thought that pankration may be one of its root styles. The art has it's origin with the training of soldiers, Buddhist monks as well as noblemen who had to learn the art, because there were frequent raids on the Kings and Princes' of Kerala (South India) by neighboring war lords. Kalari Payat was developed a few thousand years ago in the state of Kerala in India, which was introduced in Malaysia by the Mahaguru Ustaz Haji Hamzah Haji Abu, who is the founder of the International Dynamic Self Defense Kalari Payat (FIDSDK). Kalari Payat, had it's origin in Kerala State, South -West of India. This is why there is a suggestion that the soldiers of Alexander the Great may have brought pankration to western India and influenced the local grappling arts.
It gives more importance to footwork and hand attacks. The special feature of the Southern System is Adimura-64 ( the 64 types of attacking blows & locks). the bare hand has more importance in Adimura, Thattumura, Pidimura, Marmamura and Marma Adi free hand combat. Locks and escapes are also emphasized. In the foot work systems, there are 84 types of movements. They are Ankachery Chuvadu (16), Balivazhi Chuvadu (18), Ankamvettu Chuvadu (12), Nalani (16), Karinada Chuvadu (8), Cheena Adi (6- Drunken Style) and Thattu Marma Chuvadu (8). Nerchuvadu, Pirivu Chuvadu, Vattachuvadu Charivu Chuvadu, Ottachuvadu, Ozhivuchuvadu and Pachavarnachuvadu are also included in the 84 types of movements.
Kali, Escrima, and Arnis are all terms for the native fighting arts of the Philippines, specifically the arts that use weapons. Arnis is a Northern Term, Escrima more Central, and Kali is from the South. In this view, the terms just refer to indigenous weapons fighting systems. Arnis would be the term used in Northern Luzon, Escrima from Manila through the central islands, and Kali on Mindanao. People who use this definition tend to say that the words don't matter - every village, and often every master, has a distinct style, and that's what the important thing is - "do you study Illustrisimo, Caballero, or Cabales style?" Not "do you study escrima or kali?"
Kali is an older art than Escrima or Arnis, and more comprehensive. Escrima and Arnis were Developed as streamlined, simplified ways to teach people to fight the Spanish invaders. Hence, Kali is more of a "warrior's art" while Escrima and Arnis are "soldier's arts". Kali is usually considered to have 12 areas of combat, with Escrima containing 8 or 9 of them, and Arnis 4 to 6.
The "full" coverage alluded to above usually contains the following:
1 Single Stick (or long blade)
2 Double long weapon
3 Long & Short (sword & dagger, e.g.)
4 Single dagger
5 Double Dagger
6 Palm Stick/Double-end Dagger
7 Empty Hands (punching, kicking, grappling)
8 Spear/Staff, long weapons (two-handed)
9 Flexible weapons (whip, sarong, etc.)
10 Throwing weapons
11 Projectile weapons (bows, blowguns)
12 Healing arts
A further distinction that some people make is to say that Kali is, at its heart, a blade art, while Escrima and Arnis are designed to work with sticks. This is a matter of some contention among practitioners of the various styles and schools.
A distinctive feature of all of these Filipino arts is their use of geometry. In strikes/defenses and movement, lines and angles are very important. In addition, the independent use of the hands, or hands and feet, to do two different things at the same time, is a high-level skill sought after a fair amount of experience.
Filipino styles normally classify attacks not by their weapon, or their delivery style, but by the direction of their energy - for example, a strike to the head is usually analyzed in terms of "a high
lateral strike." A punch to the gut is treated much the same as a straight knife thrust to that region would be. Students learn how to deal with the energy of the attack, and then apply that knowledge to the slight variations that come with different lengths and types of weapons.
Filipino arts place great emphasis on footwork, mobility, and body positioning. The same Concepts (of angles of attack, deflections, traps, passes, etc.) are applied to similar situations at different ranges, making the understanding of ranges and how to bridge them very important. The Filipinos make extensive use of geometric shapes, superimposing them on a combat situation, and movement patterns, to teach fighters to use their position and their movement to best advantage. Some styles emphasize line-cutting (a la Wing Chun), while some are very circular (like Aikido). Some like to stay at long range, some will move inside as soon as possible. These differences are hotly debated, as are most things, but they all work differently for different people.
Most Filipino arts, but Kali in particular, stress the importance of disarming an opponent in combat. This is not usually done gently, but by destroying an attacking weapon (break the hand, and the stick will fall.)
Sub-Styles: Latosa Escrima, Serrada Escrima, and others.
A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.


#313550 - 01/09/07 07:48 AM Re: A to Z of Martial Arts - K [Re: Dobbersky]
Dobbersky Offline
Peace Works!!!!

Registered: 03/13/06
Posts: 921
Loc: Manchester United Kingdom
Somehat generic term used for Japanese and Okinawan fighting arts that originated in Okianwa.
Karate is a term that either means "Chinese hand" or "Empty hand" depending on which Japanese or Chinese characters you use to write it. The Okinawan Karates could be said to have started in the 1600s when Chinese practitioners of various Kung Fu styles mixed and trained with local adherents of an art called "te" (meaning "hand") which was a very rough, very simple fighting style similar to Western boxing. These arts generally developed into close- range, hard, external
In the late 19th century Gichin Funakoshi trained under several of the great Okinawan Karate masters (Itosu, Azato) as well as working with Jigoro Kano (see Judo) and Japanese Kendo masters (see Kendo). Influenced by these elements, he created a new style of Karate. This
he introduced into Japan in the first decade of the 20th century and thus to the world. The Japanese Karates (or what most people refer to when they say "karate") are of this branch.
Okinawan Karate styles tend to be hard and external. In defense they tend to be circular, and in offense linear. Okinawan karate styles tend to place more emphasis on rigorous physical conditioning than the Japanese styles. Japanese styles tend to have longer, more stylistic movements and to be higher commitment. They also tend to be linear in movement, offense, and defense. Both tend to be high commitment, and tend to emphasize kicks and punches, and a strong offense as a good defense.
Training differs widely but most of the Karate styles emphasize a fairly equal measure of basic technique training (repitition of a particular technique), sparring, and forms. Forms, or kata, as they are called, are stylised patterns of attacks and defenses done in sequence for training purposes.
(Okinawan): Uechi-Ryu, Goju-Ryu, Shoin-Ryu, Isshin-Ryu
(Japanese): Shotokan, Shito-Ryu, Wado-Ryu
Here is a more complete list (complements of Howard High) in which Okinawan and Japanese styles are mixed: Ashihara, Chinto-Ryu, Chito-Ryu, Doshinkan, Gohaku-Kai, Goju-Ryu (Kanzen), Goju-Ryu (Okinawan), Goju-Ryu (Meibukan), Gosoku-Ryu, Isshin-Ryu, Kenseido, Koei-Kan, Kosho-Ryu Kenpo, Kyokushinkai, Kyu Shin Ryu, Motobu-Ryu, Okinawan Kempo, Okinawa Te, Ryokukai, Ryuken, Ryukyu Kempo, Sanzyu-Ryu , Seido, Seidokan, Seishin-Ryu, Shindo Jinen-Ryu, Shinjimasu, Shinko-Ryu, Shito-Ryu (Itosu-Kai), Shito-Ryu (Seishinkai), Shito-Ryu (Kofukan), Shito-Ryu (Kuniba Ha) , Shito-Ryu (Motobu Ha), Shorin-Ryu (Kobayashi), Shorin-Ryu (Matsubayashi), Shorin-Ryu (Shobayashi), Shorin-Ryu (Matsumura), Shorinji Kempo, Shorinji-Ryu, Shoshin-Ryu, Shotokai, Shotokan, Shotoshinkai, Shudokai, Shuri-Ryu, Shuri-Te, Uechi-Ryu , Wado-Kai, Wado-Ryu, Washin-Ryu, Yoseikan, Yoshukai, Yuishinkan.
Sub-Style Descriptions:
Wado-Ryu was founded by Hironori Ohtsuka around the 1920s. Ohtsuka studied Jujutsu for many years before becoming a student of Gichin Funakoshi. Considered by some to be Funakoshi's most brilliant student, Ohtsuka combined the movements of Jujutsu with the striking techniques of Okinawan Karate. After the death of Ohtsuka in the early 1980s, the style split into two factions: Wado Kai, headed by Ohtsuka's senior students; and Wado Ryu, headed by Ohtsuka's son, Jiro. Both factions continue to preserve most of the basic elements of the style.
Uechi-ryu Karate, although it has become one of the main Okinawan martial arts and absorbed many of the traditional Okinawan karate training methods and approaches, is historically, and to some extent technically quite separate. The "Uechi" of Uechi-ryu commemorates Uechi Kanbun, an Okinawan who went to Fuzhou, the capital city of Fujian province in China in 1897 to avoid being drafted into the Japanese army. There he studied under master Zhou Zihe for ten years,
finally opening his own school, one of the few non-Chinese who ventured to do so at the time. The man responisble for bringing Uechi-ryu to the US is George Mattson.
Uechi-ryu, unlike the other forms of Okinawan and Japanese karate mentioned in the FAQ, is only a few decades removed from its Chinese origins. Although it has absorbed quite a bit of Okinawan influence and evolved closer to such styles as Okinawan Goju-ryu over those decades, it still Retains its original Chinese flavor, both in its technique and in the culture of the dojo. It is a "half- hard, half-soft" style very similar to such southern Chinese styles as Fukienese Crane (as still practiced in the Chinese communities of Malaysia), Taiwanese Golden Eagle, and even Wing Chun. Conditioning the body for both attack and defense is a common characteristic of both Okinawan karate and southern Shaolin "street" styles, and as such is an important part of Uechi training. There is a strong internal component to the practice, including focused breathing and tensioning exercises similar to Chinese Qigong. Uechi, following its Chinese Crane heritage, emphasizes circular blocks, low snap kicks, infighting (coordinating footwork with grabs, locks, throws, and sweeps), and short, rapid hand traps and attacks (not unlike Wing Chun).
The Karyu combat style is a blending of techniques from Karate, Kempo, Ninjutsu, and Jujutsu, taught to nearly all clan members to some degree, both for self-defense and better control of one's psychic powers. It is normally a wholly weaponless style, though female clan members are often trained in the use of daggers. All in all, it is a powerful style, which seeks to strike a balance between internal and external, thus making both internal control and physical ability key to mastering it.
Southern form of Chinese kung-fu, composed of three styles: lung-fusing
(dragon); bai-mei (white eyebrow; also bak-mei in Cantonese); and tsu-chia (also known as southern praying mantis). Ke-chia literally means "guest family," as the originators of these styles were not from the Kwang-Tung province area.
This is a popular sport in Japanese communities.
Kendo is the sport and competitive form of Kenjutsu. Kendo has been practiced for a long time in one form or another.
The practitioners wear protective armor and use simulated swords (split bamboo called "shinai") to "spar" against one another. Strike areas are limited as are moves. It is a very formal art. It is
linear, hard, and external.
Training mostly consists of two-person drills, basics, and some kata that have been retained from kenjutsu between individuals.
The combative use of a sword.
The origins of this art are lost in the midst of history. It probably has its origins in 12th century or 11th century Japan. It is famous in myth and story from people like Miyamoto Mushashi in the 15th century.
There are 4 root systems, Cujo-ryu, Nen-ryu, Kage-ryu and Shinto Ryu. These probably all have roots prior to the beginning of the 16th century. In the 16th century, there was an explosion of styles, with many being formed between then and the present.
Modern kenjutsu schools trace from either the monk Jion (Nen ryu or Cujo ryu) or from Iiosai, the founder of the Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto Ryu.
This is a hard, weapon style using the Japanese sword. It involves powerful, high commitment strikes to selected targets in order to kill the opponent. There is a strong side of spiritual and philosophical study, similar in a way to that of Aikido.
There is a large amount of two-person work, mostly with wooden swords (bokken). Some schools use the fukuru shinai, an ancestor of todays weapon (Shinkage ryu, Nen-ryu). Sparring is a developed student activity.
Kage, Shinkage, Yagyu Shinkage Cujo, Itto-ryu, Nen-ryu, Katroi-shinto Ryu, Kashima shin-ryu, Niten-ichi-ryu, Jigen-ryu. Shinkage was a royal school - for the Shogun.
Note: In the Japanese language, the consonants "n" and "m" have the same symbol, thus the English
spelling can be rendered either "Kempo" or "Kenpo". There are several arts in this family, but the spelling of "Ken/mpo" is not of significance in distinguishing between them.
This art is also called Kenpo Karate. American Kenpo is an eclectic art developed by Hawaiian Ed Parker in the 60s. The art combines the Kara-Ho Kenpo which Parker learned from William Chow with influences from Chinese, Japanese, Hawaiian, and Western Martial sources. American Kenpo blends circular motions and evasive movements with linear kicks and punches. The art is oriented toward street-wise self defense. A big emphasis on basics, sparring, and kata. It is similar
to most Karate styles in its training mechanisms. The Tracy schools of Kenpo teach Parker's style, but are a "politically" separate organization.

Kosho Ryu Ken/mpo is a philosophical art much like Jeet Kune Do but with a Zen influences...lots of mind science material and healing arts. It is not a style of compiled kata or specific is a study of all motion and therefore cannot be stylised to look like a
specific teacher or animal movement. Thus, this writeup will discuss only the history of the art.
Kosho Shorei Kempo was created by several happenings, spanning a period of centuries. According to Mitose Sensei, during the invasion of Genghis Khan, the Head Monk of the Shaolin Temple fled China and found refuge with the Mitose family. In appreciation for the kindness
of the Mitose's, he taught them Shaolin Chuan Fa (Shorinji Kempo in Japanese). From James Mitose's book: "Fifteen hundred years ago, the ancestor (of the Author) was a Shinto priest. He studied and taught many different martial arts including sword fighting, lance fighting, fighting with the bow and arrow, fighting on horseback, and swim fighting. Some arts looked like Kempo, Karate, Kung Fu, and Ju-jitsu- but they were different in many ways. He mastered all of these arts and became Grand Master. Then Grand Master Mitose founded a martial arts school and called his style Mitose's Martial Art School." In 1235 a Shinto priest whom James Mitose called his first ancestor became enlightened to what we call Kempo. According to Mitose, this man was a martial arts master and a Buddhist monk studying at Shaka-In who found it difficult to be both. His religion taught him pacifism; his martial art taught him destruction. He pondered this dilemma under an old pine tree meaning Kosho in Japanese. He became enlightened and was from then on known as, Kosho Bosatsu, the Old Pine Tree Enlightened One. He discovered the relationship between man and Nature and also the secret of the Escaping Arts which is what makes Kempo a True and Pure Kempo or study of all Natural Law through a Martial Arts medium. Then "the Grand Master founded the Kosho Shorei Temple of Peace, True Self Defense and Kosho Shorei Yoga School. At that time, he made up the Coat of Arms and the Motto for his Temple. In his Temple, he taught how to escape from being harmed by using the escaping patterns, with God's help."
Only 2 people in the world learned the Escaping Arts from Mitose Sensei and one of these two learned all the facets of Kosho, namely its 22 Generation Grandmaster Bruce Juchnik. The highest goal is to defend oneself without body contact unlike Okinawan/Japanese Karate systems or many other Ken/mpo systems.
Kosho Ryu influences can be seen in Ed Parker and his creation merican Kenpo. He added many labels to concepts inherent in Kosho that had Japanese names or no labels at all.
Ryu Kempo (which roughly translates into Okinawan kung-fu, or Chinese boxing science) is the original style of martial arts learned and taught by Gichin Funakoshi on the island of Okinawa (1). It stresses the existence of body points within your opponent that can be struck or grappled for more effective fighting.
The style originated in the Okinawa Islands, the RyuKyu Island Chain. Practioners of Ryukyu Kempo believe that karate-do is a popular subform of Kempo, established within this century by Gichin Funakoshi. People with original copies of Funakoshi's first edition book _Ryukyu Kempo_ state that he is clearly is grappling and touching an opponent. Later editions and current karate books only show a practioner with a retracted punch, where the original shows actively grappling an enemy. It is felt that Funakoshi was the last of the purists, wanting all to learn the art.
In subseqent years, the Okinawans, who have a culture and history of their own, became disenchanted with the Japanese, and were less inclined to teach them the "secret techniques" of self defence. When American military men occupied Japan after WWII, they became enamored
of the martial-arts. It is theorized that the Japanese and Okinawans were reluctant to teach the secrets of their national art to the ccupiers, and so taught a "watered down" version of karate-do usually reserved for children. Contemporary Kempo practioners practice "pressure point fighting" or Kyushu-jitsu and grappling, called Tuite. It is an exact art of striking small targets on the body, such as nerve centers, and grappling body points in manners similar to Jujitsu or Aikido(2).
Modern teachers of this are George Dillman of Reading, PA, Taiku Oyata of Independence, Missouri, Rick Clark of Terre Haute, Indiana, and others.
The practioners of kempo believe that kata do not represent origin or direction of attacks but positional techniques for the defender. Concentration is made on physical perfection of kata and the Bunkai, or explanation of the movements. Tournaments of kata and kumite (sparriing) are encouraged as learning experiences, but not overly stressed. Also taught is Kobudo, which is defined as weapons fighting using ordinary hand tools.
Five principles to be observed in Oyata's school:
1. Proper distance.
2. Eye contact.
3. Minimum pain inflication on your opponent.
4. Legally safe.
5. Morally defensible.(3)
There are a couple of physical differences in Kempo and many other styles. One is a three-quarter punch, rather than a full twist. Second is a fist whereby the thumb stops at the first finger, rather
than the first two fingers. Third is the sword hand, which has the little finger placed as parallel as possible to the third finger and the thumb straight and on the inside rather than bent.(2)
Kilap (khilap or kilat) is the Thunder. The aspect of the thunder is the product of the lightning. It teaches a hand of power, striking weak points, crashing and overwhelming the enemy, power in spirit and character. Its' scholarly study is the anatomy of distruction; how to 'break that meat house down'. The study is not so much 'train the frame' as it is 'train the brain'. If mind will lead, body will follow. The study of martial art is not restricted to the athletic of body at all, it is the people of lesser physical presence that need martial art the most.
Is a very old Vietnamese style based on "cock fighting" and means "golden cock". Kim Ke fighters prefer to attack from the side. Special features are strikes, similar to strikes by the cock's taloons, two-legs jumping kick to the head or torso. Teeth also are used very often. This style is very quick, 'the best defence is offence' is a well-known saying from this style.
Another facet of the Kali system, Kina Mutai is a highly effective and specialized form of ground fighting, which incorporates the use of biting, gouging, pinching and clawing to aid in offensive and defensive grappling, while creating opportunities for striking and reversals of position.
Kirip is an indigenous form of wrestling quite popular with the Nicobarese tribe. In this sport, before the bout begins, wrestlers grip each other from behind with their hands, and this grip is not to be slackened till the very end of the competition. The wrestler, using various parts of the body, including the leg, tries to thrust the opponent to the ground. If a contestant's back touches the ground, he is declared the loser. Three to five rounds take place before the final verdict is given
"Kobudo" literally means "ancient martial ways". In the karate world, it generally refers to those
traditional Okinawan weapons whose history and practice has been linked to that of karate.
Most Okinawan styles have at least some kobudo/kobujutsu curriculum. In addition, there are at least two major Okinawan organizations whose primary focus is these weapons arts: the Ryukyu Kobudo Hozon Shinko-kai and the Okinawa Kobudo Renmei. In the US there is 'Okinawa
Kobudo Association, USA'; the shihan in the US is in Citrus Heights, CA. There may be other US Kobudo organizations.
The most common kobudo weapons (and the ones most often taught by Okinawan karate systems) are:
1. bo - staff, usually a rokushakubo or "six foot staff", although 4, 9, and 12 foot staffs are also used.
2. sai - three-tined iron clubs, usually carried as a set of 3.
3. nunchaku - two short tapered wooden clubs, connected at the narrow ends by a short rope or chain (a flail, as well as other uses).
4. kama - a sickle, used singly or in pairs;
5. tuifa/tonfa - a club with a hand-length perpendicular handle, the ancestor to the police PR-24; usually used in pairs.
Less common weapons are:
1. koa - a hoe.
2. eku - a boat oar.
3. tekko - essentially brass knuckles.
4. shuchu - a small kubotan-like thing about 5" long.
5. san-setsu-kon - the 3-section staff.
6. surujin/suruchen - a weighted chain with a spike or blade on one end - similar to the Chinese chain whip or the Japanese manrikigusari;
7. tinbe - actually, this is two weapons...the tinbe itself, which is a small shield traditionally made of the shell of a sea tortoise, and
8. the rochin, which is a short spear with a cutting blade - the weapon actually resembles a Zulu spear more than anything else.
9. kusarikama - a kama on the end of a rope or chain.
10. nunti - a short spear.
11. and a few other oddball implements of mayhem including spears and the occasional pilfered Japanese sword ;-).
Japanese style of close combat, grappling with & without weapons
This is the second stage of Kalari. It involves training in wooden weeps like the kettukari (12 span staff), cheruavdi (3 span staff) and ottakkol ('S' curved staff). Training in ottakkol is a stepping stone towards proper execution of advanced kalari. Long practice in this stage enables a student to gain control over the weapon. Even a small wooden staff can become a deadly weapon in the hands of a Kalari practitioner. With dazzling power, he can overpower even a heavily armed adversary.
Kong Shin Bup(tm) (Do) was founded by the late Grandmaster Pak in Shyuk. The name, literally translated, means "empty body"; however, after many long hours of discussing the art with its founder, Master Timmerman understood that the meaning goes much deeper and that Grandmaster Pak wished to cultivate a system using the concept of "open mind". In the West we might better interpret Kong Shin as "empty cup". The fact that Grandmaster Pak incorporated the entire old Kuk Sool Won-Hap Ki Do curriculum, added ground grappling techniques, and then added techniques of other ancient Korean arts (Tae Kyun Soo Bahk Do) seems to support this view.
The "empty cup principle" allows Kong Shin Bup(tm) practitioners to totally focus on the job at hand and complete feats considered superhuman by the average lay person. This is reflected in the demanding breaking requirements of Kong Shin Bup(tm). As with most Korean martial arts, Kong Shin Bup Hap Ki Do practitioners have strong kicking skills. In addition to this, the style uses well over three thousand joint locking techniques -- including hundreds of ground grappling techniques not normally found in modern Korean martial art styles. Kong Shin Bup(tm) can be considered a Yu Kwan Sool (soft/hard) style martial art.
Kong Shin Bup(tm) provides its practitioners with training in: acupressure healing techniques, meditation, breathing, forms, weapons, punching, kicking, throwing, archery, horseback riding, falling, acrobatics, joint locks, water techniques, pressure points, and a myriad of self-defense techniques that are totally compatible with one another. Using the expertise he has learned in more that forty-five years of practicing various martial arts, Master Timmerman has taken particular care to see that the present curriculum of Kong Shin Bup(tm) is not flawed by using techniques that are not compatible with its foundational principles.
The more than 3,600 Kong Shin Bup(tm) Hap Ki Do techniques are divided into some two hundred and seventy vulnerable areas of attack. Ki power and pressure points are used extensively. In addition to using the circular methods found in many soft style arts, Kong Shin Bup(tm) also employs strong linear counter attacks from a narrow, but solid, stance that does not hamper quick turns. Although Kong Shin Bup Hap Ki Do practitioners are quite capable of subduing their opponents, they are just as likely to finish an altercation with a devastating strike to a vulnerable area. In fact, this method is recommended in multiple person attacks.
One could say that Kong Shin Bup(tm) Hap Ki Do is a carefully organized martial art blend of modern Tae Kwon Do, ancient Tae Kyun, Soo Bahk Do, and Aiki Jiu Jitsu techniques. Grandmaster Pak's extensive background in Kuk Sool Won Hap Ki Do can readily be seen in Kong Shin Bup(tm) Hap Ki Do, and the influence of occupation forces from China and Japan are quite evident; however, the art is quite unique in the manner in which these influences are blended with ancient Korean martial arts. We are proud to continue Grandmaster Pak's vision of Kong Shin Bup(tm), and we do so with the "open mind" he stressed.
Koo Self Defense was developed in Cartersville, Georgia, USA by Master Roger Koo in 1992 following 20+ years of traditional Martial Arts training (32 years to date). Through his many years of training since the age of fifteen, Master Koo discovered that most of the techniques he had been taught and sought to perfect were not practical and did not translate into real life situations. All martial arts find their roots in other martial arts styles. Koo Self Defense is no
Master Koo while in his search for a progressive and practical martial arts found Choi Kwang Do but after only a short time found it to be very limited. It, like other martial arts styles emphasized on one look
for all students rather than one that fits each. He found that all martial arts systems tried to duplicate the movements of its founder which severely limited individual achievement. He abandoned this antiquated
approach and developed a revolutionary, progressive and more importantly realistic and varied methods of training and drills for his students.
While others sought to adopt from other styles, Master Roger Koo eliminated all traditional techniques which found no real translation into real self defense situations. Koo Self Defense is leading the way in the much needed evolution of martial arts and self defense
The philosophy of Koo Self Defense is to allow any individual to achieve his or her maximum potential (and beyond) regardless of age, sex, physical ability, disability or level of fitness from our total body cardiovascular workout program that promotes health, fitness and devastating hitting power. Whatever area of our training one's wants to focus on, one's potential can be realized and contrary to all other martial arts system it does not take a lifetime of training to achieve!
What makes Koo Self Defense Different from other types of martial arts and self defense training?
Unlike other martial arts training, Koo Self Defense reenforces natural and instinctual movements for conditioned responses to 'real life street situations' while maximizing your cardiovascular conditioning. and producing awesome hitting power often surpassing that of 'professional boxers' and kick boxers. KSD training focuses on individual development rather than competition. KSD offers the ultimate cardiovascular workout program that will challenge everyone from beginners to Olympic athletes. No other exercise training program comes close. You decide the level of fitness you desire.
Koong Joong Mul Sool techniques include the use of weapons not commonly available to commoners. Just as our government today restricts us from owning advanced weapons, the ancient courts of Korea restricted the use of weapons to its citizens. In order to provide a more complete art to our students, King Shin Bup includes the skills normally reserved for members of the Korean Royal Court guard. For training purposes, practitioners use low, narrow stances that develop great balance and strong legs. In turn, this aids students in acrobatics, high kicking and jumping skills.
In ancient times the monks of the temples of Japan refrained from using weapons. At first they developed very specialized empty hand fighting skills, eventually adding certain wooden weapons to their repertoire, and finally all s of which they would have to face. Thus the monks of the temples of Japan ended up with a very comprehensive fighting curriculum usually referred to as the Kempo Bugei, the fist law (temple boxing) martial arts.
Yet even as they added weapons to their training, they never neglected their empty hand skills. For a monk never knew when he would be in a combat situation with only his empty hands with which to defend himself or others.
One of the extremely effective skills which the monks developed was known as Koppo, the bone method. This was a special series of strikes designed to break the bones of an assailant. This skill is still kept alive today in the Koga Ha Kosho Shorei Ryu Kempo tradition.
Very special Makiwara are used to condition the bottom fist, which is the primary weapon of Koga Ha Kosho Shorei Ryu Koppo. The standing Makiwara is composed of wooden posts linked together to which small target pads are attached. Circling the Makiwara stand, the pads are arranged so that the practitioner may practice evasion techniques, dodging around the stand, just as one would an attacker, and delivering strikes at various angles.
One important aspect of Koppo training is to attack various levels of the opponent. Thus the pads on the Makiwara are arranged at high levels, middle and low. Thus the Koga Ha Kosho Shorei Ryu Kempoka learns to strike the head, torso, and legs.
Advanced practitioners will sometimes practice striking the wooden stand itself, once their hands are conditioned enough to do so without injury, as demonstrated by Shihan Nimr Hassan.
Another very special Makiwara of the Koga Ha Kosho Shorei Ryu Kempo tradition is the horizontal Makiwara. This is designed to allow the Kempoka to practice bottom, fist strikes downward. This simulates the downward 90 degree strike needed to break the arms or legs of an attacking assailant. It is highly important to develop the perfect 90 degree angle, so that maximum force is generated into the bone struck, leading to the break.
However, since the art was developed by monks, they did look at the situation-in a compassionate way, hoping always to not need their deadliest skills, but being assured of their effectiveness if they should ever be necessary.
Thus in less than lethals situations the open hand was used to palm strike the opponent. The palm strikes could be used to block, push, or gently strike an attacker. Foiling the attacker, the monks, of the past, hoped that this would discourage further aggression.
Sometimes the monks would palm strike hard the arms and legs of an attacker, hoping to weaken the will to fight. Once an attacker had a great deal of pain in the arms and legs, to a point where to strike was uncomfortable because of the soreness in the limbs, many would discontinue the fight. This was a monks way of winning a fight without having to seriously injured the attacker.
However in a lethal situation in, the hands were coiled into fists, ready to strike with credibly destructive power, But even then the monks hoped to use less than actual killing technique. Thus the next move would be to break the arm, for once the arm was broken, the ability to hold a weapon was taken away, as well as the ability to attack. Look at Shihan Hassan's position attacking the Makiwara and the author's application against the attacking arm (in the accompanying photos) and you will see the effectiveness of the Koga Ha Kosho Shorei Ryu Kempo Makiwara.
Once again it needs to be emphasized that the bottom fist must strike the target at a perfect 90 degree angle to allow maximum penetration of force into the target.
Which leads to the final consideration, how Koppo is applied in a life and death situation. So far the applications were designed to gently push the attacker away, sting the arms and legs hoping to take away the desire to fight, or finally to break the arm taking away the capacity for violence, but unfortunately there are times when these less than lethal methods will not stop a determined killer. This was true in ancient Japan, even as it is in modem times.
One story tells of how an individual high on PCP beat six police officers into the ground after they broke his arm. He totally demolished his own arm, continuing to hit with it after it was broken. Thus there are times more force is needed and this is when the bottom fist is moved from the arms and legs to the vital points of the body.
Once again look at Shihan Hassan on the standing Makiwara he applies strikes to the high and middle levels. These correspond to the temple strike and the kidney blow demonstrated by the author.
For a person to truly use Koppo effectively they need to have a basic knowledge of Kyusho, which allows the blows applied by the practitioner to be truly effective. As shown in the photographs, the two Koppo blows delivered by the author could have lethal effect.
A blow to the temple may result in a fracture which can have lethal results. The blow is so concussive that brain damage is a likely event. While the blow to the kidney area can cause compression and rupture of the kidney, which will need surgery for the assailant-to survive.
Ancient Japanese form of combat resembling jujutsu
Kosho Shorei Ryu Kempo is a 750 year old art developed by the warrior monks of Kyushu, Japan, and is one of the few remaining complete arts in the world. All of Kosho Ryu is based upon natural law, and thus once the basic principles are learned, all levels of force from no contact to destruction are at your disposal for true self defense. This understanding of natural law makes escaping, controlling, and destructive arts possible. The attacker's own energy is used against him/her.
Iranian form of wrestling
Some movements are familiar to exponents of Thai and Hindu classical dance. The Mai Sun Sawk techniques are flavored with monkey movements that have a hint of Chinese origin though the attack and defend techniques are very distinctly Thai. The weapon itself on first look resembles something of Japanese or Okinawan origin. But the truth is probably that they were the same common handles of millstones used for grinding rice that the Okinawan used. This unique blend is the very essence of Thai culture and thus its combat arts. Although its beginnings are unknown, it probably sprang from Sino-Indian origins on the battlefield, possibly modified in the 7th century by the Japanese Samurai Yamada Nagasama, a.k.a. (Nizaemon), who with eight hundred ronin Samurai helped 20,000 Thai warriors to put down dissidence following the death of King Song Thom (1611-1628) in 1628." It is doubtful that the Thais borrowed any actual techniques from the Japanese but they did develop explosive counter-attacks to what they felt were the inferior two-handed sword techniques.
Much in the same way, the Filipino's would adopt their own counters to the famed Japanese sword techniques. This would come in handy should the Thais eventually come to conflict with the Japanese. David K. Wyatt highlights such an episode, "When King Prasat Thong (1629-56)sent Yamada Nagasama to quell a rebellion in Nakon in 1629, the populace soon revolted against Yamada and then against Prasat Thongs usurpation. To make matters worse, Japanese whom Prasat Thong had run out of Ayutthaya had gone to assist Cambodia in attacking Siam. We can see this synergistic evolution most clearly in Traditional Thai Medicine where the influences drawn from India as well as China sowed the seeds of a carefully distilled indigenous healing practice. The earliest practices concerning itself with injuries suffered by combatants in battle and the herbs and the herbs that could heal the open wounds. Herbal medicine drawn from Chinese influences, nutritional medicine, physical medicine such as Thai massage brought to Siam over 2,500 years ago by Jivaka Komarbhacca, who was a physician, friend and contemporary of the Buddha and a well known figure of the Pali canon as well as spiritual practices aligned to Buddhism formed the nucleus that now includes Western medicine as well.
Krabi Krabong, as the weapons art came to be named in the 20th century, evolved mainly from sword fighting perfected during the Ayutthaya period. And that is why Krabi Krabong's recorded growth and emergence is most closely aligned with legendary Wat Buddhai Sawan.
Much is legend, as records and other forms of documentation were not used during the early period of martial arts development. But, legends are often based on fact; it is however, subject to many interpretations and may not be agreed upon in other martial art systems. It is my belief that this history is a close representation.
This period of history was some of the most violent and disciplined in the history of man. I can only hope that knowledge and understanding along with patience, are what the true karateka will pass on to their students, by keeping the art as close to original as possible. Remember, the ancient masters lived and died by their techniques. The techniques we have today survived the test of combat, they live in the old katas.
The study of martial arts is usually taken up for 3 main reasons: self defense, physical discipline, and mental discipline. Ideally, all three come into play for the karate student. The roots of karate, formed during the Sixth Century, were geared toward training the mind and body so they could become as one. Kata, as many of the ancient masters taught, brought this oneness into reality.
The Buddhist Monk, who traveled from India to China, and began the first martial arts teaching was known as "Bodhidharma, Daruma, or Ta Mo." He arrived at the Shaolin Temple around 520 A.D. and there he founded a monastery. His mission was to teach the way of Buddha to the monks. This teaching was incorporated into the existing Chinese Tao beliefs, which stressed enlightenment was being one with the Universe.
Bodhidharma taught his followers a way to train their minds and bodies, so they could follow his religious instruction. The training was based on "Daruma's" knowledge of animals and the ways of nature. As Buddhists, they were not allowed to carry weapons, so an alternative defense was needed. The "18 Lohan Shou" was the name given to Bodhidharma's exercises, and were the basis for "the five animal forms of the Dragon, Leopard, Snake, Tiger, and Crane"; these forms are still found in many styles which exist today.
Tokugawa, emperor of Japan, had united Japan under his leadership. In an effort to keep peace and retain harmony, he gave Okinawa to the Shimazu Clan, a Samurai Family which had opposed Tokugawa in the past. In 1609, these Satsuma Warriors took over the Royal City of Shuri. There was a valiant, but futile struggle by the Okinawans, and the weapons of the island were confiscated by the Samurai.
Metal cooking utensils, as well as the weapons, were taken away by the Japanese. Normal life for the natives changed drastically. Instead of becoming weak and compliant, as the samurai expected they would, the Okinawans searched for ways to provide food and defend themselves.
The elders of the islands had heard stories of China and the formidable bare-handed fighters of that country. They chose young men to go to China, study these martial arts, and upon their return, to share their knowledge with others. All was done with the utmost secrecy. The Fukien area of China was the destination of many Okinawans where the Shaolin styles were taught.
Okinawa-te was born. The Japanese still knew nothing of the build up of weaponless knowledge, but more and more soldiers were found dead, and their weapons stolen. The Okinawans refined the Chinese techniques for their needs and purposes. Natives were trained to defend against armed attacks and could pierce the samurai armor with their wooden weapons.
Historically, Okinawa has been under either Japanese or Chinese control. Despite this, trade and diplomatic relations from Okinawa were always maintained with both of the larger countries. In the 18th Century, Okinawa was a feudal State of China. Pirates and Japanese Samurai frequently terrorized the Okinawans. The Chinese did little to protect the natives from these attacks, so the Okinawans had to fend for themselves. The importance of the secret of martial arts grew tremendously.
First known as To-te', then Kara-te', the Chinese martial arts influence continued. Many Chinese families had lived in Okinawa since the last 1300's and some held important social and political positions. This encouraged the traffic of traders and social emissaries between the two countries. The contacts with these Chinese visitors gave the Okinawans even more knowledge of martial arts and helped them develop better fighting skills. Instead of the Chinese influence abating, the Okinawans looked to China for nurturing of their young art, Karate. A Chinese martial artist that came to Okinawa in 1761 was Kushanku. He attended many exhibitions showing his empty-hand techniques to the Okinawans. The Kushanku kata, known as "Kwanku" in Japanese styles, is said to have incorporated in it some of the original techniques used by Kushanku in his Okinawan demonstrations.
While still in Okinawa, Kushanku met and taught a young karate student, Sakugawa, who has been referred to as "the first teacher and master of the style that is commonly called true Okinawan and Japanese karate."
Sakugawa was born in Shuri in 1733 and in his teens began studying Okinawa-te' with a local monk. When he was about 23, Sakugawa began his study with Kushanku. After several years, Kushanku returned to his homeland of China and Sakugawa returned to Shuri. The Kushanku kata was developed and passed down by this Okinawan. Karate masters at this time were looked to by the Okinawans for protection. Sakugawa and his students made sure scoundrels and ruffians were kept in line. To accomplish this task, students aspired to be well rounded in all aspects of their art.
Sakugawa was 78 when he accepted Sokon Matsumura as his student. Matsumura was given the title of "Bushi", by an Okinawan King, meaning Warrior or Samurai. He was the bodyguard to several members of royalty, which was also a very high honor. Matsumura lived in Shuri, and there organized his style of karate, creating Shuri-te or "Suide". He named his art Sho-rin Ryu, but it is not the same style we know today by that name. Matsumura's sho-rin ryu translates as "pine forest style". The difference between the two aren't implied in the English spelling. Matsumura taught Yatsume Itosu, but passed on his menkyo-kaiden, seal of ju-dan (10th degree Black Belt) to his grandson Nabe Matsumura. Nabe was the uncle and karate instructor of Hohan Soken. Hohan died in 1982, but before his death, he named Fusei Kise his heir to the Old Matsumura Family System.
Continuing with Itosu, he is given credit for formulating and preserving most of the Okinawan katas. Because of contradictory dates in reference materials, suffice it to say Itosu introduced karate to the Okinawan School System, sometime between 1900 and 1910. Though Itosu chose to bring karate to the masses, this was in no way the general consensus of the martial art masters. The Sensei of the many villages and family styles kept their art underground, continuing as before, with only a few students.
Itosu was from Shuri. One story about him tells how he went to Naha and while there fought to defend the Karate of Shuri. The Karateka of Naha felt their major style, Go-Ju, was better suited for battle and warfare than the Sho-rin style of Shuri. Upon hearing some men discussing the failing of his style, Itosu decided to challenge the champion of Naha. He went to the huge rock in Naha, a notorious place to issue a challenge. The rock has been named "Ude-kaka-shi". At this place, Itosu defeated three opponents, two with weapons, before the Naha Champion, "Tomoyose", chose to face him. When Tomoyose attacked, Itosu struck Tomoyose's outstretched arm, snapping the bones and ending the fight. Because of this and other accomplishments, such as creating the Pinan Katas, Itosu's fame spread. Itsosu had many students, and some became masters and founding fathers of karate styles. One such student was Gichin Funakoshi.
Funakoshi was chosen to represent Okinawan karate when Japan requested a karateka to compare to their masters of Japanese martial art. Though the Japanese were skeptical as to the merit of karate, Funakoshi gradually won them over. He stayed in Japan and began teaching his art. He founded the Shotokan style which was the first systemized style of karate and it embraced the code of the Japanese Samurai. Shotokan had 19 kata, 12 from the Shuri-te or Sho-rin System (external) and 7 from the Naha-te System (internal). While rearranging and organizing the style, Funakoshi changed the name to the 5 Pinan Kata to Heian (peaceful mind) kata. Funakoshi died in 1957 leaving a great void for his style of Shotokan.
Goju Ryu is the internal style of Okinawan-te. The founder and Master of this style was Miyagi Chogun, 1888 to 1953. Originally the style was called Naha-te, from the rough and rowdy seaport city of Naha. The Naha-te founder was Kanryo Higashionna, 1845-1915, who strongly believed in and practiced Sanchin Dachi. Students of Higahonna and Miyagi studied the embodiment of humility. He had promised his karate instructor to never misuse his teaching by harming anyone, and he never broke the pact. The Okinawan spelling of Miyagi is Miyagusuku. He was born in Naha and like many martial artists of his time, went to China and learned, among others, Zen breathing. He blended this breathing into his katas, two of which are Sanchin and Tenso.
Miyagi stressed bunkai in his teaching, anxious for his student to understand the technique application of the forms. He taught his students to use blocks as well and punches and kicks to disable opponents. One of the first Okinawans to study in China was Yara, bringing home the vital importance of balance between mind and body, and Miyagi Chojun integrated this idea into his art.
Okinawa has 3 basic facets:
1). Shuri-Te (external, also known as Sho-Rin Ryu.)
2). Tomari-Te (external and internal, also known as Isshin Ryu.)
3). Naha-Te (internal, also known as Goju Ryu.)
The styles are somewhat overlapped since the master saw the wisdom of using the techniques and stances that worked well for them. Sho-Rin Ryu still does the Pinan Kata, while the Japanese Shotokan Style does the Heian Kata of Funakoshi. The half moon step is used by Goju Ryu practitioners, but not the Sho-Rin Ryu Systems. Shuri-Te incorporates aspects of several of these styles.
Kata remains the living history of Karate, passed down as unchanged as possible from the Masters. Kata was created when the Masters had spiritual insights to the oneness of the Universe, a knowledge of self. The philosophy and spiritual oneness of mind and body can be developed through practice of kata. The student finds his greatest battle in Kata training, having to control the body with the mind and make them one.
This oneness is not an outdated idea. It incorporates the concept of balance and is relevant in everyday living. A far greater strength is available to us than the power of a fist, that is the unification of mind and body acquired after many hours of practice and labor. This concept is perhaps the greatest gift the Masters have sent to us through the centuries, vitalized in their native Okinawa-te.
The Israeli official Martial Art originating in Israel.

The Krav Maga was developed in Israel in the early forties when the underground liberation organizations were fighting for the independence of the State of Israel. At that time, it was illegal to possess weapons. The inventor and developer of the Krav Maga was a champion heavy weight boxer, a judo champion, and an expert in jiu-jutsu. In addition, he was as a trapeze acrobat and a well known dancer. The knowledge he thus obtained, contributed to the development of the Israeli martial art of self defense. There is no hidden meaning behind the name Krav Maga, and literarily means "contact fight / battle".
The Krav Maga was put into practice originally by the fighters of the liberation organizations that often went to battle armed with knives or sticks and with the knowledge of Krav Maga, and they were very successful. After the establishment of the State of Israel, Krav Maga was adopted as the official martial art taught in the defense forces, and especially in the elite police and army units. Krav Maga was integrated into army training by Imi Lichenfield, a career IDF officer and chief instructor at the armys physical training facility at the Wingate Institute. Imi is still active involved in the Krav Maga Association and maintains the role of president.
Over the years, the Krav Maga has turned into an integrated part of training in many disciplines such as educational institutes. Krav Maga is taught in many public schools in Isreal.
The Krav Maga is not an ecletic martial art system, rather, it was developed with the perception that the classic martial arts were lacking various elements. The defense needs in the eras that the
classic martial arts were developed were different than those of today. New unique techniques for defense against pistols, guns and hand grenades were considered needed, and therefore developed.
Krav Maga has no katas or specific sequences that must be followed. Students use the basic moves in conjunction with any one of a number of other moves to fend off an attack, the key idea being adaptability to new situations through improvisation. Emphasis is put on speed, endurance, strength, accuracy and co-ordination especially for intensive Krav Maga training.
Since the Krav Maga by definition is for self defense, it does not have any constitution and judicial rules and therefore there are no contests and exhibitions. The training is for practical usage in the every day reality. There is a coloured belt system with a Black Belt typically granted after 8 to 10 years of practice. Spiritual and philosophical aspects are studied only at the Black Belt level.
Like other Martial Art systems around the world, The Kaihewalu Lua system also uses Peku (a variety of kicks), Paa Lima (hand catch and trap), Hikua (throws), Ku'i Ku'i (boxing, a variety of punches), Waho/Loko Hio (a variety of leg sweeps), Ihe Manamana Lima (finger spear poking), Pahu/Huki (push and pull), Nahu Waha (biting with the mouth), Ku'i (punch, poke), and Mokomoko (rough dirty, everything goes fighting).
The name "Kuk Sool Won(tm)" is best understood by breaking it down into its three sections. "Kuk" translates to 'nation', 'state' or 'country'. "Sool" literally means 'martial art technique'; however, "Sool's" implied meaning goes deeper to include the mental, spiritual and philosophical heritage of the Korean martial arts. "Won" means institution or association. The entire name, "Kuk Sool Won(tm)" can then be translated to mean, 'National Martial Arts Association'. Kuk Sool is a comprehensive martial arts system that is derived from the rich and varied martial arts techniques and traditions that have arisen in Korea through the ages. Kuk Sool is not a sport, nor is it simply another oriental self-defense style.
Kuk Sool is a complete martial art that is dedicated to the cultivation of mental strength and well being and to the preservation of traditional Korean Martial Arts.
The basis of 'Kuk Sool' is the development and use of "Ki" (internal power). Therefore Kuk Sool is considered an internal martial arts system. However, to classify Kuk Sool under any one name is incorrect due to its vastness. For self-defense, Kuk Sool is unsurpassed. It combines kicking, punching, throwing, falling, choking, joint locking and a myriad of weapons techniques into a beautiful, dynamic, 'hard-soft' style, emphasizing speed and fluidity. In conjunction with physical training, meditation, breathing, acupressure and acupuncture techniques are employed to improve and maintain health, develop internal power and retard the aging process. Philosophically, Kuk Sool stresses humility, self discipline, loyalty and respect for others. Together, these different aspects of Kuk Sool provide means for attaining a longer and healthier life.
The roots of Kuk Sool date back to the very beginning of Korea with 'Sado Mu Sool', which means family or tribal martial art. The next art to develop was 'Bulkyo Mu Sool', or 'Buddhist martial art'. Shortly afterwards came 'Koong Joong Mu Sool' which translates to 'Royal Court martial art'. These are the three traditions of ancient Korean martial arts from which the techniques of Kuk Sool evolved.
Although its origins may be traced back to antiquity, the present Kuk Sool system was formally devised only recently. Grandmaster In Hyuk Suh has spent more than 50 years in single-minded practice and research in order to learn, compile, master and organize the more than 3,600 techniques that comprise the art of Kuk Sool.
Grandmaster Suh founded Kuk Sool Won(tm) in 1958 and brought it to the United States in 1974. The World Kuk Sool Association now has its headquarters in Houston, Texas and has grown to include more than 250 member schools in Asia, Europe and America, and continues to increase in strength and numbers daily.
Hawaiian form of wrestling
Kung-sool is the Korean art of archery. Koreans have always preferred archery (bother afoot and mounted) to the sword. The training is arduous: often performing 300 dry pulls and shooting 1000 arrows daily.
Kumdo is a Korean martial art of the sword, similarly to Japanese Kendo. Kumdo is the " The Way of the Sword". [Kum: The Sword Do: The Way]
Kumdo can be described as "Character Building" through the manipulation of the sword in manner of meditation. Physical power is less important than doing everything with full spirit and effort. (The best you did is not as good as the best effort you put in to do the best you did.) The essence of Kumdo is attaining mental, spiritual, and physical harmony with calm and balance.
Kumdo is both physically and mentally demanding. A Kumdo Daeryun (Sparring) is an intense experience which requires absolute concentration. Any thought is suppressed, and instinctive action is needed. Such training develops powers of resolution and endurance under pressure which frequently affects your life beyond the confines of the Dojang (Place of practice).
Kumdo will teach you the self-confidence, discipline, respects for others and yourself, integrity and the will power to overcome any adversity in real life. Persistence is the key to the success.
From the beginning you must practice hard physically and develop mental control to master simple techniques. The will to continue regular training is the essential element in learning Kumdo.
This is an almost impossible category. This label is attached to almost any martial art that comes From China. It is the generic name for literally hundreds of individual Chinese fighting arts. In
reality we should have an entry for each individual Kung Fu style we are interested in, but this would fill entire volumes. .
This is extremely controversial. Most of what appears here is a summary of what has been learned from Sifu Benny Meng.
There are vague references of a King in China some thousands of years ago who trained his men in techniques of hand-to-hand combat to use in fighting against invading barbarians.
The first real references of an organized system of martial arts came from a man named General Chin Na. He taught a form of combat to his soldiers which most people believe developed into what is modern day Chin-Na.

The first written record we have of Chinese martial arts is from a Taoist acupuncturist from the 5th century. He describes combat designed along the lines of an animal's movements and style.
Legend has it that a Bhuddist monk named Bohdiharma, also called Ta Mo, came across the Tibetan Mountains to China. The Emperor of China at the time was much impressed with the man, and gave him a temple located in Honan - the famed Sui Lim Monastery (Shaolin Monastery). Ta Mo found that the monks there, while searching for spiritual enlightenment, had neglected their physical bodies. He taught them some exercises and drills that they adapted into fighting forms. This became the famous Shaolin Kung Fu system.
"Kung Fu" means "skill and effort". It is used to describe anything that a person nees to spend time training in and becoming skillful in. (A chef can have good "kung fu".) The Chinese term that translates into "military art" is "Wu Shu".
As all martial arts, Wushu in its early stages of development was practiced primarily for self-defense and for aquiring basic needs. As time progressed, innumerable people tempered and processed Wushu in different ways. By China's Ming and Qing dynasties (1368-1911), Wushu
had formed its basic patterns.
Intense military conflicts served as catalysts for the development of Wushu. During China's Xia, Shang, and Zhou periods (2000BC to 771BC), Wushu matured and formed complete systems of offense and defense, with the emergence of bronze weapons in quantity. During the period of
Warring States (770BC to 221BC), the heads of states and government advocated Wushu in their armies and kept Wushu masters for their own puposes.
Military Wushu developed more systematically during the Tang and Song dynaties (618 to 1279) and exhibitions of Wushu arts were held in the armies as morale boosters and military exercises. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the general development of Wushu was at its height. Military Wushu became more practical and meticulous and was systematically classified and summarized . General Qi Jiguang of the Ming Dynasty delved into Wushu study and wrote "A New Essay on Wushu Arts", which became an important book in China's military literature.
The latter half of the 20th century has seen a great upswing in the interest of Kung Fu world wide. The introduction of Kung Fu to the Western world has seen to it that its development and popularity will continue to grow.
Styles of Kung Fu encompass both soft and hard, internal and external techniques. They include grappling, striking, nerve-attack and much weapons training.
The Shao-Lin styles encompass both Northern and Southern styles, and therefore are the basis of the following outline.
I Shaolin Wushu styles
A. External Styles (Hard, Physical)
1. Northern
a. Northern Shaolin
b. Chang Chuan (Long Fist)
c. Praying Mantis
d. Eagle Claw
e. Monkey
f. Drunken, et al
2. Southern
a. Southern Shaolin
b. Wing Chun
c. Five Animal System (Dragon, Snake, Tiger, Leopard, Crane)
d. Tiger and Crane Systems, et al
B. Internal Styles (Soft, Mental/Spiritual)
1. Tai Chi Chuan
2. Others (Pa Kua, Xingyi, et al)
II Shaolin Wushu Methods
A. Hard or External Styles
1. Stresses training and strengthening of the joints, bones,
and muscles
2. Requires rigorous body conditioning
3. Consists of positioning and movement of the limbs and body,
correct technique, muscular strength, speed, etc.
B. Soft or Internal Styles
1. Stresses development of internal organs where "Chi" is
2. Allows one to develop mental capability to call upon this
3. Concerned with breathing, poise, and tone of the core body
C. Long or Northern Styles
1. Stresses Flexibility, quickness, agility, and balance
similar to the attributes of a trained and well-conditioned
2. Uses many kicks along with hand techniques
3. Legs specialize in long-range tactics
D. Short or Southern
1. Stresses close-range tactics, power, and stability
2. Uses mostly hand techniques
Kung Fu almost always seems to incorporate forms and routines. They emphasize solo practice as well as group practice. (They even have forms for two or more people). They train in multiple types of weapons. There is also a great emphasis on sparring in the harder styles, and sensitivity training in the soft styles.
It seems that after nearly 30 years' experience in the martial arts, particularly taekwondo, founder Jung Do-mo was satisfied, comfortable with his skill. Then, as the story has it, he witnessed a demonstration match between a traditional stylist and a kickboxer. The traditional stylist was demolished. That unsettling outcome forced Jung to reconsider that to which he had devoted his life--the traditional Korean martial arts.
After a short time, Jung realized just what was needed--a hybrid combination of the traditional Korean styles and the strange-but-effective sport that originated in Thailand. So, off he went to learn "muay Thai" kickboxing. After more than three years of intensive study and grueling practice abroad, Jung created kun gek do.
The name kun gek do was also a brainchild of Jung. "Kun" is really pronounced "gwun" and means fist or punch. "Gek" should be pronounced "gyuk" and is part of the work "gong gyuk," meaning attack. And "do," of course, means the art or way. There you have it: kun gek do, the art of attacking and punching.
Kun gek do has borrowed its hand techniques from boxing and kickboxing. The gloved fists are held high to protect the head. No open-hand movements are used, the reason being that most practitioners execute them improperly, Jung says. And when blocking or striking with full power, broken or dislocated fingers can result. Additionally, the use of gloves greatly restricts hand positions other than a closed one.
The foot techniques involved come from both taekwondo and kickboxing. Naturally there is the front kick, pushing rather than snapping out; the back kick; the side kick; and the spinning hook kick. These are the staples of the Korean arts. But also incorporated into kun gek do is the Thai-style roundhouse kick. That means kicking with the leg almost fully extended and impacting with the lower part of the shin. The power generated is considerably greater than it would be if a snapping motion were used.
An interesting point of this art is the stress placed on combinations. In kun gek do, combinations are not simply one-two series attacks; they are simultaneous attacks. Kicking and punching at the same time utterly confuses the opponent, and in most cases he will not be able to defend himself completely. A rear-hand punch with a roundhouse kick is a typical combination. This and others like it are definitely not for the beginner. Long hours of training are required before one can deliver both strikes with sufficient power and proper balance.
Thai kickboxing is famous for its lunging knee smashes and elbow strikes. Kun gek do naturally has retained both devastating moves. They are taught and practiced only with great care and, of course, with protective gear. And a fighter is allowed to use them only in a professional free-style match. Or on the street. Unfortunately, many Korean styles regard these two techniques as lacking in martial spirit, and they neglect to teach them entirely.
More than 30 years ago, the Korea Kun Gek Do Association devised 27 self-defense techniques intended to be practical in modern society. They are simple, effective and easy-to-learn routines designed for defense against a knife, a staff and even an iron bar. The kun gek do stylist can rest assured that any one of his self-defense techniques will leave his attacker unconscious or worse.
Somewhat strangely, this martial art does not teach any kind "ki" (internal energy) development. Jung believes that the majority of martial arts students have virtually no ability to control their ki and probably will not study long enough to learn. Therefore, he concentrated on "wae gong," or external energy, which is developed by increasing physical strength through weight training and refining technique through endless repetition.
Not surprisingly, every kun gek do class includes a great deal of full-contact sparring. Even beginners are introduced to it after only a few lessons. A kickboxing-ring-sized area marked with tape can be found in most dojang. A few establishments are lucky enough to have a full-sized, elevated ring complete with regulation ropes. During practice, light boxing gloves and groin and chest protection are worn, along with a uniform. But for the professional fighter getting ready for a tournament, only boxing gloves and shorts are allowed.
To prepare students for actually striking a human target, kun gek do employs two training methods. The first involves extensive use of the heavy bag for kicks, punches and elbow and knee attacks. In excess of 120 pounds, it closely simulates a heavy, impact-absorbing target like a human body. The other is a wooden board about 10 inches wide, wrapped with an old kind of rope made of rice straw. The students simply kick and punch the rough coils with increasing power, both to harden their striking surfaces and to strengthen the related bones and joints.
Perhaps the climax of the kun gek do stylist's training, first coming some two years after training has commenced, is the tournament. There are many which he can enter, up to one a month in larger cities. Tournaments fall into two categories: those that follow traditional sparring rules and those that follow kickboxing rules. The exact regulations depend on which style is sponsoring the tournament. However, kun gek do stylists are accustomed to training under slightly different rules and then trying their best to follow them. Jung estimates that 60 percent of all successful tournament techniques use the hands.
Northern style of Chinese kung-fu originating in the Chang county, Hopei province, where it is still practiced. Practice is quite slow and very difficult, consisting of low horse stances Famous for its staff and knife routines, it is a rare style in which a practitioner will often strike his own body Because of this, and its extreme difficulty, the nickname Sa-Dung-Li, or "stupid Kung-Li practitioners," has been applied The system has three forms, LiuTwei-Jya, Kung-Li-Jya, and Kung-Li-Ch'uan.
Kuntao involves an introduction to the serious study in defense of one's physical, mental, and spiritual existence; one must not consider this a sport in any way until one has considered this is not a sport.
The Chinese word for street fighting is Kuntao, Kuntau, or Cuntao. Physically, its movements are composed of jumping and swinging shoulders with the body's joints and muscles locked in -- to form one unit. The exponent of Cuntao will strike his enemies before the enemies' minds can prepare for the pain. He stands sedate like a tree, then explodes into a force much like a tornado. The exponent will find himself behind the enemy without having been touched.
Kuntaw is a martial art that was developed in the Philippines. Fighting skills were "borrowed" from the many culture
A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.


#313551 - 01/09/07 07:51 AM Re: A to Z of Martial Arts - L to M [Re: Dobbersky]
Dobbersky Offline
Peace Works!!!!

Registered: 03/13/06
Posts: 921
Loc: Manchester United Kingdom
L - Styles

Jean Antoine Charles Lecour combines English prizefighting with French savate to create la boxe Francaise, or French boxing. Unlike English boxing, which generally led with the left side forward and prohibited kicking, French boxing led with the right side forward and allowed kicking, while unlike savate, the body positions in la boxe Francaise were fluid instead of stiff, perhaps because they were less influenced by ballet and fencing
The man responsible for popularizing La Lutte Française (literally, "French fighting," but more usually translated as "French Classical wrestling") was Jean Broyasse of Lyon, who wrestled and managed wrestlers under the name of Exbroyat.
Lau Gar Kung Fu is derived from a form of boxing practiced at Kuei Ling Temple situated in Kong Sai Province in west China. It was learned from a monk on retreat from that temple by the Master "Three Eyed Lau", a Tiger hunter whom we honour as the founder of our style. The style subsequently became popular over a large part of South West China.
The fighting techniques of the style as based on movements of the five Shao-lin animals, Dragon, Tiger, Snake, Leopard and Crane. The mental training and fighting strategy are derived from Buddhist Philosophy. Particularly important in this respect are the concepts of change (impermance) and emptiness (void).
Lau Gar is classified as a "Southern, hard, external" form of boxing, specialising in short fist techniques executed from firm stances and also excelling in stick work. Such classifications are useful only in comparing the style with another, (say Tai Chi Chuan, which may be classified as Northern, soft, internal, specialising in long fist techniques) and has more to do with order in which the training proceeds.
Like all Shao-lin derived systems, Lau Gar has a significant internal content as well as soft techniques, though these require significantly more training as the power that makes them effective is not of the obvious (external) type.
Towards the end of the last centuary Master Yau's grandfather (Yau Luk Sau) conceived the desire to learn Kung Fu. Consequently at the age of thirteen he left Kowloon and travelled to Kong Sai Province to find a teacher. Within a short space of time his training commenced, under the master Tang Hoi Ching.
Lancashire wrestling, the immediate forerunner of modern Catch as Catch Can and Free Style wrestling, added ground wrestling to the original Loose Style. A bout was ended when one wrestler succeeded in forcing his opponent's shoulder blades to the ground and holding them there for a few seconds. No special dress or harness was used, the wrestlers usually wearing short trunks. Kicking and all holds which might maim were considered to be foul. Strangling was also forbidden. The contestants were expected to wrestle until one or the other pinned his opponent's shoulders to the
Ler Drit is a rare and powerful martial art that mixes powerful hand to hand techniques with highly trained use of psychic powers, known as "Soul Power".
A strong middle length system that utilizeds a lot of hands. Not often taught. Li Gar is one of the five famous family styles found in southern china around Canton and Hong Kong areas.Li Yau Shan is regarded as the founder of this style. The origins as most southern arts are shrouded in mystery but the credit goes to a monk from the shaolin temple. Different stories tell different acounts and different monks who taught Li Yau Shan the system.
Li Yau Shan was also responsible for teaching Chan Hueng of Choy Li Fut lineage and is remembered in as the Li in Choy Li Fut style
"Six methods." The best forms of liu-he come from Chang County, Hopei province, in China This is a difficult style of northern Chinese kung-fu; weapon routines include the spear, staff, and knife. It is composed, as the name implies, of three internal and three external principles which, as it turns out, can be applied to many other martial arts In Shantung, liu-he was combined with tang-lang(praying mantis),forming the liu-hetang-langstyle. Important figures in the liu-he style are Teng-Cheng-l and Liu-Te-Kwan, who taught Chiao-Shin-Chou, who taught Wan-Lai-Sin (who wrote a popular book on the liu-he system)
Kung-fu style originating cat A.D. 1100; also known as six-combination boxing.
"Six Harmonies, Eight Steps," a northern form of Chinese kung-fu comprised of the styles known as liu-ho and pa-fa The development of this system is rooted in folklore. Essentially, it is similar to yueh-fei-chtuan A soft form of kung fu, this style's origins somewhat of a mystery Until 1929, when master Wu-i-Hwei brought the system to Nan-Hing, nobody had seen it. Even when Wu brought it into the open, the lineage and development were unclear. The style is popular primarily in the Hong Kong area. The system favors fingertip strikes with a minimum use of the legs. Kicks are directed only to leg areas of an opponent. It also favors hand-trapping elbow strikes and wrist-locking tactics.See also liu-ho-chtuan.
This Martial Art system was founded by Grand Master Tuumumao "Tino" Tuiolosega of the Royal Family of Sumo. Mr. Tino has spent over sixty years of his life dedicated to the Martial Arts, and the development of the American Polynesian art of Limalama. After having the Polynesian Martial Arts passed down to him by his father and uncle. Mr. Tino achieved Master Ranks in the five animal styles of Sil-Lum Kung fu. He was the Chief instructor of Self-defense while serving in the Marine Corp. Mr. Tino was the Middle Weight Champion and one of the most famous full contact Martial Arts competitors during the 1950s and 1960s
Literally the Buddha style, a Chinese kung-fu form with northern and southern variants. The most famous is the northern style, which is itself composed of several systems. Basically, the style is similar to chang-ch'uan. Emphasis is placed upon positioning rather than movement (a concept peculiar for kung-fu styles). The southern strain is especially popular in Fukien province; it too stresses positioning, but with more liberal movement.
Lua is the Royal Hawaiian martial art. In the 1800s the royal Hawaiian family decreed that the art would be restricted to members of the royal Hawaiian family (In fact, it is still illegal to practice the art in the state of Hawaii). Since the 1980s, the veil of secrecy to non-Hawaiians has started to lift with the open teaching of the art in Southern California by Alohe Kolomona Kaihewalu.
Lua encompasses both the armed and unarmed combat techniques of the ancient Hawaiian warriors. Isolated from outside influences, lua developed methods for fighting with wooden weapons and bare hands. The bone breaking techniques lua is known for resulted from battlefield expediency--break your opponent's bones, and he can fight no more.
Lua's known for bone breaking techniques, used with or without weapons. Lua is said to have encompassed over 300 techniques to break bones and dislocate joints without the use of weapons. Unarmed combat used joint manipulation, much as in jujitsu, and striking, much as in karate, kung fu, or tae kwon do.
Stories abound of how the adept lua practitioner would strike nerve centers in his opponent's body to render his opponent's limbs limp and useless. The warrior would then start from the opponent's hand and work his way up the arm, dislocating joints and breaking bones. Some practitioners could reverse the damage they caused by massaging pressure points and joint adjustment, seemingly a precursor to the lomi lomi massage and chiropractic care of today. Most of the time, though, the opponent was left to perish.
It's interesting to note that lua contained techniques seen in other martial arts, even though the Hawaiian Islands were isolated for centuries. Pressure point striking is found in kung fu and karate, and is related to the ancient Chinese medical art of acupuncture. Joint manipulation in fighting can be seen in kung fu, jujitsu, judo, aikido, and hapkido, among others.
King Kamehameha, the monarch who united the Hawaiian Islands under his rule, was renowned for his fighting ability. It was said that the king could lift stones no other man could lift, and was undefeated in single combat. Naturally, as king he undoubtedly was taught lua techniques that no other warrior could learn.
Canarian Isles (original inhabitants, the 'Guanches' a Berber people), using a shepherd's stick, still practised
Breton wrestling
French fighting system, originated from 19th century Paris, 'combat de rue' (= street fighting as opposed to more stylistic sport-fighting), using palm strikes, elbows, headbutts and throwing techniques.

M - Styles

Fight-dance, using sticks or machetes, from Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil, related to Capoeira. A traditional Afro-Brazilian dance played with sticks and machetes. Maculele was created by the African slaves who worked the sugar cane plantations. It is believed that during their rests between working, they would practice this dance with the machetes used for cutting down the sugar cane
The creator of MAENPO is Mr. Haji Ibrahim from Cikalong Cianjur West Java. MAENPO is a simple and unique fighting art by using hand speed with a term "Hand as a gun or Hand is a foot". According to Mr. UTAY MOCHTAR From Kadupandak Village, Cianjur (West Java), MAENPO is from the word "MAENPA" or "MAIN PAPAT" (Four point), that is : Mbah Khair (Bogor), Bang KARI (Betawi), Bang MADI (Pageruyung), SABANDAR (CIANJUR). MAENPO Consist of 27 happening aspect and 3 meaning aspect, that is created by Mr. Haji Ibrahim with the complete name " Raden Djayaperbata " from Cikalong Cianjur West Java. He does not know exactly when he creates this aspec, but he was born on 1816 and he was dead on 1906. He was burried in Majalaya Cikalong Kulon Cianjur. Maenpo is not the same with "SILAT", we can not make competation in MAENPO because the aspect of MAENPO can kill. The Important one of learning MAENPO is we can use the real MAENPO aspect, If we feel our skin will be meat, be at one with our body.
MAENPO is not only for the people who has special body and power but it is for all the people without thinking whether he/she has tall or short body or he/she has strong power or weak power. The focus of Maenpo is how we use the apect by using our brain than our muscle, it's mean that someone who is this, He/She must be brave to some one who is fat, He/She must look for the way how to face his/her enemy with his/her weak power, it uses our brain because people can uncrease their power by using their brain. People is defferent with animals. If we want to clash the animals, we must look for the same animal because the animals do not have brain, but people who fight with the strong man/woman, he/she must face him/her calmly. According to us, it is imposible, that's why if we want to learn MAENPO, we must be diligent, I'm sure if we do not try and try, we can't get it. (The Wisdom from Raden Abad: motion has a meaning so be careful with someone motion)
Uyuh Suwanda was the founder of the Mande Muda system and the father of Herman Suwanda, the current head of the system. Bapak Uyuh passed on in 1989. The Mande Muda school of Pencak Silat was formed in 1951 in Bandung, West Java. Like the traditional Pencak Silat the teachings were not open to the general public. Bapak Uyuh studied 17 styles of Pencak Silat until his marriage to Mimi Rukmini, who came from and practiced Cimande.Together they taught Pencak Silat to their family and friends."
Marma shastra, the ancient Indian martial art form that manipulates vital points in the body, can be used both for self-defense and healing
Still gaze. Lithe stance. The warrior commands all his concentration on the target. Body alert, mind quiet, spirit calm, he waits for the right moment. Suddenly, his hand darts out like a serpent's fangs-to kill... or to heal.
Healing has always been an important part of martial arts. You cannot be a fighter without knowing how to heal your wounds. But nothing connects the two better than marma shastra-where the difference between life and death is just a matter of pressure.
The word 'marma' was used for the first time in Atharva Veda (ancient Indian scripture). During the Vedic period of India, this martial art was known to kings and warriors and was used in battlefields. It is said that marmas are constituted of six vital elements-soma (sleshma, phlegm), marutha (vata, air), teja (pitta, bile) and the three mental types: rajas, tamas and satva. Marma adi is the science of manipulating marmas or vital points. These are nerve junctures usually close to the skin surface. According to Susruta, author of Susruta Samhita, the ancient treatise on ayurveda, human body contains 107 marma points which, when struck or massaged, produce desired healing or injurious results. Like acupressure, marma adi functions by pressing these points through which the prana (chi in Chinese) flows.
The highest stage of kalarippayat, Kerala's ancient and potent martial art form, marma adi is now a near-extinct science, existing in a few remote corners of the place of its origin. Even in this age of websites and rediscovering of ancient wisdom, marma adi has remained a tradition shrouded in mystery.
According to marma adi, our body is crisscrossed like irrigation channels with meridians, a closed interconnecting system through which prana flows in the body. While acupressure, or shiatsu, follows a 14-meridian theory (with 361 marma or tsubo points), marma shastra believes there are 26 meridians in all. Of these, 12 are located in pairs on the left and right sides.
Marma points, supposed to be located on these meridians, boost the prana each time it flows through, resulting in a stronger life force energy. Marma points are also divided on the basis of their pancha bhautic (five elements) constitution into sadya pranahara (fire), kalanthara pranahara (water), vishalaya ghunam (air), vaikalyakara (earth) and rujakara (space).
While six of the 12 pairs of meridians have negative polarity (Shakti, yin, ida), six are of the positive polarity (Shiva, yang, pingala). The negative meridians begin from the toes or the middle of the body and go upward to the head. The positive meridians begin at the head and go down. The intensity of prana flow varies according to the time of the day, peaking and diminishing in a 12-hour cycle. A marma point is most vulnerable when prana is flowing through it.
The prana leaves the lungs at dawn between 1.00 a.m. and 3.00 a.m. and returns after flowing through 13 other channels within 24 hours. When the flow of prana is disturbed, the corresponding organ is affected. A study of the exact location of prana is imperative for marma adi to be effective, for it works only if the blow is precisely on the marma point. The hit should also be vertical. This excessive stress on a precise hit and the years of practice it demands has stymied the popularity of this martial art form.
Two kinds of weapons can be used in marma adi: natural and artificial. The natural weapons include various hand and finger strikes including snake strike, dart strike, mantis strike and dragon fist strike. The metamorphosis of your hand from a wobbly five-fingered prong to a deadly weapon requires much practice, including jabbing your fingers on leather strips, wood, wall or even a bucketful of sand. But before doing any of these, make sure that you massage your palms, fingers and wrists with oil to regulate the blood circulation. Usually these exercises are recommended three days a week, with a gradual increase in the strain. If martial arts remind you of Bruce Lee gracefully slashing the wind with lightning strikes, marma adi will revise your opinion. You might use a stick, your house keys, a spoon, or even a corner of War and Peace to hit an assailant on the marma points. Each item works as well. Not to heal, though.
You strike the marma points to hit, and press with your thumb or the index finger to heal. For example, if lohit, a marma point on the leg, is struck, it results in paralysis. But the same marma is treated with moderate circular and deep pressure to treat paralysis. Similarly, marma vipat near the groin, when struck, can cause impotency while the same marma, when massaged, cures impotency. When somebody hits the marma, the flow of prana is disturbed and can be treated either by marma itself or acupressure. Those who have watched the Tamil hit movie Indian, or its Hindi version Hindustani would get an inkling of marma adi through those intricate jabs the hero Kamal Haasan uses to kill or maim his enemies, and which are later used by a marma master from Kerala to heal one of the victims.
Marma adi, unlike some other martial art forms, cannot be learnt in regular schools. The technique, handed down from one generation to the next within a family, is taught only to the most exceptional and dedicated students. It is possible to find marma masters in some gurukkals (teachers) of kalarippayat in Kerala.
What makes marma adi even more difficult to practice, especially as a form of defence, is the inaccessibility of many marma points. You can hardly pull out the shoes of an assailant to hit at his soles. Or trace the exact marma point up his spine. As a healing technique, however, marma adi is potent. And since that, in essence, is its function, marma has been, and continues to be, one of the most revered traditions of Indian healing systems.
"The effectiveness of marma healing is almost 100 per cent," says Sunil Kumar, son and disciple of K. Narayanan Gurukkal, a marma master based in the southern Indian state of Kerala. "It takes six weeks for a fracture to be healed through marma. Paralysis can be treated in three months. Other ailments such as spondylosis, nervous disorders, sciatic and rheumatic problems can also be treated with marma." It is, however, important to study the patient first, find out whether he is a vata (air), pitta (bile) or kapha (phlegm). "Vata type of people respond best to marma," says Sudhakaran, a student of marma. "Kapha and pitta types require medication as well as marma."
Korean Horsemanship
Masaki Ryu is one of Japans more obscure martial arts to say the least. The Founder was only known as Masaki, because he was a monk at one of the many Buddhist temples in Edo during the 1600's. Masaki was a guard at Tge temples gates. Being a Buddhist monk he could not spill blood so he developed a chain weapon he saw in a vision he had about an attack on the temple in the not so far future.
After he was done making the weapon he started developing Techniques based around Karate, Kung Fu and the training methods of the Chain he learned from a wandering Chinese warrior. The Manriki-gusari is the chain weapon he made, it is around three to twelve feet long, with the average being six feet long. It is a chain with weights on the end used to bash peoples skulls in.
Fight discipline of 'Massaï' people (Kenia)
Guadeloupe, similar forms also known in region (Martinique (Ladja), Dominique and Trinidad). Stick fighting, accompanied by a special drum rythm and traditional creole chants) Using sticks of 1m05 to 0 maximum, made of local kinds of hard-wood. On Marie-Galante, three sizes are used: 55, 70 and 90 cm at maximum. In earlier days possibly lethal, it developed to a ritualised, pugilistic dance.
This involves 12 graded body exercise sequences which include twists and turns of the body, leaps and poses. A single sequence constitutes a Payattu (much like a kata in Japanese martial arts). In advanced stages, the student learns several sequences of body control excursus which enable the student to master balance, coordination and the principles of movement in space as well as to understand the continuous flow of body energy.
This Manipuri game resembles wrestling in many ways. As in the more popular Indian form of wrestling, stamina, physical strength and prowess are the attributes required for success.
The ground should be of soft sand, and contestants should wear thin vests. Smearing the body with oil is not permitted, neither is the wearing of rings or any article that can be injurious. The contest is timed to three rounds, each lasting for 3 minutes. If a wrestler is defeated in two rounds, he is declared the loser. Punching, slapping, scratching or using of force with a knee - jerk or elbow jab are also not allowed. Even the use of bad language by the contestants invites disqualification.
A contestant is defeated when:
a) Both shoulders are pinned to the ground for a count of six, in five seconds.
b) A wrestler is lifted into the air, and is kept suspended for a count of six, in five seconds.
c) A wrestler is pinned on the ground, in any position for a count of six in five seconds.
A single referee conducts a bout, assisted by ringside judes, who allot points for every correct offensive posture. The total points of each judge are taken into consideration when deciding on the winner.
Literally, "cotton fist," a northern style of Chinese kung-fu. Notions of softness, smoothness, slowness, warmth, and even weakness are conveyed in its name. Practitioners train very slowly. Emphasis here is on soft training, training the legs, perfecting a low horse stance. A saying about this style warns "Mein-ch'uan, ten years stay in the home"-ten years of practice before one can use it.
Northern style of Chinese kung-fu founded around the end of the Sung dynasty. Its mythical founder, Yen-Ching, was actually a character in a famous Chinese novel entitled Water Margin. Emphasis in mi-t'sung is on changing direction, speed, and footwork to confuse the enemy. Aspects of both hard and soft kung-fu are included. Its most noted weapon is the knife (tao). The style was made famous by master Hou-Yuan-Chia, who founded the T'sing Wu Athletic Association in Shanghai during the early part of this century. Although Hou's academy housed several different styles, he never included his prized mi-t'sung in curriculum. To the day, the system is quite rate. The most famous master of this style ir' the U.S., Adam Hsu, teaches in San Francisco; he learned his mi-t'sung from Liu-Yen-Chiao, who in turn studied under ChiangYao-Ting
Mok Gar is one of the oldest martial arts, and is particularly famed for its kicking techniques. However, a full range of weapons are also used, making this form of martial arts one of the most effective combatant forms. Unlike some other forms, such as Wing Chun, Mok Gar has been faithfully passed from generation to generation without modification, and so Mok Gar practised today is very similar to that which would have been practised generations ago.
It is said that Mok Gar was invented by the Shaolin monk Mok Da Si. At that time the form was knows as Shaolin Kuen. He taught this to his family, who then passed it on from generation to generation. After three generations the form was renamed Mok Gar which can roughly be translated as the Mok Form. (Other family forms include Lau Gar, Lee Gar, Choi Gar and Hung Gar which were developed at the same time as Mok Gar, and similarly retain the faithful observance of the original teachings).
As mentioned above, great emphasis is placed on kicking techniques in Mok Gar, and to this end a tremendous amount of stamina building is undertaken as well as the development of power and flexibility in the legs. The flip side of this is that techniques are also taught to withstand kicks.
Once the 108 movements which form the basis of Mok Gar have been mastered, students go on to learn Tai Chi, which although it is a soft form of martial arts, if a student can master the art of combining the hard techniques of Mok Gar with the soft techniques of Tai Chi a formidable combatant form emerges.
For centuries the Mongolians have been known for their legendary grappling skills. Their skills and techniques have been passed on to kung fu practitioners in China as well as to wrestlers and sambo practitioners in Russia. BOKE, the Mongolian word for wrestling, was born in the 11th century. There is an Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia style. The Naadam festival held during the second week of every July is a sportive festival that features Boke, among other sports. Bbayrildax is another name for Mongolian wrestling. Most often it takes place outdoors, though sometimes, during the winter, tournaments are held indoors. There are no weight classes or time limits in a match. The objective of the match is to get your opponent to touch his back, knee or elbow to the ground. In the Inner Mongolian version, any body part other than the feet touching the ground signals defeat. Both versions use a variety of throws, trips and lifts to throw the opponent. The Inner Mongolians may not touch their opponent's legs with their hands, whereas, in Mongolia, grabbing your opponent's legs is completely legal..
The Rules
The technique and ritual of Mongolian wrestling is distinctly national. There are no weight categories or age limits in Mongolian national wrestling. The wrestlers wear heavy boots, a very small tight-fitting loincloth, a pair of sleeves which meet across the back of the shoulders, resembling a tiny vestige of a jacket, and a pointed cap of velvet.
The contestants come out on the field leaping and dancing, flapping their arms in imitation of an eagle. Each wrestler has an attendant herald. The aim of the sport is to knock your opponent off balance and throw him down, making him touch the ground with his elbow and knee. Each bout is contested over the best of three wins. The loser walks under the raised arms of the winner in a sign of respect, and unties his vest, after which the victor, again leaping and dancing, takes a turn round the flag in the center of the field. The victor is awarded symbolic prizes - biscuits and aaruul, or dried curds. Once he has tasted these, he offers them to his seconds and to spectators.
The Competition
Traditionally, either one thousand and twenty-four or five hundred and twelve wrestlers participate in the contest. At the Republican Naadam, nine rounds are held. Those who lose in one round are eliminated from further rounds.
Moo Do is a new, eclectic style founded by Grand Master Chae T. Goh, built on Tae Kwon Do but incorporating a much wider range of techniques than most TKD schools. The name means "Warrior's Way". In 1972, Master Goh came to America after a remarkable history of success
as a student, teacher, and innovator in several martial arts in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Moo Do combines Tae Kwon Do kicking, Karate punching, and Hapkido grappling and throwing techniques. The style focuses on street-usable techniques and forms, as both technique practice and a way of pursuing the `do' or self-improvement aspect of the art. Sport and competition fighting are de-emphasized.
Movements and forms are basically linear, but with a lot of training in 45-degree shifts for evasion. A wide range of grappling and throwing techniques designed specifically for common self-defense situations on the street are included. Each class begins with stretching and aerobic exercise. The classes are physically challenging, but there's a strong tradition of adapting to what the student's body can handle. Kick-punch combinations and multiple-technique attacks are pushed hard from the beginning. Sparring begins at intermediate levels.
Basic meditation is part of the curriculum. Students are instructed in the ethics of the Hwarang Do, including loyalty to nation and family, truthfulness, keeping one's word, loving kindness to one's spouse, and the necessity to "justify your means" when using force. Senior students are required to research and write essays on various topics in the art to pass belt tests.
In 1945 Grandmaster Hwang Kee founded the martial arts system of "Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan". It originated from the ancient Korean martial art "Soo Bahk Ki" and was influenced by Northern and Southern Chinese sysems, such as the Tang method.
The art was renamed Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan in 1994, in accordance with the wishes of the Grandmaster. The name reflects the increased pure Korean influence Grandmaster Hwang Kee has introduced and shows that we are still evolving as a "living art".
Soo Bahk Do is not a sport. As a classical martial art its purpose is to develop every aspect of the self to create a mature person who totally integrates his/her body, spirit, emotions and intellect. This integration helps to free a person from inner conflict and develops an ability to deal with the outside world in a mature, intelligent, forthright and virtuous manner.
Grandmaster Hwang Kee founded his first Soo Bahk Do school under the name of Moo Duk Kwan. A brief meaning of these words is a brotherhood and school of stopping inner and outer conflict and developing virtue through Soo Bahk Do training. Moo Duk Kwan is the mental direction and focus; it is the philosophy that supports the techniques of Soo Bahk Do. Combined, these two aspects enable total development of the self, each enhancing the other. This harmony creates an awareness of being that makes Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan training a valuable art form.
Over the past 20 years many westerners have studied Soo Bahk Do in Korea. Korean instructors have been sent out world-wide creating many major organizations. There are over 200,000 Soo Bahk Do students and over 35,000 Dan holders. Before 1974 there were many teachers but little standardization. Grandmaster Hwang Kee decided to unify and standardize these western organizations and as a result the first Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation Inc. was formed in 1975 in the United States (now know as the U.S. Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation Inc.). This is a non-profit organization, committed to promoting world peace by improving human relationships through the instruction and practice of Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan.
In 1985 the Belgian Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation was formed. Both federations are devoted to the growth and continuation of Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan maintaining the Grandmaster's high standards of excellence. Since 1945 the Grandmaster has instructed and monitored those who are certified to teach to ensure accurate transmission. These high standards bring strict expectations; the Grandmaster was once heard to have said "If you want to do front and reverse punches correctly, you must spend ten hours a day, six days a week for three years doing nothing else."!
It is a testimony in itself to the Grandmaster and his teaching that he commands such respect and inspires so much dedication and effort. Certain qualities of the Grandmaster permeate Soo Bahk Do and its members: openness, personal closeness, independence, rock hard determination and unshakeable solidarity. These qualities as well as unifying and binding us together assure that future generations will be able to follow the way of Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan.
Only those instructors certified through the Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation by Grandmaster Hwang Kee are legally authorized to engage in the instruction of Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan. Whilst "Tang Soo Do" is a generic term, "Soo Bahk Do" and "Moo Duk Kwan" are not. They were developed by Grandmaster Hwang Kee to specifically identify his system of martial art instruction and may only be used by those who are authorised to do so.

Involves the offensive and defensive use of the over 108 traditional weapons found within 20 categories of weaponry. By learning these various weapon systems, the practitioner can most effectively utilize any object as a weapon as the situation demands.
"Mshindi Vita Saana" is Ki Swahili for "Champion War Art" or Victor('s) War Art. Mshindi Vita Saana is a system of self defense developed for and by people of Afrikan* descent (African Americans.) Using an African frame of reference, Mshindi Vita Saana approaches self defense using rhythm, strategy, coordination and agility to highlight traditional and contemporary movements. At its core, Mshindi Vita Saana reflects the graceful elaborate polyrhythms found in Afrikan dance and music. As a people, dance and combat have always been integral parts of our glorious history.
Every nation of people has or has had their own system of self defense. Blacks (Afrikans) are not excluded from this fact. Africa flourished with rich and diverse cultures. Many of the developed sciences and arts of the world began in the cradle of civilization known today as Africa. The martial arts is just one of the many many treasures adopted or stolen from our homeland. There are always those who are surprised to hear that such a thing as Afrikan martial arts exist; they are surprised to know there are many systems of Afrikan martial arts. Often we hear of Karate and Whu Shu/Kung Fu as methods of self defense, but not often do we hear of Afrikan fighting arts such as Mshindi Vita Saana, Yara, Zuar, Ceoporia, Testa or Yangumi, just to name a few.
Mshindi Vita Saana, being self reliant and self determined, is not Black Karate nor is it Afrikan Kung Fu. There are no such art forms and to title any martial arts system as Afrikan Karate shows contradiction and confusion of culture, consciousness and commitment. Not to be misleading, Mshindi Vista Saana supports any practice of self defense and respects all systems. Mshindi Vita Saana teaches us that a martial arts system should reflect the cultural and political ambitions of a nation. Mshindi Vita Saana encourages unity among African American martial artists regardless of style or system. We consider it important to racially and culturally identify our art form -- Black Martial Arts. We make no apologies for our racial pride or for the uniqueness the Black experience brings to the martial arts or any art, for that matter.
Vita Saana was established in 1973 by founders Mwangazi O. Changa Mshindi and Mwanzo Umeme M. Maharibi. Since its beginning, Vita Saana has grown to be a strong influence in the Afrikan community, producing many outstanding martial artists. Today there are two disparate clans in the Philadelphia area, each under the leadership of one of the two co-founders of Vita Saana.
Mshindi Vita Saana, M.V.S. as it is sometimes abbreviated, was founded as one of the strategies to promote Black manhood/ womanhood during the unrest of the early nineteen seventies. During this time, practitioners trained in churches and independent Black institutions. Self defense was considered a fundamental and necessary component by both political activists and civil rights advocates. Mshindi Vita Saana is dedicated to teaching self defense as a life survival skill. As we accelerate toward our twenty-fifth anniversary and the next century, we remain involved in addressing the issues and concerns of the Afrikan community.
Ki Swahili is used by practitioners to greet classmates, respond to instructors and name techniques. Ki Swahili is also used in our drills and basic communication. Using the Swahili language to instruct Mshindi Vita Saana classes gives the student a sense of unity, pride and cultural awareness. Ki Swahili was chosen because of its large territorial usage boundaries and its acceptance by African Americans during our early cultural quest in the nineteen sixties. Mshindi Vita Saana promotes social interaction of age groups to build strong peer bonding. Children are encouraged to have fun and be responsible for each other. There is no negative discrimination because of complexion, gender, size or age. Everyone is treated fairly and with respect. Protocol is a must in Mshindi Vita Saana, for it teaches us to honor the work, and accomplishments of parents, teachers and elders. Mshindi Vita Saana instructions are reflective of an extended family with our members holding various positions of responsibility earned through rank.
The Mshindi Vita Saana curriculum reflects depth and substance. Covering self defense, weaponry, unarmed combat, fighting forms, breaking, etc. Each of the course components is more precisely defined by extensive subject matter. Practitioners are expected to work hard and achieve at their individual levels. Students (mwanafunzi) are encouraged to always give one hundred percent. Although Mshindi Vita Saana participants engage in sport-type events (tournaments) and perform extremely well, it is not our goal to produce tournament-type sports fighters. We choose to concentrate on urban street survival. We believe the concept of street survival requires mental as well as physical capabilities. For this reason, Mshindi Vita Saana emphasizes mental strategies and intellectual stimulation, along with rigorous physical training.
The seven styles of Mshindi Vita Saana each outline a physical and mental side, encompassing character, portrayal in appearance, attitude and methods. For example, one style of Mshindi Vita Saana is Tiger/Lion (Simba) which physically and mentally emotes a very aggressive fighter that is confident and seldom yields. Simba (Lion/Tiger) is very strong, fearless, agile and quick, someone who is impulsive and spontaneous. This is the type of person who is in it for the duration. We all may know someone with that aggressive Simba (Tiger/Lion) behavior. Each style also has a counter style. The important thing is that there is a list of strategies from which to choose. Because each situation may require a new plan, there is much to be learned in Mshindi Vita Saana; it is hard work, but the benefits and rewards are tremendous.
Often someone asks: is Mshindi Vita Saana more like karate or is it like Kung Fu? The answer is neither. To suggest this comparison is like asking: are Black people more like the Japanese or Chinese people? Because of history, culture, and other factors, every people has their own uniqueness that makes them who they are. Mshindi Vita Saana is our attempt to develop and secure martial arts skills through practice and study within our distinctive circumstance. It is of great importance to us that our skills are reflective of the Black experience. We encourage the practice of the Martial Arts and look forward to ongoing interactions with all fellow practitioners.
Muay Thai is usually regarded as a very hard, external style. However, especially because of its roots in heavily Buddhist Thailand, some consider it to have a spiritual aspect as well. Thai boxers typically perform some Buddhist rituals before beginning a match. Practicing Muay Thai is a vigorous workout and produces tremendous cardiovascular endurance.
Modern Thai Boxing (Muay Thai) originated from Krabi Krabong (a Thai weapons art roughly meaning "stick and sword"). When the Thais lost their weapons or fought close quarters with weapons they used knees, elbows, feet, fists and headbutting. They became famous for their toughness on the battle field with constant wars with their Burmese rivals. King Ramkamheng (1275 - 1317) wrote the "Tamrab-Pichei-Songkram" - the Book of War Learning, about the Thai war art, the basis of which was weaponless fighting. The biggest Thaiboxing hero of Thailand is the 'Black Prince' Nai Khanom Dtom, who was camtured by the Burmese and had to fight against 12 of the best Burmese fighters before he was released (in 1560). The Thais are still having annual Muay Thai tournaments in order to salute him.
In the old days the fights lasted until one of the fighters was dead or seriously injured. There were no rounds and the fights could have lasted for several hours. No protective gear was used and sometimes they wore rope over their knuckles and glued some broken glass on top of it...
Before the 1940's, Thai fighters fought bare-knuckled. After World War II, the Thai government became concerned due to the high number of fatalities in the ring and and forced some rules to be used: they gave up groin shots, eye pokes, started using weight classes and boxing gloves, and rounds. The Thais felt that this watered down their sport. As a result, Thais place more emphasis on kicks, particularly to the legs; knee strikes; and grappling. These skills score higher points than hand strikes in Thai matches.
Muay Thai involves boxing techniques, hard kicking, and knee and elbow strikes. Low kicks to the thighs are a very distinguishing technique used frequently in Muay Thai. Stand up grappling is also used and allowed in the ring. Muay Thai practitioners develop a very high level of physical conditioning developed by its practitioners.
The training involves rigorous physical training, similar to that practiced by Western boxers. It includes running, shadow-boxing, and heavy bag work. Much emphasis is also placed on various drills with the so-called "Thai pads". These pads weigh five to ten pounds, and cover the wearers forearms. In use, the trainer wears the pads, and may hold them to receive kicks, punchs, and knee and elbow strikes, and may also use them to punch at the trainee. This training is vaguely similar to the way boxing trainers use focus mitts. The characteristic Muay Thai round kick is delivered with the shin, therefore, the shins become conditioned by this type of kicking.
Full contact, full-power sparring is usually not done in training, due to the devastating nature of the techniques employed. Thai boxers may box, hands only, with ordinary boxing gloves. Another training drill is for two fighters to clinch, and practice a form of stand-up grappling, the goal of which is to try to land a knee strike. However, full-power kicks, knees, and elbows are typically not used in training.
Promising children will enter dedicated Muay Thai training camps as young as six or seven. There, the fighter will be put on a plan aimed at making him a national champion while still in his teens. The Thais fight frequently, and a 20 year old fighter may have had 150 fights. Typically, half the purse from each fight goes to the training camp, with the remainder being split between the fighter and his family.
Mukna is a sport, which is a combination of wrestling and judo, originating from, and popular in the state of Manipur. Historical records prove, that Mukna has been played since, the first half of the 15th century, but no exact record is available of the earlier meets. In Manipur, there is a belief that this type of wrestling goes as far back as the Hayachak era (Satya Yug), when Pakhangba, the son of the Atiya Guru Shidaba, caught his irate brother, Sanamahi who was the incarnation of a horse, causing chaos and confusion in the kingdom. Sanamahi was furious with his father, for naming Pakhangba as his successor. Pakhangba trapped his brother at the end of a long and bitter encounter, when he used a deadly grip that rendered Sanamahi powerless. This paved way for the birth of Mukna. This sport really flourished during the reign of King Khagemba (1597-1672). The game is generally played on the last day of the festival of Lai Haraoba (worship of the sylvan diety), and is an intrinsic part of the ceremonial functions.
The competitions are usually in the same weight category. Contestants, wearing a waist belt and a groin belt, hold each other's belts, and then the match begins. Holding the opponent's neck, hair, ear, private parts or legs with the hands, are considered foul. Boxing and kicking are also not permitted. The competitor who touches the ground first with his head, back, shoulder, knee or the hand, is declared the loser.
Some of the traditional equipment and dresses of the land are used by the players of this game. This is principally, to protect the vital parts of a player's body. It also helps to identify the Ana or the yek, to which the wrestler belongs. The waist belt is known as a ningri. The winner is called a yatra. He is declared winner, if he succeeds in pinning his opponent to the ground - with the whole of his body or his back touching the ground.
There are many techniques or lou, used in Mukna. Absolute physical fitness and skill is required, while mastering these techniques. Today, the game is popular in Imphal, Thoubal and Bishnpur.
My-Jong Lohan (also: "18 Law Horn") - Also known as the "Lost Track" and/or "18 Buddhas" style, this Northern style of Chinese kung-fu is said to contain many of the original exercises developed by Bodhidharma. Derived from the Northern Shaolin system, My-Jong Lohan bears a remarkable similarity in both technique and form. It stresses liberal, darting movements and sweeping, long-range attacks. Acrobatic leaps and maneuvers are also common in the forms of this style.
A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.


#313552 - 01/09/07 07:54 AM Re: A to Z of Martial Arts - N to P [Re: Dobbersky]
Dobbersky Offline
Peace Works!!!!

Registered: 03/13/06
Posts: 921
Loc: Manchester United Kingdom
N - styles

The naginata has been referred to by different names such as halberd, pole arm, swordspear, and curved spear. It is also said that the naginata comes from the Chinese halberd. Whatever the name and wherever it came from, it was a warriors weapon in battle.
In feudal times the use of the naginata was known as naginata-jutsu, the "art of the naginata" and was part of Bujutsu, the classical Japanese military arts. Today its use is called naginata-do, the "way of the naginata", and is part of Budo. This information isn't entirely accurate. Today both naginata-do and naginata-jutsu exists. Both the All-Japan Naginata-Do Federation and the U.S. Naginata Federation would be schools of naginata-do. There are also ryus of naginata-jutsu such as the Katori Shinto Ryu.
Naginata-do would be classed as budo, and naginata-jutsu would be classed as bujutsu. Budo, "military way" or "way of fighting". Spiritually related systems. not necessarily designed by or for warriors, for self-defense. Budo is a generic term encompassing all of the Japanese do (way) arts, which are largely 20th-century offspring stemming from concepts that can first be positively identified about the mid-18th century.
Some of the more predominant budo practices today are judo, karate-do, aikido, kendo, kyudo, and iaido. Budo subscribes to creating the ideal psychological state by removing the fear of death and excessive self- consciousness so its user can freely and completely make use of the acquired physical techniques.
Bujutsu "military art(s)". A collective term for all of the Japanese jutsu (arts) extant before the mid-18th century and practiced almost exclusively by the samurai warrior. These combatives, whose main use was to overcome a foe in combat, were the forerunners of the modern do (way) systems. Thus, judo evolved from jujutsu, Kendo from kenjutsu, karate-do from karate- jutsu, kyudo from kyujutsu, and so on.
The naginata has its origins with the earliest beginnings of the warrior classes in the seventh and eighth centuries A.D. The Japanese authorities date the oldest regular school of naginata technique back to 1168.
It began its history in feudal Japan as warlords vied for power over the land. The naginata was heavily relied upon due to its length and combined powers of cutting and thrusting. Opponents whether on foot or mounted on horseback were effectively neutralized, cut down by long swooping motions of the blade.
The naginata took several forms. The most common one had a socketed or tanged blade some 36 inches or more in length. The shaft was always stoutly banded and longer than the blade. A second form was the nagemaki, a heavy, very long sword mounted on a shorter sturdy shaft. Both weapons were very popular with warriors, especially in the turbulent monastic armies of the eleventh and twelfth centuries and increasingly so with the warrior class, or bushi, from the twelfth to the fifteenth century.
Gradually the character of warfare changed and military fashion favored the straight-bladed yari, or spear, as a lighter and more effective weapon against the sword, both on foot and on horseback. The large-scale use of infantry during the Onin War (1467-77) finally established the yari at the expense of the naginata and the use of the later soon became limited to certain religious sects and to ladies of the Bushi class, as a household weapon.
The Nanbu-Dô was created in 1978 from Yoshinao Nanbu. Yoshinao Nanbu was a disciple of Master Tani Chojirô (founder of Shukokai-Ryû). Nanbu created first the Sankukai school at the beginning of the seventies.
Native American Wrestling began as simply a form of entertainment among members of the various tribes, used to develop stamina and agility. In this form, it is a powerful and effective mix of grappling techniques. However, many practitioners also combine it with a spiritual discipline, invoking spirits to aid them, allowing for supernatural feats.
An advanced form of Korean combat, based on Kwonbop
Lit. Translation: "Nin" Perseverance/Endurance "jutsu" Techniques (of). Surrounded by much controversy, today's "ninjutsu" is derived from the traditional fighting arts associated with the Iga/Koga region of Japan. These arts include both "bujutsu" ryuha (martial technique systems) and "ninjutsu" ryuha, which involve a broad base of training designed to prepare the practitioner for all possible situations.
The history of ninjutsu is clouded by the very nature of the art itself. There is little documented history, much of what is known was handed down as part of an oral tradition (much like the native
american indian) and documented by later generations. This has led to a lot of debate regarding the authenticity of the lineages claimed by the arts instructors.
Historical records state that certain individuals/families from the Iga/Koga (modern Mie/Omi) region were noted for possessing specific skills and were employed (by samurai) to apply those and other skills. These records, which were kept by people both within the region and outside of the region, refer to the individuals/families as "Iga/Koga no Mono" (Men of Iga/Koga) and "Iga/Koga no Bushi" (Warriors of Iga/Koga). Due to this regions terrain, it was largely unexplored and the people living within lived a relatively isolated existence. This enabled them to develop perspectives which differed from the "mainstream" society of the time, which was under the direct influence of the upper ruling classes. When necessary, they successfully used the superstitions of the masses as a tool/weapon and became feared and slightly mythologized because of this.
In the mid/late 1500's their difference in perspective led to conflict with the upper ruling classes and the eventual invasion/destruction of the villages and communities within the Iga/Koga region. The term "ninja" was not in use at this time, but was later introduced in the dramatic literature of the Tokugawa period (1605-1867). During this period, ancestral fears became contempt and the stereotypical image ("clans of assassins and mercenaries who used stealth, assassination, disguises, and other tricks to do their work") was formed which, to this day, is still very much the majority opinion.
Over 70 different "ninjutsu ryu" have been catalogued/identified, however, the majority of them Have died out. Most were developed around a series of specific skills and techniques and when the skills of a particular ryu were no longer in demand, the ryu would (usually) fade from existence. The three remaining ninjutsu ryu (Togakure ryu, Gyokushin ryu, and Kumogakure ryu) are encompassed in Dr. Masaaki Hatsumi's Bujinkan Budo Taijutsu system. These ryu, along with six other "bujutsu ryu" (Gyokko Ryu, Koto Ryu, Takagi Yoshin Ryu, Shinden Fudo Ryu, Gikan Ryu and Kukishinden Ryu), are taught as a collective body of knowledge (see Sub-Styles for other info).
Terms like "soft/hard", "internal/external", linear/circular" have been used to describe ninjutsu by many people. Depending upon the perspective of the person, it could appear to be any one, all or even none of the above. It is important to remember that the term "ninjutsu" does not refer to a specific style, but more to a group of arts, each with a different point of view expressed by the different ryu. The physical dynamics from one ryu to another varies - one ryu may focus on redirection and avoidance while another may charge in and overwhelm.
To provide some kind of brief description, ninjutsu includes the study of both unarmed and armed combative techniques, strategy, philosophy, and history. In many Dojos the area of study is quite comprehensive. The idea being to become adept at many things, rather than specializing in only one.
The main principles in combat are posture, distance, rythm and flow. The practitioner responds to attacks in such a way that they place themselves in an advantageous position from which an effective response can be employed. They are taught to use the entire body for every movement/technique, to provide the most power and leverage. They will use the openings created by the opponents movement to implement techniques, often causing the opponent to "run in/on to" body weapons.
As was noted above, the areas of study in ninjutsu are diverse. However, the new student is not taught everything at once.
Training progresses through skills in Taihenjutsu (Body changing skills), which include falling, rolling, leaping, posture, and avoidance; Dakentaijutsu (Striking weapons body techniques) using the entire body as a striking tool/ weapon - how to apply and how to receive; and Jutaijutsu (Supple body techniques) locks, throws, chokes, holds - how to apply and how to escape.
In the early stages, weapons training is usually limited to practicing how to avoid attacks - overcoming any fear of the object and understanding the dynamics of its use from the perspective of "defending against" (while unarmed). In the mid and later stages, once a grounding in Taijutsu body dynamics is in place, practitioners begin studying from the perspective of "defending with" the various tools/weapons.
In the early stages of training, kata are provided as examples of "what can be done here" and "how to move the body to achieve this result". However, as the practitioner progresses they are encouraged to explore the openings which naturally appear in peoples movements and apply spontaneous techniques based upon the principles contained within the kata. This free flowing style is one of the most important aspects of ninjutsu training. Adaptability is one of the main lessons of all of these ryu.
Due to the combative nature of the techniques studied, there are no tournaments or competitions in Ninjutsu. As tournament fighting has set rules which compel the competitor to study the techniques allowed within that framework, this limits not only the kinds of techniques that they study, but also the way in which they will apply those techniques. The way that you train is the way that you fight. Ninjutsu requires that its practitioners be open to any situation and to be able to adapt their technique to ensure survival.
There are a number of people claiming to teach "ninjutsu".
Dr. Masaaki Hatsumi has been the recpient of numerous cultural awards in recognition of his extra-ordinary knowledge of Japanese martial culture. He is considered by many to be the only source for authentic "ninjutsu". However, as was noted above, the teachings of the three ninjutsu ryu which are part of his Bujinkan system, are not taught individually. Rather, they are taught as part of the collective body of knowledge which forms the foundation of his Bujinkan Budo Taijutsu system.
Shoto Tanemura, formerly of the Bujinkan Dojo, formed his own organization (Genbukan Dojo) and claimed to be the Grandmaster of/teaching both Iga and Koga Ryu Ninjutsu. He has since formed a number of other organizations and is becoming more widely known for his "Samurai Jujutsu" tapes (Panther Productions).
The list of names of people claiming to teach "Koga Ryu Nijutsu" is quite long. The last person to be recognized as part of the Koga Ryu lineage in Japan was Seiko Fujita. His knowledge of "ninjutsu" died with him - he left no successor.
In the early seventeenth century, a very eclectic samurai known as Miyamoto Musashi (author of The Book of Five Rings) developed his "science of martial arts called the Niten Ichi Ryu". This translates roughly as the 'Individual School of Two Skies,' and was influenced by the teachings of Sun Tzu, the fighting and philosophy of various styles (ninjutsu, samurai kenjutsu, kusarigamajutsu, etc), and a lifetime of participation and reflection in the martial arts.
In this sense the word kenjutsu is a bit of a misnomer, in that the style focuses on much more than just the sword and other bladed weapons. However, Musashi fought primarily with the sword; so we use the word kenjutsu to generalize. For the most part, practitioners of Niten Ichi Ryu study both empty handed and weapons techniques, under the idea that 'the weapon is an extension of the body' (this has become something of a cliche in the martial arts, but it's true). Just a few of the weapons taught in this school are katana (long sword), wakizashi (short sword), naginata, club, yari (spear), and eventually, firearms and explosives. In addition to teaching the physical application of techniques, Niten Ichi Ryu also works to develop observation, judgment and analysis skills which allow one to better their training in other areas of the martial arts and the world at large.
At this level of training, Niten Ichi Ryu can be on of the most beneficial martial arts. There are no official ranks in this school, but students do have the option of challenging what they already know so as to move on to more advanced levels of training. Benefits of such a 'challenge' can be something as small as wearing a face mask on one's helmet or as large as being allowed to teach the art to others. Collectively, Niten Ichi Ryu requires complete dedication in body, mind, and soul to better oneself physically, mentally, and spiritually - and in several directions that cannot be expressed in words.
18th Century form of wrestling. North Country wrestling evolved from Norse backhold wrestling, and included many backheel trips. Other techniques included cross-buttock throws, hip throws, outside reaping throws, and feints. The chief meets were the Melmerby and Langwathby Rounds, which were held annually around New Year's and Midsummer's Day. Winners received silver cups, leather breeches, and other valuable prizes. For coopers, farm hands, and millers, training consisted of manual labor and walking. The sons of the local gentry also did well in wrestling, with the scholars of Bampton School being especially noted for their skillful buttock throws. This made the Bampton curate, Abraham Brown, Britain's first middle-class wrestling hero.
Stick fencing as practised by 'Nuba' people in the Sudan, possibly related to the ancient egyptian stick fencing

O - Styles

A grappling form endemic only to Madura.
Greek name for the hand to hand combat in a Hoplite battle

P - Styles

A bizarre Korean Martial Art, where the head is used to butt an opponent
Pa Kua Chang, originating in Northern China is one of the three orthodox "internal" styles of Chinese martial art (the other two being T'ai Chi Ch'uan and Hsing Yi Ch'uan). Translated, Pa Kua means "Eight Trigram". This refers to the eight basic principles described in the ancient metaphysical treatise the I-Ching, or "Book of Changes". Pa Kua is meant to be the physical manifestation of these eight principles. "Chang" means "palm" and designates Pa Kua Chang as a style of martial art which emphasizes the use of the open hand over the closed fist. Pa Kua Chang as a martial art is based on the theory of continuously changing in response to the situation at hand in order to overcome an opponent with skill rather than brute force.
Although there are several theories as to the origins of Pa Kua Chang, recent and exhaustive research by martial scholars in mainland China concludes without reasonable doubt that the art is the creation of one individual, Tung Hai Ch'uan. Tung was born in Wen An County, Hebei Province about 1813. Tung practiced local martial arts (which reportedly relied heavily upon the use of openhand palm strikes) from his youth and gained some notoriety as a skilled practitioner. At about 40 years of age, Tung left home and travelled southward. At some point during his travels Tung became a member of the Chuan Chen (Complete Truth) sect of Taoism. The Taoists of this sect practiced a method of walking in a circle while reciting certain mantras. The practice was designed to quiet the mind and focus the intent as a prelude to enlightenment. Tung later combined the circle walking mechanics with the boxing he had mastered in his youth to create a new style based on mobility and the ability to apply techniques while in constant motion.
Tung Hai Ch'uan originally called his art "Chuan Chang" (Turning Palm). In his later years, Tung began to speak of the Art in conjunction with the Eight Trigrams (Pa Kua) theory expoused in the
Book Of Changes (Yi Ching). When Tung began teaching his "Chuan Chang" in Beijing, the vast majority of his students were already accomplished martial artists in their own right. Tung's teachings were limited to a few "palm changes" executed while walking the circle and his theory and techniques of combat. His students took Tung's forms and theories and combined them with their original arts. The result is that each of Tung's students ended up with quite different interpretations of the Pa Kua Chang art.
Most of the various styles of Pa Kua Chang found today can be traced back to one of several of Tung Hai Ch'uan's original students. One of these students was a man called Yin Fu. Yin studied with Tung longer than any other and was one of the most respected fighters in the country in his time (he was the personal bodyguard to the Dowager Empress, the highest prestige position of its kind in the entire country). Yin Fu was a master of Luo Han Ch'uan, a Northern Chinese "external" style of boxing before his long apprenticeship with Tung. Another top student of Tung was Cheng Ting Hua, originally a master of Shuai Chaio (Chinese wrestling). Cheng taught a great number of students in his lifetime and variations of his style are many. A third student of Tung which created his own Pa Kua Chang variant was Liang Chen P'u. Liang was Tung's youngest student and was probably influenced by other of Tung's older disciples. Although Pa Kua Chang is a relatively new form of martial art, it became famous throughout China during its inventor's lifetime, mainly because of its effectiveness in combat and the high prestige this afforded its practitioners.
Pa Kua Chang is an art based on evasive footwork and a kind of "guerilla warfare" strategy applied to personal combat. A Pa Kua fighter relies on strategy and skill rather than the direct use of force against force or brute strength in overcoming an opponent. The strategy employed is one of constant change in response to the spontaneous and "live" quality of combat.
Pa Kua is a very circular art that relies almost entirely on open hand techniques and full body movement to accomplish its goals. It is also characterized by its use of spinning movement and extremely evasive footwork. Many of the techniques in Pa Kua have analogs in other Northern Chinese systems;however, Pa Kua's foot work and body mechanics allow the practitioner to set up and execute these techniques while rapidly and smoothly changing movement direction and orientation. Pa Kua trains the student to be adaptable and evasive, two qualities which dramatically decrease the amount of physical power needed to successfully perform techniques.
The basis of the various styles of Pa Kua Chang is the circle walk practice. The practitioner "walks the circle" holding various postures and executing "palm changes" (short patterns of movement or "forms" which train the body mechanics and methods of generating momentum
which form the basis of the styles' fighting techniques). All styles have a variation of the "Single Palm Change" which is the most basic form and is the nucleus of the remaining palm changes found in the Art. Besides the Single Palm Change, other forms include the "Double Palm Change" and the "Eight Palm Changes" (also known variously as the "Eight Mother Palms" or the "Old Eight Palms"). These forms make up the foundation of the Art. Pa Kua Chang movements have a
characteristic circular nature and there is a great deal of body spinning, turning and rapid changes in direction. In addition to the Single, Double and Eight Palm Changes, most but not all styles of Pa Kua Chang include some variation of the "Sixty-Four Palms." The Sixty-Four Palms include forms which teach the mechanics and sequence of the specific techniques included in the style. These forms take the more general energies developed during the practice of the Palm Changes and focus them into more exact patterns of movement which are applied directly to a specific combat technique.
Training usually begins with basic movements designed to train the fundamental body mechanics associated with the Art. Very often the student will begin with practicing basic palm changes in place (stationary practice), or by walking the circle while the upper body holds various static postures (Hsing Chuang). The purpose of these exercises is to familiarize the beginning student with the feeling of maintaining correct body alignment and mental focus while in motion. The student will progress to learning the various palm changes and related forms. The Sixty-Four Palms or other similar patterns are usually learned after some level of proficiency has been attained with the basic circle walk and palm changes. Some styles practice the Sixty-Four Palms on the circle while other styles practice these forms in a linear fashion. All of the forms in Pa Kua Chang seek to use the power of the whole body in every movement, as the power of the whole will always be much greater than that of isolated parts. The body-energy cultivated is flexible, resilient and "elastic" in nature.
In addition to the above, most styles of Pa Kua Chang include various two- person forms and drills as intermediate steps between solo forms and the practice of combat techniques. Although the techniques of Pa Kua Chang are many and various, they all adhere to the above mentioned
principles of mobility and skill. Many styles of Pa Kua Chang also include a variety of weapons, ranging from the more "standard" types (straight sword, broadsword, spear) to the "exotic." An interesting difference with other styles of martial arts is that Pa Kua Chang weapons tend to be "oversized," that is they are much bigger than standard weapons of the same type (the extra weight increases the strength and stamina of the user).
Each of Tung Hai Ch'uan's students developed their own "style" of Pa Kua Chang based on their individual backgrounds and previous martial training. Each style has its own specific forms and techniques. All of the different styles adhere to the basic principles of Pa Kua Chang while retaining an individual "flavor" of their own. Most of the styles in existence today can trace their roots to either The Yin Fu, Cheng Ting Hua Or Liang Chen P'u variations.
Yin Fu styles include a large number of percussive techniques and fast striking combinations (Yin Fu was said to "fight like a tiger," moving in swiftly and knocking his opponent to the ground like a tiger pouncing on prey). The forms include many explosive movements and very quick and evasive footwork. Variations of the Yin Fu style have been passed down through his students and their students, including Men Bao Chen, Ma Kuei, Kung Bao T'ien, Fu Chen Sung and Lu Shui T'ien. Cheng Ting Hua styles of Pa Kua Chang include palm changes which are done in a smooth and flowing manner, with little display of overt power (Cheng Ting Hua's movement was likened to that of a dragon soaring in the clouds). Popular variants of this style include the Gao Yi Sheng system, Dragon style Pa Kua Chang, "Swimming Body" Pa Kua Chang, the Nine Palace system, Chiang Jung Ch'iao style (probably the most common form practiced today) and the Sun Lu Tang style.
The Liang Chen P'u style was popularized by his student Li Tzu Ming (who was the president of the Beijing Pa Kua Chang Association for many years and who did much to spread his art worldwide).
Pak Mei (pronounced Bahk Mei), or White Eyebrow, Kung-Fu was created by the Taoist Monk Pak Mei during the Ching Dynasty in China. He began his training in the Shaolin Temple at Sung San Mountain. After leaving the temple, Pak Mei traveled to Ngo Mei (O-Mei) Mountain where he refined his art. Pak Mei's martial art was passed on to Gwong Wei, the only heir to the system, who named the style Pak Mei Kung-Fu out of respect for his teacher. The style was then solely passed to Jok Fat Wan, who traveled with his dsciple Lin Sang from Northern China to Southern China, eventually ending up at the Gwong How Temple in Canton.
Pak Mei Kung-Fu is one of the few systems that combines both Shaolin and Taoist practices into a single fighting style. It is classified as an internal and external system that emphasizes the combination of the science of combat along with the Taoist principles of using the chi, or breath, to maximize the generation of power from within the body and to maintain health. In Pak Mei, Chi Kung is incorporated into every aspect of the art, unlike most arts which contain supplemental exercises to develop the chi.
Pak Mei is a highly sophisticated, fast and aggressive system that is rarely seen within the realm of Chinese martial arts today. The Pak Mei practitioner uses, geing jak ging, or scared power, a type of explosive power that enables a technique to change quickly from a soft and relaxed movement into a powerful strike upon impact, which to the untrained observer can look quite external, or using brute force.
Techniques are executed between short and mid-range distances; hand movements are fast and powerful. Pak Mei also contains a wide assortment of kicks including: side, front, jumping , and ground fighting maneuvers.
In Pak Mei training, the essentials are:
Basics - The basics are the foundation to higher proficiency in Pak Mei. The basics consist of exercises unique to the system, designed to loosen the joints, strengthen the bones, and develop full body coordination necessary to become proficient in Pak Mei. In addition, proper coordination of physical movement and breathing is taught.
Forms - A form is a pattern of prearranged techniques that stimulate various situations of attack and defense. In Pak Mei, forms are either done with full power at top speed, or with little power emphasizing relaxed and fluid movements. There is no middle ground.
Free Sparring - Free sparring is an integral part of Pak Mei training. Practice fast and furious, it helps the practitioner develop timing and reflexes needed in hand to hand combat situations.
Weapons - Instructions in various types of traditional Chinese weapons such as the staff, spear, tiger fork, butterfly knives, and other weapons indigenous to Pak Mei.
Silat from the Island of Madura. Characterized by bladework, no sparring application, minimal foot shifting, good old mans' style. Emphasis the "harimau" tiger. see also Pamor.
From Madura, sandy beach style- good platform, stepping in, hand traps, minimal jumping to the side, attention to footing-good 'old mans style'. Very direct knife attacks. see also Pamur
French, combination of Canne and Savate
The Filipino weapons and kicking methods were eventually integrated into one complete system through clandestine training. The Filipinos discovered that by adding kicking techniques to their existing weapons repertoire, they could effectively overcome an opponent versed only in weaponry. Pananjakman, the name given to these combative kicks, has proven to be an integral part of the escrima system in particular. While not as aesthetically appealing as, say, the flashy kicks of tee kwon do, pananjakman techniques have proven especially effective for diverting an opponent's attention and disrupting his timing and balance, which then affords the escrimadoran opening to attack. Although pananjakman includes more than a half-dozen kicks, they are variations of just two techniques: sipang paharap(front kick) and sipanggabiakid (reverse kick). The primary targets for the sipang paharap and the sipang pabiakid are the opponent's instep, the front and back of the knee, the calf, and the thigh. The kicks focus on the opponent's lower body because they are likely to be struck by the opponent's weapon if delivered higher. Also, an attempt to lift the foot higher than waist level could result in a loss of balance and timing, which can prove fatal in the fast and unpredictable world of weapons combat. Using a form of "triangle" movement, the escrimador skilled in pananjakman is able to change positions frequently, with no apparent shifting of his upper body to telegraph his intentions. The escrimador uses stomping techniques to create a "broken" rhythm that keeps the opponent distracted until an opening is established. Once an open target is found on the opponent's legs, the escrimador delivers a kick and quickly follows it up with either another kick, or a hand or weapon technique, until the skirmish is ended. Diligent practice and perseverance are needed to ensure proper development of pananjakman techniques. By repeatedly executing the kicks during empty-hand and weapons sequences, they become second nature and will prove to be efficient elements of an escrimador's overall arsenal.
Pananandata is a centuries-old Filipino martial arts system which long remained secret until Master Amante P. Marinas, Sr., recently brought it from the Philippines to the world. It is the art of yantok at daga -- or stick and dagger fighting. Why use both the stick and dagger? When you're fighting an opponent who attacks with a long weapon, the stick is useful for defensive blocking, and for thrusting through your attacker's defense, while the dagger is used only once you have bypassed his defenses. If your assailant chooses a short weapon, the stick easily defeats it -- opening an avenue for a slash or thrust with either the stick or dagger -- an unbeatable combination! Pananandata yantok at daga used a sword in place of the stick many, many centuries ago. But have you ever tried to conceal a sword on the street? Knives and sticks are among the most common weapons used on the streets today.
Also known as Suntukan, refers to the empty handed boxing skills of Filipino Kali and consists of a wide variety of punches, open hand techniques elbow strikes and nerve destruction techniques. There are a large number of training drills which, when performed with a training partner develop the reflexes and tactile sensitivity. These methods of training are known as Corto Kadena which mean, close range chaining. these drills help develop the concept of "flowing" from technique to technique in a fast continuous flurry of attacks which target vulnerable areas of the body such as, the eyes, throat, solar plexus, groin, bladder, kidneys and various nerve and pressure point areas.
Many of the empty handed flow drills also teach the concept of trapping which involves manipulating an opponents attacking arms in such a way as they become "tied-up" thus rendering effective defence almost impossible. Trapping is a highly sophisticated skill requiring a high level of training.
Over 2000 years ago, the ancient Greeks had developed a brutal, all-out combat form which they named Pankration (pronounced pan/cray/shun or pan-crat-ee-on depending on the dialect). The term is derived from the Greek adjectives pan and kratos and is translated to mean "all powers" or "all-encompassing." First introduced into the Olympic Games of 648 B.C., pankration would soon become the most popular and most demanding of all athletic events. It integrated every physical and mental resource - hands and feet, mind and spirit - in the closest simulation of no-holds-barred competitive fighting that any culture has ever allowed. Only biting and gouging were prohibited. Anything else went, although the tough Spartan contingent allowed these, too, in their local athletic festivals. The techniques included a murderous mixture of Hellenic boxing and wrestling: hook and uppercut punches, full-powered kicks, elbowing and kneeing, joint locks, as well as numerous submission chokeholds.
Kicking was an essential part of pankration, especially rising kicks to the groin or stomach, and powerful leg sweeps meant to take an opponent off his feet. Kicks above the belt were used sparingly, with blows aimed to the head or face only when one's adversary was on the ground and too weakened to block or catch the attacker's foot. Due to this unique tactic alone, some combative experts credit pankration as the first comprehensive unarmed fighting system on record.
Pankration bouts were extremely brutal and sometimes life-threatening to the competitors. Rules were minimal in number. In addition, there were no weight divisions and no time limits. The fighting arena or "ring" was no more than twelve to fourteen-feet square to encourage close-quarter action. Referees were armed with stout rods or switches to enforce the rules against biting and gouging. The rules, however, were often broken by some participants who, realizing they were outclassed by a heavier and stronger foe, would resort to such measures to escape being seriously maimed. The contest itself continued uninterrupted until one of the combatants either surrendered, suffered unconsciousness, or, of course, was killed.
Although knockouts were common, most pankration battles were decided on the ground where both striking and submission techniques would freely come into play. Pankratiasts were highly-skilled grapplers and were extremely effective in applying a variety of takedowns, chokes, and punishing joint locks. Strangulation was most feared during ground combat, and was the leading cause of death in matches. A fighter would immediately raise his arm in defeat once his opponent's forearm had secured a firm grip across the windpipe or carotid artery.
The feats of the ancient pankratiasts became legendary in the annals of Greek athletics. Stories abound of past champions and masters who were considered invincible beings. Arrichion, Dioxxipus, and Polydamos are among the most highly-recognized names, their accomplishments defying the odds by besting multiple armed opponents in life-and-death combat, and battling and killing lions when human competition was no longer a feasible challenge. It is also theorized that the famed strongman Hercules was the first Olympic victor in pankration. Exhibitions of superhuman strength were frequently witnessed by the awe-struck Greek people. Practitioners displayed the power of pneuma (Gr. inner energy) by breaking stones and planks with their bare fists and driving their hardened feet through forged war shields.
The Romans would later adopt pankration into their particular athletic contests, but their modifications would degrade it to a mere blood sport. The fighters were now armed with the dreaded caestus, a weighted and spiked glove which reigned blows with deadly results. In Rome it was not unusual for such public brutality, as it was the rule rather than the exception, to quench the spectator's thirst for gore. This alteration, however, diminished the skill and aesthetic value that the Greek race had come to admire in their athletes. Rarely, if ever, did a true Greek pankratiast participate in the savage gladiatorial arenas of Rome, even though the were often tempted by higher purses and positions within the powerful Roman empire.
Pankration was basic to the majority of the Greek warriors who served under Alexander the Great during his invasion of India in 326 B.C. Many authorities now contend that this dispersal of pankration techniques throughout the subcontinent laid the foundation for countless Asian martial arts which evolved soon thereafter, including Chinese kung fu, Okinawan karate, and Japanese jiujitsu. This theory has been the subject of a raging controversy for the past twenty years.
Pekiti-Tirsia is a Filipino Martial Art developed by the Tortal family of Negros, an island in the central Visayan region of the Philippines and brought to the U.S. in 1972 by Grand Master Leo Tortal Gaje. In the Illongo dialect of Visayan, Pekiti-Tirsia literally means Close-Thirds; in the west we would say Close-Quarters; or as Grand Master Gaje likes to paraphrase it you cut him up small, up close Pekiti-Tirsia International System of Kali is comprised of 5 main weapons categories:
Solo - Single stick, sword or spear. Doble - Double stick or sword. Espada y Daga - Sword and Dagger. Daga y Daga - Knife to Knife (both single and double). Mano y Mano - Hand to Hand. Pekiti-Tirsia International is based on 3 principles:
1. Ranges - You are taught Close Range first as this is the most dangerous and difficult to master; then Medium, and finally Long.
2. Levels - Along with every attack you are taught several counters to that attack, as well as several recounters to each counter. You develop the ability to think at least 3 levels ahead in a fight.
3. Opponents - You are taught to be prepared to fight at least 3 opponents; therefore, you don't spend too much time on any one opponent.
Is a form of wrestling practiced mostly by the farmers of Indonesia, and is rarely seen today, except at annual festival events.

Pentjak Silat means, literally, the formal movements or choreography (Pentjak) of fighting (Silat). It is a catch-all term for the indigenous martial arts of Indonesia. There are regional specialties such as the kicking and ground-fighting of Sumatran Harimau stylists or the hand-work of Bali and Java. The Indonesian government has its sanctioned organization IPSI which is dedicated to creating an athletic sport out of the brutally practical combatives of Pentjak Silat. This form of the art, Silat Olah Raga, was part of the most recent Southeast Asian Games. The word Silat is also used in Malaysia and in the Muslim Southern Philippines. Although the words Pentjak and Silat may be used by themselves there is a saying about them which underscores the interdependent nature of the formal and practical aspects of the art. "Pentjak without Silat is meaningless. Silat without Pentjak is worthless."
Fighting method from Guinee (Africa)
Italian type of stick fighting used in combat as far back as the 2nd Century BC or earlier.
New style of kung-fu popular in Malaysia. The art has been developed in the past thirty years by a Chinese sifu (teacher), Nip Chee Fei. Its resilience is drawn from Tai-chi-chtuan, its strength from Shaolin. Poc khek has its own kata; leg techniques are employed, but hand techniques predominate. During sparring, punches and kicks are not pulled, and protective gear is worn.
Poekoelan Tjimindie Tulen is a celebration of much love, dedication, discipline and fortune that provides practitioners an art through which they can engage in the marvelous process of life and training.
Poekoelan Tjimindie Tuelen was founded by Mas Goeroe Agoeng Willy John Christopher Wetzel, a Dutch Indonesian man and ninth degree Golden Dragon. Goeroe traveled throughout Indonesia studying many styles of Pentjat Silat and took the best parts of each to develop the style of Poekoelan Tjimindie Tulen. Goeroe brought the art to America in 1956. The first school to teach Goeroe's style was opened in Lowellville, Ohio in 1973 by Goeroe Barbara Niggel under the direct tutorage of Mas Goeroe Agoeng Willy Wetzel. Goeroe's compassion, spirit and dedication to his art were boundless. In honor of his dream to teach and further develop the lessons and knowledge of Poekoelan, we introduce his art, Poekoelan Tjimindie Tulen.
Quiet Goddess of Compassion, Kwan Yin, guided Mas Goeroe Agoeng Willy Wetzel to develop the art of Poekoelan Tjimindie Tulen. Goeroe is the "Well" as he is the originator of the art, Goeroe Barbara Niggel is the first bloodline or first river, and her students are second rivers and so on. Poekoelan is an Indonesian word, which means "series of blows with returning hands and feet"; Tjimindie means "beautiful flowing waters"; Tulen means "original". Together, this describes the movement of this complete martial art, which flows gracefully and is effective in both combat and healing. The art is symbolized by the flexible, supple, yielding bamboo and an individualistic, beautiful rose that has thorns to protect itself. These symbols are set upon a black background, which signify the secrets and mysteries of the art.
The systems movements are of a nature akin to water and bamboo, fluid and circular, spiraling and continuous, graceful and whip-like. Movements are derived from four animals; the fierce tiger in the north, the eastern inspirational crane, the playful southern monkey, and from the west, the powerfully fluid snake. The use of these animals provide a set of dynamic dualities: soft/hard, fast/slow, small/large, fierce/playful, circular/angular and high/low. All of this is combined with a meditative, dance-like form, called the "crawl", a movement that is completely unique to each practitioner.
Martial techniques for self-defense are joined with breath and energy for purification of the body and mind. The purpose is to waken and connect with the body, seek clarity of self, and learn to strengthen, protect and secure the human spirit core by developing calm, compassion and a high level of internal energy for use in healing. The advanced levels of training in the Tulen art inspire the student to develop not only physical skills but mental and spiritual skills as well. The three advanced phases of the Tulen System are White Dragon, Silver Dragon and Gold Dragon.
Students begin training by bowing with empty hands and open minds to our teacher. The cleansing spirit of the art pours through them, and with each step it washes and purifies them. The training drum rhythms guide the students to their own movement. To fully understand the essence of training, students are encouraged to "accept, breathe, flow and not be concerned with outcomes." Compassion based Poekoelan offers a calm and fluidly beautiful art of self-protection and cultivation of the inner spirit.
The goal of the student is to spread Poekoelan Tjimindie Tulen worldwide in the name of Mas Goeroe Agoeng Willy Wetzel. Welcome to his art.

Imitative boxing of the Praying Mantis. The Praying Mantis is an insect with killer instinct and blinding speed. The Tang Lang Pai is a combat system composed of several sub-styles, that due to the richness and complexity of their techniques are considered styles by themselves. Some of these styles were created combining the praying mantis boxing with other wu-shu systems. Some writers count more than 40 Praying Mantis styles. This section will only mention below theMore ancient and traditional ones.
Wang Lang (the style creator) was born in the Tsi Mo district, in Shantung Province (Northern China). He lived during the Ming Dynasty fall and as he was a patriot (some Masters say he was uncle of the last Ming Emperor), he decided to excel in the martial arts to fight against the Ching Dynasty (Manchurian rulers). He entered to the Shaolin monastery in Sung Shang, but being prosecuted by the Manchurians he travelled all over China, training in places places where he could find Kung Fu Masters. In this way he learned 17 Chinese Boxing styles.
After this travel, Wang Lang entered to the Lao Shan monastery. Once there, he was always defeated by the abbot of the temple in spite of his deep knowledge of the fighting arts. One day, while he was meditating in a forest he saw a combat between a praying mantis and a cicada. He was impressed by the aggressive attitude of the mantis and he started studying its movements. After a long learning time he combined the praying mantis hand movements with the monkey steps (to enhance the coordination between hand and feet). With this new style Wang Lang could defeat the monastery abbot. Wang Lang went on modifying his system and when he felt satisfied with his creation he accepted some disciples.
Even though Praying Mantis sub-styles are quite different, they all contain the basic structure created by Wang Lang: * 8 stances * 12 key words * 8 rigid and 12 flexible methods * 5 external and 5 internal elements * 8 non- attacking and 8 attacking points.
Northern praying mantis is a style characterized by fast hand movements. The hook hands are the "trade mark" of the style and they are found in all the northern sub-styles. Northern Tang Lang Chuen's main weapon is the blinding speed of the hand trying to control and punch the opponent. It has a balanced combination of circular and straight movements.
Other important elements are the simultaneous block and punch, and strong chopping punches. These are practical movements for full contact street fighting. Some Chinese martial artists say that Seven Star Praying Mantis Boxing (one of the praying mantis sub-styles) is the most aggressive style created in China. Grappling, kicking, nerve-attack and weapons complete the northern branch.
Southern praying mantis is very different. It is an infighting system that resembles Wing Chun. Chi Kung is very important in the Southern Praying Mantis. Movements are continuous and circular, soft and hard, except in attack, where the middle knuckle (phoenix eye) of the index
finger is used like a needle to pierce the internal organs. A punch with the fist produces an external muscular bruise, striking with the phoenix eye produces an internal bruise.
1) Physical exercises
2) Body conditioning
Tie Sha Chang (Iron Palm)
Pai Ta Kung (body strengthening)
Jhiu Sa So (Poison Palm)
3) Fighting Theory
Tuey (legs actions)
Ta (hand actions)
4) School training (basic movements known as combinations)
5) Hsuai (Throwing Techniques)
6) Na (also known as Chin Na, grappling techniques)
7) Forms training (The core of the system. Solo training and forms
for two or more people)
8) San Sou (free fighting)
9) Jei Jai (weapons training)
10) Dim Mak (also known as mur mon, the death touch)
8 attacking points
8 non attacking points
Deadly points
11) History and tradition (honor the ancestors in the style and keep
the folklore tradition -for example Lion Dance-)
Northern Sub-Styles:
Seven Stars Praying Mantis (Chi Shing Tang Lang)
Eight Steps Praying Mantis (Pa Pu Tang Lang)
Six Armonies Praying Mantis (Liu Ho Tang Lang)
Secret Door Praying Mantis (Pi Men Tang Lang)
Mysterious Track Praying Mantis (Mi Tzong Tang Lang)
Throwing Hands Praying Mantis (Shai Shou Tang Lang)
Plumb Flower Praying Mantis (Mei Hua Tang Lang)
Flying legs Praying Mantis from the Wah Lum Temple (Wah
Lum Tam Tui Tang Lang) Jade Ring Praying Mantis (Yu-Huan
Tang Lang) Long Boxing Praying Mantis (Chang Chuen Tang Lang)
Great Ultimate Praying Mantis (Tai Chi Tang Lang)
Eight Ultimates Praying Mantis (Pa Chi Tang Lang)
Southern Sub-Styles (Hakka shadow boxing):
Bamboo Forest Praying Mantis (Kwong Sai Jook Lum Tang Lang)
Chou Clan Praying Mantis (Chou Gar Tang Lang)
Chu Clan Praying Mantis (Chu Gar Tang Lang)
Familiar or non spread Sub-Styles:
Han Kun Family Praying Mantis (Han Kung Chia Tang Lang)
Drunken Praying Mantis (Chui Tang Lang)
Shiny Board Praying Mantis (Kuang Pang Tang Lang)
Connected Arms Praying Mantis (Tong Pei Tang Lang)
Mandarin Duck Praying Mantis (Yuan Yan Tang Lang)
Pukulan comes from the word 'Pukul', meaning 'to strike' or 'to collide'- the suffix 'an' connoting a field of study. The word, then, means 'the study of the colliding art'. This usage is primarily Dutch Indonesian. It is roughly equivalent to common handfighting or boxing/wrestling. It also doesn't necessarily have an adherantcy to style lineage as in the idea of a Pusaka (holy legacy/heirloom).
British unarmed fighting method using kicks delivered by the feet
A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.


#313553 - 01/09/07 07:57 AM Re: A to Z of Martial Arts - Q to S [Re: Dobbersky]
Dobbersky Offline
Peace Works!!!!

Registered: 03/13/06
Posts: 921
Loc: Manchester United Kingdom
Q - Styles

Qigong (pronounced chee goong) is a Chinese system of physical training, philosophy, and preventive and therapeutic health care. Qi (or chi) means air, breath of life or vital essence. Gong means work, self-discipline, achievement or mastery. This art combines aerobic conditioning, isometrics, isotonics, meditation, and relaxation. Qigong is a discipline whose practice allows us to gain control over the life force that courses throughout our bodies. There are more than 3,000 varieties of qigong, and five major qigong traditions: the Taoist, Buddhist, Confucian, martial arts, and medical. Qigong is thus a soft form of a related set of disciplines that includes Taiji (Tai Chi Quan) and the hard form of Kung Fu

R - Styles

Ter Linden has blended the four systems of Soetji hati, Tjimande, Tjikalong and Serah into one system he calls ratu adil. Yet, he insists on some clarifications about his system, so as not to confuse his efforts with certain practices of which he does not approve. "This is not a watered-down system. You can't teach "express silat" because everything is inter-linked. In a combination, you may have to chain a move from djuru two with djuru fourteen with langka seven, and so on. Of course, you're not thinking about it you're just doing. Ratu adil is also not an eclectic blend of the systems. Most eclectics throw away thousands of years of experience and refinement, usually because they don't understand it. What ratu adil is, is the four systems taught as one. I teach all of the systems to the student, and the student ultimately learns to flow from system to system without thinking about it. For example, he may start out with a tjimande move, a soetji hati bridge and finish with a serah sweep. Or vice versa."
Unarmed fighting method from Bavaria (Germany)
German form of wrestling similar to Cornish Wrestling
ROSS Performance Enhancement System was formulated by SCOTT SONNON, USA National Team Coach, International Champion, International Hall of Fame inductee, Master of Sport, teamed with Nikolay Travkin, AARMACS President and AAIRFRMA General Director, and Sgt. Shawn Menard, Benjamin Brackbill, Scott Fabel and Lt. Michael Hults, AARMACS National Cadre Instructors. The ROSS Performance Enhancement System is a PROCESS of personal transformation through physical culture.
The ROSS Performance Enhancement System evolved from the Russian Martial Art R.O.S.S. - the Russian acronym for Rossijskaya Otechestvennaya Sistema Samozashchity. In English language, this can be translated as the "Russian Native System of Self-Defense". ROSS was developed by Gen. Alexander Ivanovich Retuinskih, President of the International and All-Russian Federation of Russian Martial Art, Vice-Chairman of the International Combat Sambo ("Unarmed Combat") Commission for FIAS (International Sambo Federation) and Chairman of the Russian Combat Sambo Committee, Honored Coach of Russia. ROSS is the training system of Russian Martial Art researched and formulated by the RETAL Center and endorsed and approved by the IRFRMA, which is sanctioned and authorized by the National Olympic Committee of Russia as the sole official representative of Russian Martial Art within Russia and worldwide.
At the present time in the RETAL Center, the training headquarters of the Russian Federation of Russian Martial Art, a method of training specialists is being developed and tested. The indicated method is determined as "Know-How" (registered with the State enterprise "Inform patent" Committee of the Russian Federation by patent and trademark of April 4, 1995).
The application of the indicated methods allow for the sufficient preparation of specialists or athletes for hand-to-hand combat in a relatively short span of time, and also for the use of latent reserves of the human being. ROSS is available for any age and health for people under any condition considering the least time and energy expenditure. Training is designed to imbed neuromuscular memory and imprint psychophysiology with the basic Survival preparation practiced exclusively by the trainers of the elite combat subdivisions of the Russian Spetsnaz Special Operation Units.
The training is designed to introduce a reeducation of biomechanical awareness and bio-energetic potential critical for the neutralization of even the highest intensity conflict of armed plural-assailant engagements and the rejuvenation and regeneration of the physical wellness and fortitude crucial to survival.
Development through ROSS occurs in 3 Phases:
1. Biomechanical - The mechanics of the living (Somatic) body, especially of the forces exerted by muscles and gravity on the skeletal structure.
2. Proprioceptive - The unconscious perception of movement and spatial orientation arising from stimuli within the body itself.
3. Psychophysiological - The relationship between physiological processes and thoughts, emotions, and behavior.
Each of these Phases as a Trinity of concentration. The basic level - Biomechanical - involves the reintegration of Breathing, Movement and Alignment.
The PROCESS of ROSS is a totally specific and utterly unique system of Somatic Engineering. NO other system is like ROSS, which is why it is trademarked protected.
Simply stated, ROSS can be understood this way:
Flow State refers to that Psychophysiological mode where the individual maximizes their Optimal Performance (in any aspect of Physical Culture). The level of integration of Biomechanical Efficiency ("Movement"), Structural Alignment ("Structure"), and Respiratory ("Breathing") Enhancement determines the individual's State. Fear-Reactivity DIS-integrates Movement, Structure and Breathing.
"Fear-Reactivity" a term coined by Scott Sonnon in his research to refer to those somatic ticks (in breathing, movement, or alignment) that have been conditioned (trained) through fear, anxiety, trauma, (as well as anger, sorrow, etc...) These are defensive mechanisms that involuntarily brace against the perceived threat. After years of sustained bracing, these mechanisms become embedded patterns of behavior, rooted into the individual's modus operandi. The longer and stronger the disintegration, the more difficult and more arduous the DECONDITIONING necessary at reclaiming optimal performance - or flow state.
Most people do not even realize the daily, micro-chronic disintegration of Movement, Structure and Breathing, and as a result, they do not understand why over time, as they age, their maximum net performance diminishes in potential. This is NOT due to age, but due to lack of understanding the process of ROSS, and due to lack of vigilance in Daily Personal Practice. One cannot compartmentalize the efficiency and the integration of Movement, Structure and Breathing. One cannot expect to maximize one's duration within flow state during an "intended" physical event such as martial art, while neglecting efficiency and integration in every other aspect and moment of one's life. That's oxymoronic. This is why ROSS is a LIFESTYLE SYSTEM, rather than a mere combat style... for the latter is incapable of truly helping the individual recapture and refine their true potential as an individual.
ROSS systematically, through incremental development manicures a specific Training Environment, to facilitate a specific Training Experience, to enable a specific Training Content to be created BY THE INDIVIDUAL.
There are those that read this and inappropriately assume this means the individual just chooses to "do anything." This couldn't be farther from the truth. Each individual, over time, conditions/trains to have a specific pattern of Fear-Reactivity. Most people believe that they are doing themselves some justice by fortifying their reactivity. Most people do not even realize how dangerously sapped their energy has become. Most people assume that as they continue to age that the reason their maximal performance diminishes is because they age, when it is THEIR SPECIFIC TRAINING HAS LED TO PERPETUAL CANNIBALIZATION OF THEIR POTENTIAL . . . They condition themselves into strengthening their Fear-Reactivity . . . and they do this every moment in their lives that they experience any stressor, until... life itself, every moment, is an experience of stress.
Fear-Reactivity is not merely the cancer of performance, it is the cancer of life itself. ROSS is the System of eradicating that cancer, and restoring one's natural abundant health, and unlocking one's unlimited potential.
ROSS is the SYSTEM of returning authority to the individual through becoming aware of one's unique pattern of Fear-Reactivity, and deconditioning that pattern. The Process of Deconditioning Fear-Reactivity is a simultaneous Process of Revealing Natural Talent. Through ROSS, one deconditions Fear-Reactivity and as a result one's true, abundant natural prowess and innate genius manifests. ROSS then continues to refine one's natural talents and cultivate one's personal genius.
Hand to hand combat style of Spetsnaz. A hard, direct version of Systema, often classified in special forces training as Combat Sambo.
RUSSIAN FOLK STYLES - (e.g. Buza, Skobar, Forest Warrior,Kozachiy Sploch, Fist fighting by Gruntovsky and many more)
In Russia each separate ethnic group, and even each republic, remains devoted to its own form of fighting and martial heritage. Some of the martial arts from this region which have survived over the years, and continue to be practiced today, are: Tverian Buza; Pshkovian Skobar; Ukrainian Spas and Kazak; Byelorussian Asilki; and, Russian Slavyano-Gortskaya Sor'ba.
The Indo-Turkic region, also the origin of the Russian language, gives us the martial practices of Tuvinian Kuresh, Kara-Kyuresh and Lama-Kyuresh; Azeri Gulesh and Gurassau; Kirghiz Koresh and Oodarch; Kazakhi Kures; Chuvashi Akatuj; Uzbeki Kurashe; Tatar Kovreche; Yakut Khapsogay; and Turkic Gushti-Gin, Gurech and Khiva. The non-Turkic Caucasus area gave life to such fighting arts as Georgian Chidaoba and Ankoumara; Armenian Koch; Moldovan Trinte Kunedika and Drespta; Serbian Rvanje and Lithuanian Ristines. Finally, from the Mongols who dominated Russia from 1227 until 1480 A.D., we have Buryat Buhe Barlidean, and Northern Mongolian Bokh, Hara Moriton, Cilnem and Kalkha, as well as Barilda.

S - Styles

Sado-mu-sool is an ancient Korean martial art that used stone weapons. Sado Mul Sool, of tribal martial arts are likely to be the first organized martial arts developed in order to provide food for the families, clans, of tribes the world over. Later, as agriculture developed, it became necessary to defend crops and territory. Since nature has a way of allowing the strong and skillful to survive, the honing of skills must have been the number one priority for all tribes. It is from these finely honed skills that Our art takes the many "empty hand" and simple weapons techniques.
Developed from drills and concepts formulated by Dr. Guillermo Lengson of the Karate Federation of the Philippines, Sagasa Kickboxing System has progressed into its present form through the efforts of Christopher Ricketts and senior members of Bakbakan. The intensive drills, known as SERIES, develops coordination, power and reflexes. Dr. Lengson, though no longer active, is regularly consulted for his expertise and in-depth knowledge of body mechanics and training methods. Many of the developments in other facets of Bakbakan's repertoire of fighting systems owe their structure and development to Dr. Lengson's timeless concepts.
Hagibis Combat System complements Sagasa as combat evolves from long and mid-range into close-quarters fighting. Developed primarily as throwing and tripping techniques, Hagibis also includes grappling and submission arts. Emphasis, however, is to throw or disable an opponent in such a way, that one is able to continue fighting multiple opponents which is the likely situation in a street confrontation.
Hagibis takes into consideration that a majority of street attacks are usually multiple and armed and therefore grappling, although studied and practiced, is only an option and the practitioner should always be wary of multiple armed assailants. Bakbakan's combination of Sagasa and Hagibis systems has qualified its members to participate and represent the Philippines in San Shou competitions internationally.
Saldu, a form of wrestling, is one of the prominent sports of the Nicobarese tribe. This game does not require a court, only vacant land. The field is divided by a line in the centre, and there are no boundary lines. The number of players is as desired, but each team is to comprise equal number of players. Usually, a maximum of 20 players are allowed in each team.
The raiders stand on one side of the centre line. One player from the team of raiders enters the area of the defenders and tries to touch them, and then get back to his side, crossing the centre line. If he succeeds in doing so, the raiders win a point. Each player touched is declared dead, and is consequently out of the game. If the raider is caught by the defenders in their court, the defenders win a point, and the raider is out of the game.
The team of defenders then assume the role of raiders, and thus the game continues. When the game reaches the pre - determined time limit or when all the players of one team have been sent out of the game, the game ends. The team scoring the maximum number of points at the game's end is the winner.
As there are no boundaries to the field, Saldu demands far more stamina, speed and endurance than Kabaddi. During a special festival of the Nicobarese tribe, women and men upto the age of 40 years participate with much gusto in this game.
A style of Karate that is based on a combination of other styles. Sanukai emphasises escaping techniques that are similar to Aikido
Ssireum is a form of Korean wrestling that is one of the most popular spectator sports in Korea. In ancient times, but its has develop into a major national sport for physical competition and entertainment. According to the literature, the contest of Ssireum was called various other names such as Gakjo, Gakhi, Sangbak, and Gakgi. The name Ssireum has been universally used since 1920. In the Ssireum, two contestants wrestle and, if any part of the opponent's body above the knee to touch the ground, the competitor wins the bout. Ssireum is practiced by grasping a strap that is tied around the waist and thigh and it requires considerable muscular strength and muscular endurance.
SAMBO is an acronym of Russian words "SAMozaschita Bez Orujiya" - "Self-Defence Without Weapon".
SAMBO was created in the 1930's. Official recognition of new art was in 1938. At first it was named "free-style wrestling", then "free wrestling," and in 1946 was renamed "SAMBO." This system is compilation of techniques from a number of martial arts including Japanese and Chinese martial arts; national martial arts of USSR area natives (Georgians, Armenians, Mongols, Russians etc.); French wrestling and other arts. At the time of the 2nd world war the system was widely "tested" by the Soviet army. "Special" techniques were added at the time, for example fighting in cells, quick-and-quiet sentry killing, and so on. Because of the number of criminals in the Soviet army at that time (during WWII each prisoner was "invited" to the front with each year at the front worth two or so years of their sentence) SAMBO experts acquired many lessons on criminal street
fighting, and a number of these techniques were included in SAMBO. SAMBO continues to accept new techniques and modify old ones.
Today, SAMBO is built from 3 parts: the sportive part (Olympic sport), the self-defense part, and the special or combat part.
The sportive part is similar to Judo but with some differences in allowed techniques. SAMBO allows leg locks were Judo does not, but Judo allows choking but SAMBO does not. There are somewhat more techniques in SAMBO than in Judo.
The self-defense part of SAMBO is similar in form to Aikijujutsu because it is intended to be entirely defensive. The founder of SAMBO said this about the self-defense part:
"We give defensive weapons to citizens. Some people say that this kind of martial art may be learned by criminals or hooligans and used against citizens. Don't worry! This art does not include even one attacking technique! If a hooligan will learn, he will be able to apply it only against another hooligan who will attack him, but never against a citizen."
There are many specific techniques for defending specific attacks, including escaping from grips and chokes, defenses against punches and kicks, defenses against weapons (knife, stick etc.), and
floor-fighting. The self-defense part of SAMBO is based on body movements and locks with a few punches and kicks. The object is to allow defense but not to injure the opponent more than necessary because this part was created for citizens. In the former Soviet Union the law was that if you injure your opponent more than needed in a self-defense situation you could receive a 5 year prison term. Some of the self-defense techniques are based on sportive SAMBO.
The third part - combat SAMBO - was created for the army and police. It is a very severe, and dangerous system. If the idea of sportive SAMBO is "Take points and win," and the idea of the self-defence part is "Don't allow to attacker injure you," the idea of combat SAMBO is "Survive, and if someone hinders you - injure or kill him." Combat SAMBO includes sportive and self- defence techniques, but uses them in different ways. For example, sportive SAMBO uses the traditional shoulder throw of Judo and Jujutsu. In combative SAMBO the throw is done with the opponents arm rotated up and locked at the elbow, and can be done to throw the opponent on his head. If the opponent attempts to counter by lowering his center of gravity and pulling backwards (as is taught in sportive SAMBO) the arm will be broken. Combative SAMBO teaches shoulder throw counters that might be able to deal with a locked arm like kicking out the opponents knee and pulling back by the hair or eye sockets.
In addition to modified sportive and self-defence techniques, combat SAMBO includes kicks, punches, "dangerous throwing" (throws that can't be include into sportive part because they cause injury), locks on the spine, things that are prohibited in sportive wrestling (biting, for example), many "sadistic dirty things," working against weapons (with or without a weapon of your own), tricks like putting your coat on your opponents head (works nicely), floor fighting (very strong), fighting in closed space (small room, pit, stairs), quick-and-quiet sentry killing, and so forth. Students also learn strategy and tactics of fighting alone or in groups against single or multiple opponents. SAMBO is less popular today in Russia because the influx of oriental martial arts in recent years. But, the development of SAMBO has continued and elements of it are incorporated into other modern combat systems.
Sanda is a popular form of Chinese kickboxing. It is performed on a platform. A participant is awarded 5 points for forcing his opponent off the platform. No groin or throat strikes are permitted but about everything else is permitted.
In Kung Fu the agonistic combat it is called Sanda and it has roots in the antiquity (700-211 a.c.) when skillful fighters defied themselves on a raised spring-board. In 1979, in order to develop the martial art movement, the national Commission of the sport has begun to organize course of sanda arbitrage to following " activity and stability " politics. In 1989 it become a world-wide level competition. At the first Beijing international martial arts championship in 1991, organized from the Chinese martial arts Association (employee from the international martial arts Federation), the sanda has been officially inserted in contest events, therefore like in 1992 in south Korea and in 1993 in Malaysia.
The Sanda is based on hand techniques (fists and catches), leg techniques (kicks, swept, losses of balance) and projections(that concur the knocking down of the adversary). The combat carries out on a raised spring-board (8m.x8m. of 60cm.). The challengers must wear an helmet, teeth protection, a corpetto, a shell, gloves and paratibia.In the score are mainly rewarded kicks projection and all those that demand a sure ability. Instead are penalized (also with the expulsion) technical forbidden, incorrect attitudes with adversary or the arbitrator. The victory happens for sum of points, k.o. or abandonment.
Nothern style of kung-fu that originated in the Three Kingdoms period. Its name literally means 'cannon fist'. This style is also known as hsing-kung-ch'uan and is still practiced in Peking
The art of SAN-JITSU refers to the 3 ways of "body, mind and spirit". It is a jiu-jitsu system which also incorporates elements of karate, judo, jing jow pai kung-fu, wrestling, boxing and street fighting. It is Guam's first internationally recognized Martial Art System encompassing striking, kicking, throwing, grappling, pressure points, acupressure and resuscitation arts. Formulated in the Village of Toto, Guam by Professor Frank E. Sanchez in 1971, it includes unique rolling movements to take advantage of momentum that will help destroy the limbs of one's opponent.
SANKUKAI karate was created with combining of principles and techniques of aikido, judo, shito ryu karate and shukokai karate. Its symbol are three circles: two red and one white. They represent Earth, Moon, and Son, three elements always harmonically involved in their cosmic dance. This symbol also represents the main idea of SANKUKAI karate, which is establishing harmonic relationship with the enemy and usage of enemy's force against himself by the means of escapes, round blocks, punches and kicks. This is the idea of most other martial arts, but is often neglected in practice because of its difficulty. The quality of SANKUKAI karate is that this idea is represented and feasible for most students already after some years of study. Unlike shukokai, SANKUKAI is not mainly intended for kumite. Techniques for self-defence and for a real combat are strongly emphasized. Stances in SANKUKAI are high and short with the hands in kaisho, like in shito ryu and shukokai. Blows are performed with the principle of shock with single or double hip swing. At practicing and fighting round blows are often used. In defense they are used in the combination with escape and round block. In attack they are used in series of blows or at changing of attack direction. Another property of SANKUKAI karate is also a practice with partner. Techniques are not performed individually like in most styles. Working in pairs is what students are encouraged to do from their very beginning of practicing SANKUKAI karate. This way we are learning how to adapt ourselves to the enemy and how to use his force and power.
In Chinese, San Shou (loose hands) refers to the free application of all the realistic hand-to-hand combat skills of Kung Fu. It is divided into three categories: Sport San Shou (Chinese Kickboxing), Civilian San Shou, and Military San Shou (AKA Chin Na Ge Dou).
After fighting directly with the superior American forces during the Korean War, the Chinese government realized that new scientific R&D is important for its military forces. Army chief Peng De Huai directed a great military training campaign (Da Be Wu) after the war. Martial
arts masters from each of China's 92 provinces were brought together with medical experts to compare and evaluate their techniques. A new hand-to-hand combat system was developed based on three criteria: simplicity, directness, and effectiveness against a larger, stronger opponent. This system of fighting was thoroughly tested in training camps throughout China, and in border conflicts with Soviet troops. The Chinese military published manuals on San Shou in 1963 and 1972.
Besides military San Shou, civilian San Shou continued to be developed by underground martial arts schools and individual martial artists in communist China. Civilian San Shou warriors sharpened their skills by street championships where they challenged each other. These kinds of
challenges were very popular during the cultural revolution (1966-76) and usually ended by being broken up by the police.
In recent years, sport San Shou has been developed and promoted by the Chinese government. In the early years (1980s), there were no formal championships for San Shou. Only demonstrations were available on national T.V. Most of the San Shou participants were military and police men. Therefore, sport San Shou kept its flavour of military kickboxing and wrestling. Lately, the Chinese government have promoted San Shou into a nation-wide sport and held formal national
and international championships every year.
The San Shou as practiced by the Chinese military is based on the Chinese Art of War, physics, anatomy, bio-mechanics, and human physiology. It is a complete system of realistic unarmed combat covering the skills of striking, grappling, wrestling, groundfighting, and weapon defenses taken from various Chinese and foreign martial arts and hand-to-hand combat styles. It focuses on applying the principles of combat rather than on techniques. The various divisions of the military and police force have slight differences in technique, but they all employ the same principles.
Because of the increase of violent crimes in China, civilian San Shou was created by the Chinese government so that Chinese civilians can learn self defense skills. It is also a complete system of striking and grappling, but without the lethal techniques that are required in the military. Many "underground" martial artists also developed San Shou fighting skills.
The sport of San Shou is rising in popularity all over the world. It is a kickboxing style that is fought on a platform called a "Lei Tai". Fighters wear boxing gloves, headgear, and body protectors. It is full contact kicking and punching with throws and sweeps allowed. Knees, elbows, headbutts, joint manipulation and chokes are not allowed, but fighters can be thrown off the platform.
Military and civilian San Shou training involves many punching, kicking, grappling, wrestling, groundfighting, and weapon defense drills with a partner. Contact sparring with protective gear is also emphasized. This is where the different skills are blended together into one fluid art. There are no forms or formal stances, and no chi-kung exercises.
Sport San Shou training is similar to kickboxing training, except that throws and sweeps are also drilled extensively. Physical conditioning is also important in sport full-contact fighting.
Military San Shou (AKA Chin Na Ge Dou)
Civilian San Shou
Sport San Shou (Chinese Kickboxing)
Old Japanese system of attacking weak areas of the body so as to disable an attacker. These methods were taught in the old jujutsu systems, handed down by word of mouth from master to pupil in sworn secrecy.
Founded in the 1970s, it is more popularly known as the art of street fighting. Sari-an is the acronym for Sariling Pamamaraan, which caters to the needs of each and every individual. Its goal was to cover all facet of fighting, ranging from striking, grappling and incorporating the different systems of arnis, kali, eskrima and knife fighting.
Sarian means, literally, "Different Kinds", But it best means "Anything goes" This is not to be confused with Sikaran, above. Sarian is an application of Bruce Lee's Jeet Kune Do theory to Martial Arts in the Philippines. It combines Kickboxing and an entire slew of other Martial Arts, including some kicking techniques from Sikaran. All in all, Sarian is a street brawling style ideal for use in very rough neighborhoods, such as the Tondo slums of Manila City, where Sarian first turned up.
Savate is a French style of foot and fist fighting. Systematized in post-Napoleonic France, savate is the only martial arts native to Europe that still exists in both sport and combative forms.
The precise origin of the art is unknown, and puzzled even its earliest practitioners. It is known that 17th-century sailors of Marseilles were required to practice stretch-kicks to keep them in condition for ocean voyages. Some historians speculate that these sailors were influenced by contact with the Asian martial arts during their occasional visits to Burma, Thailand, and China. Certainly, street fighting in the barrooms and alleys of French seaports did begin to feature crescent kicks to the head, body, and legs-though they lacked power and often missed the opponent altogether. Sailors called this form of foot-fighting "chausson," or "slipper," in reference to the felt slippers they wore when practicing stretch-kicks.
Meanwhile, perhaps influenced by chausson, the soldiers in Napoleon's army developed an unofficial punishment for regimental misfits. A group of soldiers would hold the offender in place while another kicked him severely in the buttocks. The punishment was called "la savate," literally "old shoe," but might be best translated as "booting." Perhaps Parisian soldiers introduced savate to the public, booting undesirables in the shins or confronting the disorderly with a leg kick. Whatever the case, by the beginning of the 19th century the ruffian elements of Paris brawled with their feet rather than their fists, and their kick-fighting was popularly called savate.
Eventually, a young man named Michael Casseuse sought out the better street fighters and observed and categorized their techniques. The result was a refined fighting system. His offensive techniques emphasized front, side, and round kicks to the knee, shin, or instep. The hands were held low and open to defend against groin attacks. Palm heel strikes were used to attack the face,
nose, and eyes.
In 1824 Casseuse authored a pamphlet on savate that caught the attention of Parisian polite society. Almost overnight he became the country's most sought after master of self-defense. His clientele ranged from the wealthy to the noble and included both Lord Seymour and the Duke of Orleans (heir to the French throne). Street fighters throughout Paris and across France, many of them chausson practitioners, regularly descended upon his school to challenge his mastery. Fortunately, Casseuse, himself an excellent fighter, always rose to the occasion. But as a result of these encounters with chausson, savate came to include both mid-level and high-level kicks, in addition to Casseuse's low kicks.
Later, Charles Lecour, one of Casseuse's best students, journeyed to London to study bare-knuckle boxing from England's most respected teachers Adams and Smith. Upon his return to Paris in 1832, he synthesized English boxing and Casseuse's savate to create "la boxe Francaise," or "French boxing." Lecour also introduced the use of boxing gloves for training, which minimized accidents and increased the art's popularity. Again, France's elite took notice and Lecour became a sought after fight master.
Lecour and other major teachers regularly opened their schools for public viewing of full-contact competition patterned after the London Prize Ring rules. And in 1850, Louis Vignezon, nicknamed the "Cannonman," emerged as savate's first major ring champion. Vignezon carried a cannon on his shoulders as he made his way into the ring, to dishearten his opponents. His greatest fame came from knocking out the giant wrestler "Arpin the Terrible" with only four kicks.
One of the few men who could stay in the ring with Vignezon, and thus serve as an adequate sparring partner, was his best student, Joseph Charlemont. In 1862 Charlemont toured Europe challenging fighters of all stylistic persuasions. He was undefeated in the ring: When Charlemont returned to France he introduced fencing theory and footwork, added wrestling techniques, and improved kicking and punching techniques. He was the first to prove the value of high kicks. He is still considered the greatest savateur of all time.
Charlemont's fighting system used the same fighting stance found in modern fencing. His punches were based on a forward lunge and included straights, swings, and uppercuts. His kicks, on the other hand stressed speed and accuracy above power. The leg was lifted straight from the floor to the target with little preparatory recoil.
Characteristic of these kicks, again influenced by fencing, was a peculiar counterbalancing movement of the arms to improve accuracy.
Charlemont taught his system around the concept of four ranges. The first range, for the cane, is derived from fencing. (The sword itself had been forbidden by law; its role as part of the dress of the fashionable French gentleman was replaced by the cane.) Charlemont could deliver 140 cane blows in 80 seconds. The cane, or "la canne," is still taught to savate students. The second range deals with long-distance techniques, such as kicking. The third range is a medium-distance, with hand techniques. And the last range consists of wrestling techniques.
By the turn of the 1 9th century, inspired by the example of Joseph Charlemont, savateurs throughout France began to make an effort to promote their art around the world. The great John L. Sullivan was once staggered, and then knocked to the ground by the kicks of a savateur. Charlemont's son, Charles, fought a world-class British prize fighter named Jerry Driscoll and won by knockout in the 6th round. Georges Carpentier, who challenged Jack Dempsey for the world heavyweight boxing championship, was also a savateur.
During the two world wars, thousands of savateurs were killed, and the art was threatened with extinction. In 1945 Count Pierre Baruzy, a student of Charles Charlemont and an eleven-time French national champion, attempted to revive savate. Since the Count was also a black belt in judo, and had some exposure to karate, he solicited help from the growing numbers of post-war French judo instructors. By the mid-1969s there were enough savate schools to justify the creation of a national organization. The Count became its founder and first president.
A savate club was started in Genoa, Italy, as long ago as 1830. Today, there is a modern French boxing/savate center in Milan. The art was established in Belgium when Joseph Charlemont traveled there in the 1880s and taught the novelist Alexandre Dumas.
To practice savate today, one wears a T-shirt, gym tights or track-quit trousers, sneaker like
boots, and special boxing gloves (usually 16 oz). The wrist of the savate glove extends half-way up the forearm and is used for blocking.
Since World War II, savate has had a grading system: grade is indicated by an inch-wide colored band around the glove's wrist; these grades are called "gloves."
The first grade is purple glove, followed by blue, green, red, white, and yellow. The average student reaches yellow glove in about two years. Above this, there is the silver glove of the instructor, and the golden glove of the "professeur."
Today's savate incorporates all of the innovations of the 20th century boxing ring, from Jack
Dempsey to Muhammad Ali. Kicking techniques have been designed that are compatible with a boxer's hand techniques. And the unusual counterbalancing actions of the arms have been eliminated from ring use.
Competitively, sport savate uses full-contact rules and emphasizes fast kicking combinations. As a self-defense system, open-hand and bare-knuckle techniques are still taught, and combined with weapons skills (cane). (PAUL MASLAK) See also Europe, history of
karate in. Further reading: Black Belt Magazine, March 1967.
BOXE, FRANCAIS Francais Boxe, or French boxing, is a regional style of combat in which both gloved fists and feet are employed. Derived from savate and chausson, it is performed, like boxing, in a roped ring. It is now little more than an exhibition sport.
Indian unarmed fighting method, using hand and foot
Swiss style wrestling takes first place when you consider that it is one of the oldest sports. Wherever there is any Swiss Style Wrestling, (Schwingen) there are bound to be a number of Swiss in the area.
From history, we know that already in early Greece before AD, there were matches between individuals to test the capabilities of individuals. How and when Swiss Style wrestling came to Switzerland is not known. We know that there were Schwingfest (Swiss Style wrestling matches) in the mountainous valleys of the Berner Oberland, Emmenthal, Entlebuch and in Central Switzerland for hundreds of years. It is also easily understandable why the Schwingen started in the Mountain Valleys, since the Sennen were pretty much in the their own element and they enjoyed determining who was the strongest of a group of mountain farmers.
From this simple wrestling match, we now have the Schwingen with the many holds, moves and rules. Even today several of the moves have names from their origin like the Brienzer. Historical Schwingfest locations like Napf, Luedern, Rigi, Bruenig are still maintained today.
Approximately in the year 1750 began the famous Easter Monday Schwingfests in Bern where the best wrestlers from the Emmenthal, Oberland, Entlebuch and Central Switzerland (Innerschweiz) came to interesting matches to determine the champion. Historical notes have given us an insight on the importance of these matches.
Two historical Schwingfests occurred in the year 1805 and 1808 in Unspunnen by Interlaken. Representatives of foreign governments, kings, queens, writers and all types of important people were invited to participate in the renewal of nationalism of Switzerland. It became a cornerstone of Switzerland's independence. From this Schwingfest also came the 167 Pfund (367.4 Pound) Unspunnenstein (Rock) that to this date is still used at all Eidgenoessischen Schwing- and Aelplerfests.
In the year 1864, the first Swiss Style Wrestling teaching book was published. With this book, the Turners (Gymnast) in the flat lands of Switzerland began to participate in the National sport. Soon the Turners were as good as the Sennen (Farmers). Without a doubt, Swiss style wrestling has won through this expansion.
Even today, it becomes a tremendous achievement and a great crowd pleaser when a wrestler exhibits outstanding sportsmanship and technical knowledge of the many moves, tricks and defenses. It is the responsibility of each wrestler, as carrier of one of the oldest National games, to act in a sportsmanship manner in all aspects of clothing and behavior.
Scottish Highlander Fighting is a vigorous form of what is best described as regimented brawling. It is a fair bit faster than ordinary wrestling style due to its even focus between grabbing and striking with the arms, legs, anything. Scottish Highlander is also a fairly comic style - it has several innovators in its stable who love nothing better than to work out real-life applications to implausible and sometimes ridiculous maneuvers seen in fiction or lucky serendipity. Anyone expecting discipline is apt to be disappointed when learning SHF. Most Highlanders act like terrible sods throughout their training and career, getting drunk, staying up late at night, starting fights at the slightest of insults

Seifukujutsu is the art of healing developed and propagated in Japan as much as 1200 to 1600 years ago. The origins of the art are rooted in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Seifukujutsu literally means to 'restore and replace' and consists of herbal medicine, of Nihon Kaifuku Anma (amma) (Japanese restoration massage), Sekotsu (bone setting) techniques, Sotai (whole body movement (kinesiology), hydro-therapy, acupressure, auricular therapy and reflexology. The Doctor of Seifukujutsu is trained in breathing techniques as well as exercises to effect muscle balance and restore tone.
To become a Dr. (Isha) of Seifukujutsu is a process of learning all of the above as well as diagnostic techniques including tongue (Zetsu Shin), pulse, abdominal, back and meridian (Setsu Shin), facial, visual (Bo Shin), among others. Just as in the martial side of the arts, an in depth understanding of anatomy, physiology, and pathology is required. The usual number of hours to reach 'Isha' (Dr., Practitioner, Physician) is generally 2000 hrs. When one trains in the martial arts, the training never stops. A concept lost to the martial artist in the west.
Tradition of training is based on being mentored by a Master or small group of Masters in a personal format. This system has been used for hundreds of years and is still in practice today in parts Japan and surrounding areas.
There are many forms of Japanese healing, but none are as in depth or complete as Seifukujutsu, the other side of Jujutsu.
Sekiguchi ryu originated in 17th century Japan where the stern Jushin Seklguchl, a teacher of warriors, is said to have excelled in the martial virtues of honesty and objectivity-virtues he seems to have successfully transmitted to his sons along with the techniques of his school. The words of his eldest son, Rohaku, to a powerful baron in Edo in 1716 were recorded and indicate the son's contempt for martial arts masters who "threw dust in people's eyes" by performing tricks to advertise their schools, thus debasing bulutsu as a whole and bringing dishonor upon the "real" masters.
From India, a hill-country kind of staff fighting
This style is one of the most practical and scientific arts in which I have trained. Serak is a martial art for one who has patience. But once the understanding has been achieved, the art works like "magic".
In the Serak Silat system, there is a basic or external side, and an advanced or internal side. The basic study of Serak takes approximately seven years of practice at at least three hours a day, three times a week.
The basic Pukulan Serak consists of: physics, physiology, anatomy, 18 jurus, basic lankah, intermediate lankah, advanced lankah, and system change (guarding system).
And basic Serak platforms consist of lankah:
* Tiga Luar
* Silwa Luar
* Sekurum Luar
* Pancah Luar
* Lima
The basic technical aspects of Serak are the one point, two point and three point system.
The basic major Serak Lankahs are:
* Lankah Juru Sepak
* Lankah Juru Combinasi
The basic schedule or external system can possibly be learned in 3 years. De Thouars can count on one hand the number of students who have completed the basics.
The intermixing of pencak and silat training is possible, but it still takes approximately seven years of diligent training to accomplish this goal.
As far as the advanced side or internal system of Serak, only de Thouars and his first student and disciple, maha guru Victor de Thouars, have completed the system. No one else in the United States has the knowledge of the internal Pukulan Serak. And it will stay that way until someone has the skill and endurance to complete the basic side. To understand the platforms and to know the platforms are two different things. To perform the lankahs and jurus is nothing, but what really matters is to understand
what the lankah teaches. In other words, there are no guessing games.
The basic lankah Tiga teaches the adoption of torque and proper position of the space you encompass. The basic Lankah Silwa teaches the concept of accepting total elusiveness. The basic Lankah Sekurum teaches the concept of 360 degree vision. Basic Lankah Pancar teaches the concept of constant change and awareness. Since Serak takes seven years to learn and takes a great deal of patience, de Thouars has created the Bukhti Negara and Tongat styles as sub-systems. When it comes to understanding the weakness of the human anatomy, nerve point hitting, takedowns, foot sweeps, throws, and elbow and knee strikes, very few systems can match the sophistication of this art.
The art was developed by the Badui people of Java. The Badui have maintained their isolation from the outside world and are held in awe by the Indonesian Javanese for their mystic and clairvoyant powers.
The founder of the system was from the Badui tribe, a man by the name of Pak Serak. Pak Serak had only one arm and a crippled foot. He was familiar with nine style and proficient in three. He could see the weaknesses and strengths of many styles and formulated his system of fighting. His number one student was Mas Djut, and with his help Pak Serak organized his system into a format ranging from beginning to advanced levels of learning. It was from Mas Djut that Johan de Vries learned the art of Serak. Because of his good nature and concern for the Indonesian people, he was taught the fighting system of Serak. Mas Djut offered Johan the leadership of the Serak system after Mas Djut had retired or died. But Johan declined; he did not want to dishonor or bring disgrace to the art by having novice or underling students change the style.

Shaolin Ch'uan Fa * means "The way of the Shaolin fist", and stands for an ancient Chinese defense method.
Shaolin Ch'uan Fa originated in India about 5000 years ago. It is said that Buddha was so impressed by this martial art, that it was adopted by the Buddhists. Although Buddhism preaches love and serenity, it also needed to protect it's laws, which couldn't always be done with words.
In the 6th century, a monk named Bodhidharma brought Buddhism to China. China was divided in several small kingdoms in those days. Since Bodhidharma's ideas about Buddhism differed quite a lot from Chinese traditional Buddhism, he wasn't welcome in most kingdoms. Finally he was accepted in the kingdom of Wei, and he settled in Shaolin-ssu, a small monastery in what is now called the province of Honan (Henan).
There he preached meditation and unique exercises to keep the body in shape and the mind pure. These exercises evolved to very efficient fighting techniques, later called "Shaolin Ch'uan Fa". It proved very useful in later centuries, as the monastery was attacked several times. In the beginning the techniques where secret, but soon the monks became famous as the best fighters in China, and the monks started to train the farmers, who where suppressed by the emperor. In later centuries Shaolin Ch'uan Fa (also referred to as Shaolin Kung-Fu) became the national martial art of China, and several different styles evolved throughout the country.
In the beginning of the 20th century Shaolin Ch'uan Fa was brought to Japan by Kung-Fu master Doshin So. He traveled through China, and combined all different styles in one method: Shaolin Kempo. Kempo is the Japanese expression for martial-arts, or fighting skills. From there Shaolin Kempo spread all over the world.
This style was created in Tôkyô in 1981 from Yoshiji Soeno. He studied Karate with Masutatsu Oyama. Yoshiji Soeno was second at the All Japan Kyokushinkai Karate Championships in 1969 and won a Muay-Thai fight against Kannan Pai. In his whole life he won more than 10 Muay-Thai championships
Early school of jujutsu believed to have been founded by Yamamoto Tamizeemon, of the Osaka police, during theTokugawa era (1600-1867); headded other techniques, especially those of immobilization, to the repertoire of the yoshin ryu school. Shin-no-shindo is one of the two arts combined to form the tenilnshinyo school of jujutsu.
Since it's inception, little has been known about the style of Shinto Yoshin Ryu Jiu-Jitsu except by its' members and instructors. Its history is still shrouded in mystery being that in keeping with tradition the style has been passed down from instructor to student without any formal writings.
We do know that the founder of Shinto Yoshin Ryu was Master Ishijima. His father, Matsuoka, was a subject of the Tokugawa shogunate and had learned Jiu-Jitsu in the martial arts school of the shogunate. Matsuoka was famous as a martial arts instructor in Asakusa, Edo which is now known as Tokyo. His son Ishijima learned the martial arts from him and created what we know as Shinto Yoshin Ryu. Master Ishijina was then followed by Master Inose. Not much is known about Master Inose except that he continued the art and passed it on to Master Nakayama.
Master Shizaburo Nakayama's top student was Hironori Otsuka. Master Otsuka entered Nakayama's school in 1898 at the age of 6. There he stayed until the age of 30 with Nakayama passing on all or most of his knowledge to him. At this time Master Otsuka was introduced to karate by Master Gichin Funakoshi. Master Funakoshi taught karate which was a fairly unknown martial art at that time. Master Otsuka began combining his Jiu-Jitsu techniques and ideas with the karate and katas he was learning.
Master Otsuka became one of Master Funakoshi's top students but eventually traveled to Okinawa to learn from the Masters who taught Funakoshi. Master Otsuka combined his new knowledge of karate with knowledge of Jiu-Jitsu to form a new style, Wado Kai. This was in 1939 and it became one of the four major styles of Japanese karate.
The Budo-Kai requested a name for each style of the martial arts in 1940 so it was officially named Wado Kai and then later renamed Wado Ryu style of karate.
The Shinto Yoshin Ryu style lay dormant for quite awhile until Mr. Uke Takeski, a student of Master Otsuka continued to practice the style within his dojo. In 1942 Douglas Grose studied the Shinto Yoshin Ryu style while in the Air Force under the direction of Mr. Takeski's chief instructor and then later from Mr. Takeski himself. Mr. Grose has continued since, to practice , teach and further the art of Shinto Yoshin Ryu Jiu-Jitsu.
The American Jiu-Jitsu Association was founded in 1945 and later changed its name to The American Jiu-Jitsu & Karate Association thus encompassing not only Jiu-Jitsu but Okinawan style karate.
Some facts about Shinto Yoshin Ryu style of Jiu-Jitsu:
Traditional Japanese martial art from which modern Judo was derived.
Unusual in that most styles of Jiu-Jitsu stress throwing and ground work along with different bars and locks, Shinto Yoshin Ryu emphasizes not only these but especially striking and kicking techniques.
Shinto Yoshin Ryu Jiu-Jitsu has kept with the original spelling of Jiu-Jitsu while other styles have changed theirs to jujutsu or Jujitsu.
The Shobayashi-Ryû was created in Okinawa from Chotoku Kyan (1870-1945). Kyan Chotoku was the son of Kyan Chofu, a high-ranked official in the Okinawan royal court. When he was young Kyan Chotoku received a remarkable Martial Arts education from some of Okinawas most prominent Martial Artists.

Shoot fighting is a modern Japanese eclectic martial sport. Its techniques were greatly influenced by the submission grappling skills taught by the legendary American wrestler Karl Gotch when he visited Japan. A shoot is a fighting contest between two opponents. Variations include Shoot Wrestling, Shoot Boxing, and Pancrase. All are taught primarily as ring sports, and their matches frequently draw large crowds in Japan. Rules permit kicks, hand strikes, takedowns, throws, and ground grappling.
The martial art/sport of shootfighting is a recent creation. It has its genesis less than 25 years ago when a famous German wrestler taught the art of real wrestling, or "shooting", to a group of top Japanese martial artists. The wrestling they learned bore only a superficial resemblance to today's professional wrestling. Two of these Japanese martial artists, Masami Soranaka, a practitioner of karate, judo and sumo, and Yoshiaki Fujiwara, a muay Thai kick boxing champion and judo expert, combined their knowledge of these diverse styles and created what has come to be known in Japan as UWF wrestling or the hard style. Official matches have been held for almost 10 years and the sport's popularity has grown till it is now the third most popular spectator sport in Japan behind baseball and sumo. Vale, who coined the term shootfighting to describe the style, combined the wrestling and Muay Thai techniques he learned in Japan with his experience in American karate and kick boxing to advance the sport even further.
Shogerijutsu deals with the concept of the dynamic martial artist. Each student learns the basics, and from there they build on their own foundation. Shogerijutsu combines many facets of learning from the martial arts. Shogerijutsu takes the basic self-defense techniques of jujutsu, karate-do, kung fu, and kick boxing, then combines it with the philosophy of styles that represent the fundamental approach toward self-defense and combat such as kenpo, jeet kune do, aikijutsu,
and gung fu. Shogerijutsu means "the essence in kicking technique", but the name itself does not define the techniques or philosophy of living that goes on within a system. The word "kicking" can be replaced with any of a multitude of strikes.
The basics are taught at first. As the student progresses so does their knowledge of control, joint locks, throws, combat philosophy, ranges, kata, and body positioning. Each phase of learning focuses on a breakup of the latter, with emphasis on implementing kata technique into applicable use on the street. This style is ideal for people who want to learn martial art basics. The philosophy of this style blends well with any style whose purpose is self-defense with focus on
Shorin Ryu is an Okinawan soft style. Known for its light, quick, and agile techniques that are suitable for a person of light body structure. Because of its strict spiritual aspects it is considered a religious sect.
Shorinji Kempo is a Japanese Karate style that is deeply rooted in Zen meditation. It was created by So Doshin who says it is based on traditional Shaolin teachings. In the 1970's, the Japanese courts forced So Doshin to the change the name of his school to Nippon Shorinji Kempo. It stresses being calm in action. Students first learn its deep spirituality, then learn the fighting techniques. Because of its combination of Buddhism, philosophy, and martial arts, many consider Shorinji Kempo a religious sect.
Shorei Ryu is an Okinawan hard style. Know for its heavy, powerful techniques and body toughening training. It is known for the numerous amount of stances it uses. It is more suitable for a person of heavy body structure. It strives to emulate the actions of the 5 traditional animals and teaches all the traditional Okinawan weapons, such as the bo, tonfa, and sai.
SHORIN-RYU Karate is one of the two original Karate styles formally systemized in Okinawa. It is considered by some authorities to have had the most influential impact on the development of all modern Karate systems, following their emergence in Okinawa. Shorin-Ryu Karate eventually splintered off into four (4) groups.
Technically the Shorin Ryu styles tend to use more upright stances than the Japanese styles, thus giving the Okinawan stylist more mobility. Unlike the Japanese stylist, the Okinawan Shorin Ryu stylist does not emphasize constant forward pressure when engaging in a confrontation, or like the Chinese stylist, indirect countering; rather he maintains enough flexibility to use both approaches very effectively and efeciently.
These four groups are as follows: First, the original Shorin-Ryu style founded by SOKON "Bushi" MATSUMURA, known, as a result, as MATSUMURA ORTHODOX. It is also reported that this style was founded by Hohan Soken, who was born in 1889. Reportedly some of the style's followers have changed its name to Sukunai hayashi.
Second is SHOBAYASHI-Ryu (small forest school), was first taught by Chotoku Kyan, a famous student of Yasutsune Itosu. and trained several notable students such as Shoshin Nagamine. who in 1947 founded the Matsubayashi Ryu branch of Shorin Ryu.
The third style is KOBAYASHI-Ryu (young forest school). Choshin Chibana is credited as the first to teach Kobayashi Ryu. According to some sources this system is identical to Shobayashi Ryu. It is believed that Choshin Chibana simply misspelled the kanji characters, which changed the pronounciation from Shobayashi Ryu. to Kobayashi Ryu.
The last is MATSUBAYASHI-Ryu (pine forest school). The last three names refer to the small pine forest where the original Shao-lin temple was located in China. All Shorin-Ryu styles are interpretted as Shorin-ryu, or "Shao-lin way," reflecting their Chinese heritage.
Shotokai Karate-do is a non-competitive style of Karate derived from Gichin Funakoshi's Karate by Masters Yoshitaka (Gigo) Funakoshi and Shigeru Egami. The word Shotokai is composed of three kanji characters in Japanese. The Sho character is taken from the word matsu which means pine tree. To is the character for waves. Pine Waves is the English translation that tries to express what the original Japanese kanji represent, the sound that is produced by the pine needles when the wind blows through them, a sort of wave sound. Gichin Funakoshi, used Shoto as a pseudonym when he signed his poetry works. The word kai means organization. Thus, Shotokai means the Organization of Shoto, or the Organization of Master Gichin Funakoshi. Kan, means building or house, thus Shotokan is the house or building of Shoto.
Shotokai does not consider Karate a sport so it avoids all type of competitive tournaments. Rather, it stresses Karate as a Budo art that is concerned with personal development through the study and practice of Karate as a Do, a Way of Life, and the development of the internal energy, Ki. Shotokai movements are full of vitality and energy, but they use the principles of harmony and relaxation and avoid the use of brute force. Each Shotokai student in a group, has his or her own way of attaining mind-ki-body unity, in a way that permits all students to learn from each other. In a training atmosphere void of distinctions, communication grows and mutual respect arises unhindered.
Some six million people in sixty-five countries around the world regularly leave their homes, travel to an unimposing building, put on a white cotton uniform, and submit themselves to some of the strictest physical discipline found outside of prisons. They do this voluntarily, often paying for the privilege. Indeed, when they have no money, they frequently ask for more discipline in the form of washing windows, scrubbing floors and toilets and general sweeping in exchange for the right to continue receiving this particular form of individual torture. Their disease is not limited to any special stratum of society: These strange people are male and female, young and old, black and white, red and yellow, ill and well, tall, thin, short, stout and they span all the generations now alive. They are not a religious or fanatical cult and getting a group of them to agree on anything more serious than lunch is normally impossible. While they may not collectively agree on much of anything, there is one thing on which they always agree: Shotokan is a wonderful way of life.
Virtually without exception, serious students of Shotokan Karate-do represent the antitheses of the widely-held public image of "Karate People." They wear only white uniforms, and can rarely, if ever, be found wearing a bell bottomed, laced-up, elasticized waist, trimmed Gi. The few who wear patches on their Gi disdain dragons and snakes and their belts (even black belts) are never marked with stripes or stars. Acknowledging that there may be exceptions to every rule, it can still be said with a high degree of certitude that serious students of Shotokan Karate-do are a different breed. They simply do not fit the modern world. What they do fit is their plain cotton Gi, and it is in those Gi that, hour after hour, day after day, year after year, they strive mightily towards an ideal which was conceived by an indigent school teacher more than 60 years ago. Their teachers tell them to "move from center", "find your spirit", and divine the meaning of Iken Hisatsu ("to kill with a blow"). They are not unfamiliar with jumping and spinning and slashing, but Iken Hisatsu is difficult to find when one is flying through the air; it is more likely to be found rooted in the earth. Shotokan is acknowledged as the first art to be truly called Karate, and Master Gichin Funakoshi, as the father of modern day Karate. He changed the meaning of Karate from China Hand to Empty Hand. Funakoshi trained under two great masters, Azato and Itosu. But his studies did not stop with them. Other teachers helped mold him: Kiyuna, Niigakim Toono and the greatest of the era, "Bushi" Matsumura. In addition to his martial arts training, Funakoshi also became a school teacher. It was for this reason that he was chosen to introduce Karate to Japan. He brought to the colleges first. Then it was his students that picked the name of his art. Funakoshi had a pen name, Shoto. That, combined with Kan, meaning house, the art became Shotokan, the House of Shoto.

Modern Shuai-chiao (competing to throw) is the culmination of the ancient, crude, practical and effective combat grappling method of the battlefield - that has evolved into a sophisticated and efficient no non-sense approach to combat. Its training method of using punches, kicks and joint-locks in the context of throwing can conform to all martial arts styles. Its philosophy share the same principle of Tai-chi Yin and Yang, the traditional cosmic law of China. In fact, the advanced Shuai-chiao practitioner views Shuai-chiao and Tai-chi as two sides of the same coin meeting at a junction, but coming from totally different origin. Shuai-chiao's techniques are the culmination of tested grappling experience in the best environment - the battlefield. Today, it is still a part of military and police training as well as a national sport in China and Taiwan.
Shuai-chiao's earliest recorded use was by the Yellow Emperor of China, 2697 B.C. against the rebel enemy Chih-yiu and his army. They used horned helmets and gored their opponents while using a primitive form of grappling. This early recorded period was first called Chiao-ti (butting with horns). Throughout the centuries, the hands and arms replaced the horns while the techniques increased and improved. The name Chiao-ti also changed and was referred to by many names popular at that time in history or by government decree.
The original Chinese Martial Art, a combat wrestling system called Chiao-li (Contesting of strength), was systematized during the Chou Dynasty (1122-256 BC). This military combat wrestling system, the first combination of fighting techniques historically employed by the imperial military, consisted of throws (Shuai), hand and foot strikes (Ta), seizing a person's joints (Na), attacking vital parts (Tien) and breaking joints (Tuan). This format proves that Chiao-li used punches, kicks, vital point attacks, Chin-na seizing and breaking joints in the context of throwing. All of these elements of fighting skills were practiced in training during the winter months and used in hundreds of battles in ancient China. It is the root and the foundation of Chinese Martial Arts. At first Chiao-li emphasis is only for military combat, but it gradually became a sport in the Chin Dynasty (221-207 BC) during the reign of the second emperor and became an entertainment event in the fifth century. The importance of proper training methods for the practical aspects of self-defense or sparring is to be emphasized.
It is common knowledge that power and speed is of high importance in any kind of self-defense. Shuai-chiao training has been used for over 4,000 years, to train the Chinese Emperor's personal bodyguards, the military and still in the 20th century the police and military academies of China and Taiwan. Shuai-chiao e
A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.


#313554 - 01/09/07 07:59 AM Re: A to Z of Martial Arts - T to W [Re: Dobbersky]
Dobbersky Offline
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Registered: 03/13/06
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Loc: Manchester United Kingdom
T - Styles

The five original Korean Kwans ("schools") were: Chung Do Kwan, Moo Duk Kwan (the art of Tang Soo Do), Yun Moo Kwan, Chang Moo Kwan, and Chi Do Kwan. These were founded in 1945 and 1946. Three more Kwans were founded in the early 1950's - Ji Do Kwan, Song Moo Kwan, and Oh Do Kwan.
After fifty years of occupation by Japan (which ended in 1945) and after the division of the nation and the Korean War, Korean nationalism spurred the creation of a national art in 1955, combining
the styles of the numerous kwans active within the country (with the exception of Moo Duk Kwan, which remained separate - therefore Tang Soo Do is still a separate art from TKD today). Gen. Hong Hi Choi was primarily responsible for the creation of this new national art, which
was named Tae Kwon Do to link it with Tae-Kyon (a native art). Earlier unification efforts had been called Kong Soo Do, Tae Soo Do, etc. Many masters had learned Japanese arts during the occupation, or had learned Chinese arts in Manchuria. Only a few had been lucky enough
to be trained by the few native martial artists who remained active when the Japanese banned all martial arts in Korea. Choi himself had taken Tae-Kyon (a Korean art) as a child, but had earned his 2nd dan in Shotokan Karate while a student in Japan.
Primarily a kicking art. There is often a greater emphasis on the sport aspect of the Art. Tae-Kwon-Do stylists tend to fight at an extended range, and keep opponents away with their feet. It is a hard/soft, external, fairly linear style. It is known for being very powerful.
Training tends to emphasize sparring, but has forms, and basics are important as well. There is a lot of competition work in many dojongs.
The World Taekwondo Federation is the governing body recognized by the International Olympic Committee, and as a result WTF schools usually emphasize Olympic-style full contact sparring. The WTF is represented in the U.S. by the U.S. Taekwondo Union (USTU).
The International Taekwondo Federation is an older organization founded by Hong Hi Choi and based out of Canada. It tends to emphasize a combination of self-defense and sparring, and uses forms slightly older than those used by the WTF.
The American Taekwondo Association is a smaller organization similar in some ways to the ITF. It is somewhat more insular than the ITF and WTF, and is somewhat unique in that it has copyrighted the forms of its organization so that they cannot be used in competition by non-members.
There are numerous other federations and organizations, many claiming to be national (AAU TKD has perhaps the best claim here) or international (although few are), but these three have the most members. All of these federations, however, use similar techniques (kicks, strikes, blocks, movement, etc.), as indeed does Tang Soo Do (another Korean art, founded by the Moo Duk Kwan, that remained independent during the unification/foundation of Tae Kwon Do).
Tae Soo Do was created by Supreme Grandmaster Dr. Joo Bang Lee as an undergraduate program to Hwa Rang Do(r). Like Karate and Tae Kwon Do, Tae Soo Do(r) focuses on basic human motion. Techniques are simple yet effective. Students learn proper balance, speed, power and control. Students are also introduced to principles of sparring which are highly applicable to self-defense and martial sport tournaments settings.
In addition to empty handed techniques, Tae Soo Do students are instructed in basic weaponry. Beginning belts focus on San Jyel Bong (Twin Sticks with rope/chain), Intermediate students are taught Jung Bong (Staff) and Advanced students are taught Juk Do (Bamboo Sword) and Gum Do (Way of the one true sword). Students are taught weapon forms for each of these three weapons. These forms focus on study of technique, but are also are perfect for tournament competition.
As a traditional martial art, Tae Soo Do practitioners are instructed in breathing and meditation exercises. Tae Soo Do helps individuals to build a sense of self-confidence as well as physical and mental well being. As in Hwa Rang Do, an emphasis is placed on proper ethical conduct through discipline and respect.
Tae Soo Do is designed for those individuals who have less than one year or prior experience in a martial art, and are interested in increasing their level of physical fitness while learning effective self-defense techniques. Tae Soo Do is perfect for children and adults of all ages and abilities.
Upon completion of the Tae Soo Do program a student continues their education in the Hwa Rang Do program. A Tae Soo Do black belt begins their training in Hwa Rang Do as a yellow sash.
One of the three orthodox "internal" styles of Chinese martial art (the other two being Hsing Yi Ch'uan and Pa Kua Chang). The term "T'ai Chi" refers to the ancient Chinese cosmological concept of the interplay between two opposite yet complementary forces (Yin and Yang) as being the foundation of creation. "Ch'uan" literaly means "fist" and denotes an unarmed method of combat. T'ai Chi Ch'uan as a martial art is based on the principle of the soft overcoming the hard.
The origins of T'ai Chi Ch'uan are often attributed to one Chang San Feng (a Taoist of either the 12th or 15th century depending on the source), of Chen Jia Gou, Wen County, Henan Province, China, who created the art after witnessing a fight between a snake and a crane. These stories were popularized in the early part of this century and were the result of misinformation and the desire to connect the art with a more famous and ancient personage. All of the various styles of T'ai Chi Ch'uan which are in existence today can be traced back to a single man, Chen Wang Ting, a general of the latter years of the Ming Dynasty. After the fall of the Ming and the establishment of the Ching Dynasty (1644), Chen Wang Ting returned to the Chen village and created his forms of boxing. Originally containing up to seven forms,only two forms of Chen Style T'ai Chi Ch'uan have survived into the present.
The Art was only taught to members of the Chen clan until a promising young outsider named Yang Lu Chan was accepted as a student in the early part of the 19th century. Yang Lu Chan (nicknamed "Yang without enemy" as he was reportedly a peerless fighter) modified the original Chen style and created the Yang style of T'ai Chi Ch'uan, the most popular form practiced in the world today. Wu Yu Hsiang leaned the Art from Yang Lu Chan and a variation of the original Chen form from Chen Ching Ping (who taught the "small frame" version of Chen T'ai Chi Ch'uan) and created the Wu style. A man named Hao Wei Chen learned the Wu style from Wu Yu Hsiang's nephew and taught the style to Sun Lu Tang, who in turn created the Sun style (Sun was already an established master of Hsing Yi Chuan and Pa Kua Chang when he learned T'ai Chi Ch'uan. He combined his knowledge of the other arts when creating his style). Yang Lu Chan had another student, a Manchu named Ch'uan You, who in turned taught the Art to his son, Wu Jian Ch'uan. Wu Chian Ch'uan popularized his variation of the Yang style, which is commonly refered to as the Wu Chian Ch'uan style. In recent times (this century) there have been many other variations and modifications of the Art, but all may be traced back through the above masters to
the original Chen family form.
Complete T'ai Chi Ch'uan arts include basic exercises, stance keeping (Chan Chuang), repetitive single movement training, linked form training, power training (exercises which train the ability to issue energy in a ballistic pulse), weapons training (which includes straight sword, broadsword, staff and spear), and various two-person exercises and drills (including "push-hands" sensitivity drills). A hallmark of most styles of T'ai Chi Ch'uan is that the movements in the forms are done quite slowly, with one posture flowing into the next without interruption. Some forms (the old Chen forms for example) alternate between slow motion and explosive movements. Other styles divide the training into forms which are done slowly at an even tempo and separate forms which are performed at a more vigorous pace. The goal of moving slowly is to insure correct attention is paid to proper body mechanics and the maintenance of the prerequisite relaxation.
Training exercises can be divided into two broad categories: solo exercises, and drills which require a partner. A beginner will usually begin training with very basic exercises designed to teach proper structural alignment and correct methods of moving the body, shifting the weight, stepping, etc. All of the T'ai Chi Ch'uan arts have at their very foundation the necessity of complete physical relaxation and the idea that the intent leads and controls the motion of the body. The student will also be taught various stance keeping postures which serve as basic exercises in alignment and relaxation as well as a kind of mind calming standing meditation. A basic tenet of all "internal" martial arts is that correct motion is born of absolute stillness. Once the basics are understood, the student will progress to learning the formal patterns of movement ("forms") which contain the specific movement patterns and techniques inherent in the style.
Traditionally, single patterns of movement were learned and repeated over and over until mastered, only then was the next pattern taught. Once the student had mastered an entire sequence of movements individually, the movements were taught in a linked sequence (a "form"). The goal of training is to cultivate a kind of "whole body" power. This refers to the ability to generate power with the entire body, making full use of one's whole body mass in every movement. Power is always generated from "the bottom up," meaning the powerful muscles of the legs and hips serve as the seat of power. Using the strength of the relatively weaker arms and upper body is not emphasized. The entire body is held in a state of dynamic relaxation which allows the power of the whole body to flow out of the hands and into the opponent without obstruction.
The T'ai Chi Ch'uan arts have a variety of two person drills and exercises designed to cultivate a high degree of sensitivity in the practitioner. Using brute force or opposing anothers power with power directly is strictly discouraged. The goal of two person training is to develop sensitivty to the point that one may avoid the opponent's power and apply one's own whole body power wher the opponent is most vulnerable. One must cultivate the ability to "stick" to the opponent, smothering the others' power and destroying their balance. Finally, the formal combat techniques must be trained until they become a reflexive reaction.
Modified forms of T'ai Chi Ch'uan for health have become popular worldwide in recent times because the benefits of training have been found to be very conducive to calming the mind, relaxing the body, relieving stress, and improving one's health in general.
Modern vs. Traditional training methods
Traditionally, a beginning student of Tai Chi Chuan was first required to practice stance keeping in a few basic postures. After the basic body alignments had settled in, the student would progress to performing single movements from the form. These were performed repetitively on a line. After a sufficient degree of mastery had been obtained in the single movements, the student was taught to link the movements together in the familiar long form. Now, it is not uncommon for a student to be taught the long form immediately, with no time being spent on stance keeping or on basic movement exercises. Since the Long Form trains all of the qualities developed in the basic exercises, this does not really produce a dilution of resulting martial art. It does however make it more difficult for beginner to learn. The duration of the basic training depends on the student and the instructor; however, it would not be unusual for a relatively talented student, with good instruction, to be able to defend themselves effectively with Tai Chi after as little as a year of training.
Chen Wang Ting's original form of Chen style T'ai Chi Ch'uan is often refered to as the "Old Frame" (Lao Chia) and its second form as "Cannon Fist" (Pao Chui). In the latter part of the 18th century, a fifth generation decendant of Chen Wang Ting, Chen You Ben simplified the original forms into sets which have come to be known as the "New Style" (Hsin Chia). Chen You Ben's nephew, Chen Ching Ping, created a variation of the New Style which is known as the "Small Frame" (Hsiao Jia) or "Chao Pao" form. All of these styles have survived to the present.
The Yang style of T'ai Chi Ch'uan is a variation of the original Chen style. The forms which were passed down from the Yang style founder, Yang Lu Chan have undergone many modifications since his time. Yang Lu Chan's sons were very proficient martial artists and each, in turn, modified their father's art. The most commonly seen variation of the form found today comes from the version taught by Yang Lu Chan's grandson, Yang Cheng Fu. It was Yang Cheng Fu who first popularized his family's Art and taught it openly. Yang Chen Fu's form is characterizes by open and extended postures. Most of the modern variations of the Yang style, as well as the standardized Mainland Chinese versions of T'ai Chi Ch'uan are based on his variation of the Yang form.
Yang Lu Chan's student, Wu Yu Hsiang combined Yang's form with the Chao Bao form which he learned from Chen Ching Ping to create the Wu style. This style features higher stances and compact, circular movements. His nephew's student, Hao Wei Chen was a famous practitioner of the style, so the style is sometimes refered to as the Hao Style. Hao Wei Chen taught his style to Sun Lu Tang, who combined his knowledge of Hsing Yi Ch'uan and Pa Kua Chang to create his own
Yang Lu Chan had another student named Chuan You, who in turn taught the style to his son Wu Chian Ch'uan. This modification of the Yang style is usually refered to as the Wu Chian Chu'an style. This form's movements are smaller and the stance is higher than the popular Yang style.
In summary, the major styles of traditional T'ai Chi Ch'uan are the Chen, Yang, Wu, Wu Chian Ch'uan and Sun. All other "styles" are variations of the above.
Non-martial Tai Chi variants.
There are modified forms of Tai Chi which are devoted mostly to health enhancement and relaxation. The movements retain the flavor of Tai Chi Chuan, but are often simplified.
Taido is a scientific martial art which has taken the essence of the traditional Japanese martial arts and transformed it into one which can meet the needs of a modern society. In both Japanese print and television media Taido has been recognised as a martial art having "philosophical depth" and "creativity". It has been deemed as "the martial art of the 21st century".
Dr. Seiken Shukumine, former Grand Master of the Japan Gensei-school of karate, realised the shortcomings of the unscientific approach taken by other martial arts and decided to develop a new martial art that was both scientific and relevant in the context of the modern world. For thirty years he underwent rigorous training and research in the theory of martial arts and based upon the results, in 1965, he created the three dimensional art which he called Taido.
Taido is not a martial art where punching or kicking techniques are executed along a one dimensional line. Rather Taido's techniques are delivered by changing the body axis and balance. It is also characterised by the use of elaborate footwork in changing the angle of attack and by the use of one's entire body in the martial art. Taido, moreover, is not simply a sport as many forms of karate have become, but also involves a special type of training which requires a tremendous amount of self-discipline in terms of spiritual concentration. The essence of Taido lies not in the techniques of the art itself but in the utilisation of the training acquired in Taido for the development and benefit of both self and society.
Taido's techniques are designed with a dual purpose in mind. Not only are they used for one's personal defence but they play an important role in keeping one's internal organs healthy. Based upon the theories applied in the medical art of acupuncture, Taido has studied the effect of the angle of body movement upon the internal organs. This is realised, in part, through the Hokei, which are systemised routines of techniques and movements. These improve the students' offensive and defensive techniques while promoting the development of their health. Taido also encompasses, and emphasises strongly, the breathing techniques. This is indeed another unique aspect of Taido as compared to other martial arts.
Japanese police self-defense method
Taijutsu, literally translated as "skill with the body," forms the basis for all understanding in the fighting arts of the ninja. By concentrating on developing natural responsive actions with the body during initial ninja training, on can then use the physical lessons as models for psychological and tactical training in advanced studies. The ninja's taijutsu is made up of methods for striking and grappling in unarmed fighting, tumbling and breaking falls, leaping and climbing, conditioning the body and maintaining health, as well as special ways of walking and running.
Some of the more popular [asian] martial arts and training systems attempt to mold the practitioner's ways of reacting and moving to fit a stylized set of predetermined movements. In effect, they are "adding to" the student's total personality. The taijutsu of Togakure ryu ninjutsu works in the opposite manner to naturalize all movements by stripping away the awkward or unnatural tendencies that may have been picked up unknowingly over the years.
As a fighting system, taijutsu relies on natural body strength and resiliency, speed of response and movement, and an understanding of the principles of nature for successful results in self-protection. The techniques take advantage of natural employment of body dynamics. The students need not imitate some sort of animal, nor distort or deform the natural body structure, in order to imply the taijutsu techniques for self-defense.
The principles of taijutsu also provide the foundation for combat with weapons in ninjutsu. The loose, adaptive body postures and movements readily fit the fighting tools employed in the ninja's art. Footwork, body balance, speed, energy application and strategy are identical for practitioners of ninjutsu, whether fighting with fist, blades or chains
The effectiveness of taijutsu as a total fighting system is based on the ninja's reliance on the harmony inherent in nature. Even the fundamental fighting postures and techniques model themselves after the manifestations of the elements in our environment; and the advanced training methods use the balances of the psychological as well as the physical ways.
The five physical elemental manifestations of the physical universe are the classifications of solid, liquid, combustious, gaseous and sub-atomic potential, which are the chi (earth), sui (water), ka (fire), fu (wind) and ku (emptiness) of [asian] metaphysics.
By increasing our observation and awareness of the interrelationships of these various levels of reality, we can develop the ability to see vast patterns of cause and effect that are unrecognized by other people around us. In this sense the practitioner of ninjutsu learns to use the natural progression of the universal cycles, and his body and intentions always adapt to the advances of any attacker. By coming into attunement with the scheme of totality, the ninja always knows the appropriate response for any given situation that confronts him.
This martial arts training is a comprehensive system of personal preparation for facing conflicts and confrontations that can arise in the course of daily living. The underlying principles that make up the training program provide a unified single system for handling dangerous situations.
Our self-protection method is a very ancient Japanese discipline of warrior skills forged in a dangerous time when brutal assailants felt that no type of attack was out of the question. Therefore, we and our spiritual ancestors have had to emphasize a total system of self-protection without the rule limits of the newer sport and recreation martial arts.
* We teach methods for dealing with:
* Grappling, throwing, and joint locking techniques.
* Striking, kicking, and bone breaking techniques
* Leaping, tumbling, and attack evading techniques
* Stick, blade, cord, and projectile combat tools
Form of jujutsu founded by Toichiro Takouchi (aka Hisamori Takenouchi) in the 16th century. He studied a number of different combat systems, from which he formed his own style, stressing immobilization techniques, as well as those of close combat with daggers. His style soon developed a large following and was taught for many generations.
A Northern form of kung-fu from the Chang-Ch'uan Islamic style. This is actually not a system in itself, but the first form of Chang-ch'uan. T'an-Tui was adopted by several other northern systems in their basics. This Chinese boxing method is characterized by low kicking techniques and an emphasis on strong, yet mobile horse stances. Training stresses repeating movements left and right, always ending each move with a kick.

Tang-soo-do " art of the knife hand" is a traditional Korean martial art that focuses on discipline and the practice of hyung (patterns) and self defense sequences. Although founder Hwang Kee claims to have created the art from ancient textbooks on Subak (an older Korean martial art) while living in Manchuria in the 1930s, the style may have been heavily influenced by Japanese karate and Chinese internal methods. In many respects, Tang-soo-do appears similar to Karate and Taekwondo, except it places very little emphasis on sporting competition and flashy maneuvers.
Tang Lang Pai is the boxing of the Praying Mantis. It has been created from Wong Long in the 17th century. This man observed the fighting methods of the terrible insect and combined them with movements of the monkeys. Master Kao Tao Shan is a well known representative of this style.
In 1960, Romeo Mamar founded the art of tapado which utilizes a forty-three inch staff held at one end with both hands. The art has only two movements in its repertoire, and they are simultaneously blocks and strikes. Mamar founded this art in Taloc, Bago City after having become disheartened by the limitations of the four methods of arnis, lagas, sinamak, layaw, and uhido, he previously learned. In 1963 the Samahan sa Arnis ng Pilipinas sponsored the First National Arnis Festival. This festival was important as it was the first time that the Filipino martial arts were televised for all to see. Various demonstrations of arnis were given by experts from Far Eastern University and the Tondo School of Arnis, which was founded by Jose Mena.
Tegumi Renzokugeiko: an ancient series of brilliant flow drills which range from checking, trapping, & blocking, to locking joints, twisting bones, seizing cavities & impacting specific pressure points.
School of jujutsu founded by Iso Matsemon (also known as Masatarl Yanagl). It is particularly famous for its vital-point attacks (ateml-waza), immobilization methods (torae), and strangleholds (chime). It is generally considered to have been the result of a fusion of two ancient schools, the Yoshin ryu and the Shin-no-Shindo. Jlgoro Kano, founder of modern judo, began his martial arts training by studying tenjin shinyo ryu in 1877.
In addition to the daisho, Japanese samurai often carried many other specialized and easily concealable weapons. These were used when otherwise unarmed or, in some cases, when it was preferable not to kill or seriously maim an attacker. The various martial arts ryuha (schools) during the Tokugawa Era frequently taught a wide range of specialized short arms specifically designed for self-defense and which could be hidden within everyday clothing.
Both samurai and commoners alike considered the folding hand fan or sensu an important accessory. Customarily carried in the hands or tucked in the obi (belt), the folding fan also played a significant role in Japanese etiquette, especially on formal occasions, and was rarely ever out of a samurai's possession.
Perhaps because it was considered such an ordinary item, it was easily employed as a suitable side arm with only minor modifications. These weapons, called tessen, literally meaning "iron fan," were constructed of either an actual folding fan with metal ribs or a non-folding solid bar of either iron or wood and shaped like a folded fan. During the Edo Period, the tessen was often considered a common self-defense weapon for extraordinary situations.
There were many situations in which a samurai would not have access to his sword. For example, if visiting another person's home, especially one belonging to a superior, a warrior was generally required to leave one or both swords with an attendant at the door. To prevent violence, obvious weapons such as swords, daggers, and spears were also strictly prohibited within the small confines of the pleasure districts such as Yoshiwara in Edo. A tessen, though, was acceptable in any situation, thus leaving the samurai always armed with at least one very effective defensive weapon.
The history of Thang - ta and Sarit - Sarak can be traced to the 17th century. Thang - ta involves using a sword or spear against one or more opponents. Sarit - Sarak is the technique of fighting against armed or unarmed opponents, but on many occasions there is a combined approach to the training of these martial arts. These martial arts were used with great success by the Manipuri kings to fight against the British for a long time. With the British occupation of the region, martial arts were banned, but post - 1950s saw the resurgence of these arts.
Thang - ta is practiced in three different ways. The first way is absolutely ritual in nature, related to the tantric practices. The second way consists of a spectacular performance involving sword and spear dances. These dances can be converted into actual fighting practices. The third way is the actual fighting technique.
The Sarit - Sarak art of unarmed combat, is quite distinct from other martial art forms. It is simply flawless in its evasive and offensive action, as compared to any other existing martial art of the same school.
Legend has it that Lainingthou Pakhangba, the dragon god - king, ordained King Mungyamba, to kill the demon Moydana of Khagi with a spear and sword, which he presented to the king. According to another such legend, God made the spear and sword with creation of the world. This amazing wealth of Manipuri martial arts has been well preserved, since the days of god king Nongda Lairel Pakhangba. The fascinating Manipuri dance also traces its origin from these martial arts.
Thoda, the impressive martial art form of Himachal Pradesh, relies on one's archery prowess, dating back to the days of the Mahabharata, when bows and arrows were used in the epic battles, between the Pandavas and the Kauravas, residing in the picturesque valleys of Kulu and Manali. Thus, this martial art has its origin in Kulu. Thoda, the name is derived, from the round piece of wood fixed to the head of the arrow, which is used to blunt its wounding potential.
The equipment required for this game are bows and arrows. Wooden bows measuring 1.5m to 2m, to suit the height of the archer and wooden arrows in proportion to the length of the bow, are prepared by skilled and traditional artisans.
In Himachal Pradesh, in earlier days, the game of Thoda was organised in a very interesting way. A handful of village folk would go to another village, and would throw tree leaves into the village well, before sun rise. They would, then, hide in the bushes nearby, just outside the boundary of that village. As soon as the villagers came to draw water, the youths would shout, and throw challenges to them for a fight. This would spark the preparations for an encounter.
The competition is a mixture of martial arts, culture and sport, and is held on Baisakhi Day, April 13 and 14, and community prayers are organised to invoke the blessings of the principal deities, Goddesses Mashoo and Durga.
How the game is played
Each group consists of roughly 500 people, but most of them are just dancers, who come along to boost the morale of their team. The archers are divided into parties, just before the competition takes place. One team is called Saathi, and the other Pashi. It is believed that Pashis and Saathis, are descendants of the Pandavas and Kauravas. The target in this game is the region of the leg, below the knee, where the opponent should aim his arrow.
The moment the two contesting groups reach the village fairground, both the parties dance on either side of the ground, waving their swords, aglitter in the sun, and sing and dance to the stirring martial music. The Pashi group forms a 'chakravyuh', and blocks the Saathi group, who in turn begin to penetrate their defences. After the initial resistance, the Saathis reach the centre of the ground. Both the opponents face each other at a distance of about 10 metres, and prepare to attack. The defenders start shaking, kicking their legs to and fro with brisk movements, to thwart the accurate aim of their adversaries.
Lightning movements and agility are the sole methods of defence. The whole competition is conducted to the lively, virile rhythm of war dance, with one side furiously side-stepping, legs kicking in all directions, and other side doing its best to place an arrow on the target. There are minus points for a strike on the wrong parts of the leg.
At present, the game is played in a marked court, which ensures that a certain degree of discipline is maintained in Thoda - a happy blend of culture and sport. This game is popular in Theog Division (Shimla district), Narkanda block, Chopal Division, district Sirmaur and Solan
The Thuggee style is a deadly variant of Kalaripayit, which uses the required knowledge of the vital points to hurt rather than heal. The Thuggee style is a secret of the Cult of Thuggee, and one must become a member to learn it.
Thuggee was an Indian cult worshipping Kali whose members were known as Thugs. It was allegedly a hereditary cult with both Muslim and Hindu members that practiced large-scale robbery and murder of travellers by strangulation. It was suppressed by the British rulers of India in the 1830s. A police organisation known as the Thuggee and Dacoity Department was established within the Government of India and remained in existence until 1904 when it was replaced by the Central Criminal Intelligence Department.
Northern Chinese boxing system; techniques of fighting while falling or lying on the ground. Emphasis is on kicking and falling techniques. Balance is considered from three standpoints: keeping comfortable balance; using difficult movesments, yet maintaining balance; and breaking balance, falling, and yet maintaining composure. This training is seen as proactical in circumstances in which on cannot follow the usual methods of fighting, when injured or taken off guard, for example. Also known as Ti-Kung, and Bai-Ma-Sya-Shan
Tjakalele is practically just a war dance originated in the Mollucas. It uses spears and shields.
A form of Silat. This system is the "icing on the cake." It revolves around the knowledge of anatomy developed in ancient times which, in some cases, surpasses modern medicine. The emphasis is on nerve destruction.
A Silat style. A more defensive, more long-range system, tjimande is the "hard/soft" style of Indonesia. Tjimande people flow with opponents, similar to Filipino martial artists. In the beginning, students learn the hard kickboxing like moves, then, as training progresses, they are trained in soft, tai chi-like applications.
Javanese Tiger style, fights upright with long sweeping movements; skin attacks, long bone traps, precision striking, ferocity.
Brother art, springing, evasion, siloh, monkey hands, started by woman observing monkeys fighting.
Snake Style, nerve center attacks, muscle splitters, organ attacks, bone displacements, evasion.
A horse style emphasizing a multitude of kicks, stomps, rakes, toekicks, heeling, etc.
Brother art to Tjimande, emphasizes long-arm techniques and exquisite balancing as a martial technique.
Toide or 'taking hand' is the throwing & grappling aspect of Karate-jutsu. Yes, Karate-jutsu in its fullest and original form has a complete system that entails high-level aerial breakfalls (ukemi-waza), Samurai knee-walking (shinki-waza), joint and wrist locks (kansetsu-waza) and one of the most comprehensive methods of (nage-waza) body throwing techniques. Toide techniques are effectively executed from any type of attack including fist and kick combinations as well as weapons assaults. The art's devistating strikes that precede the throwing techniques are integral to Toide. This creates the essential off-balancing methods (kuzushi) that are necessary to complete the Toide throws efficiently.
Ancient system with not only physical contact but the use of psychic energy as well
This is the style of the drunk man. It has been created from Li Po. The goal of this style is to have reactions that are totally unforeseeable. The expert falls to the ground, hesitates, rolls changes his rhythm, and so on. Some experts practise holding a glas full of water in the hands.
Tukong Moosul gets its name from the elite Tu Kong (Special Combat) commando unit of the South Korean Army. The originators of Tukong Moosul took the best of other martial arts and brought the techniques together into combat-oriented, effective training. Tukong incorporates techniques from other Korean martial arts like Tae Kwon Do and Hapkido, as well as Judo and Kung Fu.
General Chang K. Oe, commander of the Tu Kong unit, enlisted Won Ik Yi from army headquarters and several top fighters from within the Tu Kong unit to develop the training. Won Ik Yi was trained in Shaolin-style martial arts as a child and incorporated many Kung Fu techniques in the original Tukong Moosul curriculum. Others, including Tukong Moosul Association Grandmaster In Ki Kim, one of the Tu Kong unit masters, have added techniques in more recent years.
Tukong Moosul, like other military martial arts, is all about taking out the enemy. Some of the Tukong Moosul organizations specifically prohibit children from learning Tukong Moosul, instead recommending that they study the sport-oriented Tae Kwon Do.
Almost annually since 1640 hordes of Turkey's finest grappling athletes have gathered in Erdine Turkey for the Kirkpinar, the championship of Turkish oil wrestling. The grapplers oil their bodies, which make them very difficult to grasp. Sometimes in order to secure leverage for a throw, a wrestler is permitted to thrust his hand into his opponent's leather trousers. There are no draws and the match continues until one grappler wins. Many forms of Asian wrestling use belts as a means to grip the opponent and lift and throw him (such as in sumo). There was usually no ground fighting, except in the far east. Competitions took place in a special yard, smoothed for wrestling. Names for most Middle-Asia kinds of wrestling originate from the Turkish word "kurash", such as Uzbek kurash, tatarian kuresh, kazakh kures, and azerbaidjan gurassu. Techniques and rules are very similar to each other. The fight is finished when opponent is thrown to the ground.
As for the wrestlers' costume, just only heavy leather trousers. It made of water buffalo leather with 58 meters of hand stitching. The weight becomes 13Kg for the advanced wrestler.
Olive oil is poured as much as to drip from the whole body. It isn't painted. It is poured.

U - Styles

Uchida Ryu Tanjojutsu or "Sutteki-jutsu" as the word stick is pronounced in Japanese is known as the walking stick art and emerged during the Meiji era when walking canes wear in vogue. Uchida, Ryogoro included "sutteki-jutsu" into the Shindo Muso Ryu
A traditional Okinawan, Zen based style founded by Uechi Kanbum. He combined elements of the Pangai Noon style with the techniques of the Phoenix Eye school. The style incorporates the characteristics of the Wushu animals. It uses circular motions and uses the Phoenix Eye single knuckle punch. Unlike most Karate styles, it uses grappling techniques.
Ujungan is occasionally incorporated into various Pencak Silat styles or other systems that are closely related to Indonesian culture like the Filippino martial arts. It is the application of stick and blade.

V - Styles

Blends striking with various locking & choking submissions creating a very effective unarmed martial art as well as a very challenging sport. Initially the No Holds Barred type of fighting was dominated by traditional Brazilian Jiu-jitsu fighters, but over time it has evolved to the point where NHB Fighters will work Boxing for their hands, Muay Thai for their kicking and kneeing, Greco-Roman Wrestling for their take-downs, and Brazilian Jiu-jitsu for their ground control & submissions. Most fighters do a little bit of everything today in order to be "well rounded". The No Holds Barred fighters generally seem to blend aspects from the following arts: Brazilian Jiu-jitsu, Greco-Roman & Catch Wrestling, Muay Thai, Western Boxing, Judo, Jujutsu. There are various promoters and organizations for No Holds Barred type fighting with varying rules. Some of the more popular no holds barred organizations are: UFC, Pancrase, Shooto, and Pride to name a few of the big ones. Some organizations allow all striking (punching, elbows, headbutts, kicks, knees) standing and on the ground. Some events limit the striking to open handed (no fists), no elbows, headbutts... it generally depends on the boxing commissions of the area (at least in the US). Generally most Judo/Jiu-jitsu types submissions are allowed including: Armbars, Triangle Chokes (Leg Choke), Rear Chokes, Ankle Locks, Knee Bars, shoulder locks...and numerous other types of submissions. The only attacks that are prohibited across the board in sanctioned No Holds Barred competitions are: attacking the eyes, fishhooking, striking the groin, throat, spine or knee cap. No Holds Barred type fighting has had it's share of problems, most stemming from bad press and sensationalism in the media about this type of competition. Over the last few years there's been a continues to flourish today thanks to huge events such as UFC and Pride on Pay-Per-View Cable making it a much more main-stream type of sporting event.
Indian style of martial art similar to Tai Chi and Dim Mak
Bare handed combat is a post graduate course in Kalari. Here an unarmed combatant fights with an armed enemy and puts him down. Various maneuvers like ozhivukal (skipping), irrakkam (stepping back), kayattam (stepping forward), thada (blocking), pidutham (catching) and attacks to vital body points are the main features to this practice.
Many martial arts were created during XVI-XVIII centuries, when Vietnam was separated in several states. It was a good situation for the developing of martial arts. Many martial arts surfaced during the Tay Son Rebellion (1771-1788), the first serious attempt for unifying the country. The rebel's base was in Binh Dinh Province which still is a place with many martial arts.
The country was finally united at the beginning of XIX century. But during the period of 1858-1884 Vietnam was conquerred by France and became its colony. During the colonisation martial arts had to be kept underground and were transferred in family schools only, from father to son. Studying was kept secret, students sweared to never use their martial art without serious reason and to not divulge its secrets.
The revival of the tradition in Vietnamese martial arts is connected with Nguyen Loc (1912-1960). He was born in Son Tay (Ha Tay Province, near Hanoi). In 1938, he founded the first club of Vo Thuat for all interested people (including foreigners!). He named his school Vovinam Viet Vo Dao (often referred to as "the best from Vietnamese martial arts").
In 1945, a first public demonstration of Vovinam Viet Vo Dao took place in Hanoi and subsequently Viet Vo Dao clubs arised in all regions of nothern and central Vietnam. After the death of Nguyen Loc, his successor - Le Sang - organized a big meeting of masters in Saigon for fostering the plan of spreading vietnamese martial arts worldwide. In 1972, the European Viet Vo Dao Federation was established and in 1980 the corresponding World Federation followed (president: Phan Hoang).
Now 90% clubs of World Viet Vo Dao Federation practice Vovinam. Others are Thanh Long (strong dragon), Han Bai (white crane), Tran Minh Long and Nguyen Trung Hoa (family schools).
In Vietnam the most popular schools are Vovinam, Kim Ke and Vo Binh Dinh. Also there exist about 30 schools, which are not so well known. In addition, there exist numerous so-called Sino-vietnamese styles.
Nguyen Loc created his school on the base of local schools of Shontei Province and other Vietnamese styles which he studied during extensive travelling as well as on the base of the "Linh Nam Vo Kinh" treatise. Vovinam is famous for its various kicks - sweeps, blocks, "scissors" on different levels, jumping kicks, attacks with final jumping on the opponent.
Vivodo is the eclectic martial arts, which draws on different styles to build a strong foundation. This comprehensive system hones competitive skills, like the use empty-hands and weapons styles into a fine art. Systemactic action and counteractinng movements of hands, arms, legs, feet, knees and elbows enables the student to gain maximum intellectual awareness, internal power, physical strengh with the least amount of effort. The simple benefit of practicing all of the above is greater vitality and longevity.
The Vivodo art of systematic action and counteraction is a series of acrobatic arm and foot movements from Vietnamese traditional arts which seeks to avoid dangerous in competition, simplify practice routines in open forms, which are easy to apply and effective for good health and self-defence.
Deep Breath exercises are undertaken to restore energy for internal and external body before training Vivodo arts. Forms were incorporated with hard and soft techniques to achieve flexibility and to concord lively body movements, all this makes ViVoDo a sporting Martial Art, directed towards both the physical and mental culture and oriented to health and self-defence.
Vo Binh Dinh is a very old Vietnamese style that originated in Binh Dinh (today Ngia Binh) Province. It is based on the assumption that the opponent is non-vietnamese and therefore likely taller and heavier. Hence a Vo Binh Dinh fighter constantly moves, changes positions, changes the directions of movement, uses counter-strikes to attacking arm or leg.

W - Styles

Wado-ryu "school of the way of harmony" was founded by Otsuka Hidenori, one of Funakoshi Gichin's students. It combines Jujitsu with a strong focus on evasion through body shifting. style has higher stances and shorter punches than Shotokan. Training stresses spiritual discipline.
This is probably one of the most spectacular styles of Kung Fu. It includes jumps, leg attacks to the head, projections and some kind of self-defence techniques like in Ju-Jitsu. Nothern Chinese style of boxing emphasizing high kicks and long-range hand techniques. Students learn to close the gap quickly. Besides kicking and striking, the system also adopts joint locks and throwing techniques. Forms are practiced alone or in two-man sets.
Wall fighters" very often used knife, flail or short club. Of course, it was infringement of fisticuffs ethics, but - usual infringement. Opponent had chance only if he had similar weapon. There was no possibility for barehand resisting. Even "insets" - hidden inside mitten or fist weight like copper coins, lead bullets or iron pivots - were enough for big advantage. Dal' in his "Explanatory dictionary" described examples of using flails in "wall vs wall" fights, and wrote that "it is impossible to resist such a man in fisticuffs".
Two conclusions are possible. At Dal's time (or not long time before) "wall vs wall" fights used not only fists. Flail is good weapon, but there exist many countermethods against flail - more than against knife. And if "it is impossible to resist" - hence there weren't methods of counter-weapon defence.
There exist sole fightings besides "wall formation", but they are more typical for wrestling, not for fist-fighting. Representatives of all estates participate in such fights, low estates usually don't give in more noble ones. Sole fights in fisticuffs are an addition to the "wall", more experienced fighters compare their force before common battle. Besides forefist, bottom of the fist and inner side of the fist also were used in strikes. Kicks to the legs and leg's hooks were used as in wrestling as infist-fighting. There are not many such methods, but this skill is considered as top-level skill, not accessible to usual fighter. High accuracy of a strike also is considered as high skill. As before, main factors are muscle force and endurance.
One of the most popular forms of Kung Fu. Wing Chun was an obscure and little known art until the mid twentieth century. While multiple histories of the art do exist (some with only minor discrepancies), the generally accepted version is thus:
The style traces its roots back over 250 years ago to the Southern Shaolin Temple. At that time, the temple a was sanctuary to the Chinese revolution that was trying to overthrow the ruling Manchu. A classical martial arts system was taught in the temple which took 15-20 years to produce an efficient fighter.
Realizing they needed to produce efficent fighters at a faster pace, five of China's Grandmasters met to discuss the merits of each of the various forms of kung fu. They chose the most efficient techniques, theories and principles from the various styles and proceeded to develop a training program that produced an efficent fighter in 5-7 years.
Before the program was put into practice, the Southern temple was raided and destroyed. A lone nun, Ng Mui, was the only survivor who knew the full system. She wandered the countryside, finally taking in a young orphan girl and training her in the system. She named the girl Yimm Wing Chun (which has been translated to mean Beautiful
Springtime, or Hope for the Future), and the two women set out refining the system.
The system was passed down through the years, and eventually became known as Wing Chun, in honor of the founder. The veil of secrecy around the art was finally broken in the early 1950's when Grandmaster Yip Man began teaching publicly in Hong Kong, and his students began gaining noteriety for besting many systems and experienced opponents in streetfights and "friendly" competitions. The art enjoyed even more popularity when one of its students, Bruce Lee, began to enjoy world wide fame.
Most important is the concept of not using force against force, which allows a weak fighter to overcome stronger opponents. Generally, a Wing Chun practitioner will seek to use his opponent's own force against him. A great deal of training is put in to this area, and is done with the cultivation of a concept called Contact Reflexes.
Also of importance are the use of several targeting ideas in Wing Chun. The Mother Line is an imaginary pole running vertically through the center of your body. From the Mother Line emanates the Center Line, which is a vertical 3D grid that divides the body in to a right half and a left half. Most of the vital points of the body are along the Center Line, and it is this area that the Wing Chun student learns to protect as well as work off of in his own offensive techniques.
Also emanating from the Mother Line is the Central Line. The Central Line is seen as the shortest path between you and your opponent, which is generally where most of the exchange is going to take place. Because of this linear concept, most of the techniques seek to occupy one of the two lines and take on a linear nature.
This leads to the expression of another very important concept in Wing Chun: "Economy of Motion". The analogy of a mobile tank with a turret (that of course shoots straight out of the cannon) is often used to describe the linear concept.
Only two weapons are taught in the system, the Dragon Pole and the Butterfly swords. These are generally taught only once the student has a firm foundation in the system.
The way the art produces efficent and adaptble fighters in a relatively short time is by sticking to several core principles and constantly drilling them in to the student, as well as taking a very
generic approach to techniques. Instead of training a response to a specific technique, the student practices guarding various zones about the body and dealing genericly with whatever happens to be in that zone. This allows for a minimum of technique for a maximum of application, and for the use of automatic or "subconcious" responses.
Much training time is spent cultivating "Contact Reflexes". The idea is that at the moment you contact or "touch" your opponent, your body automaticaly reads the direction, force, and often intent of the part of the opponent's body you are contacting with and automatically (subconciously) deals with it accordingly. This again lends itself to the generic concept of zoning.
Contact Reflexes and the concept of not using force against force are taught and cultivated through unique two man sensitivity drills called Chi Sao.
The concepts of guarding and working off of these lines and zones are learned throught the practice of the three forms Wing Chun students learn, and which contain the techniques of the system: Shil Lum Tao, Chum Kil, and Bil Jee.
Another unique aspect of the system is the use of the Mook Jong, or wooden dummy, a wood log on a frame that has three "arms" and a "leg" to simulate various possible positions of an opponent's limbs. A wooden dummy form is taught to the student, that consists of 108 movements and is meant to introduce the student to various applications of the system. It also serves to help the student perfect his own skills.
Weapons training drills off the same generic ideas and concepts as the open hand system (including the use of Contact Reflexes). Many of the weapon movements are built off of or mimic the open hand moves (which is the reverse process of Kali/Escrima/Arnis, where weapon movements come first and open hand movements mimic these).
Currently, there exist several known substyles of Wing Chun. Separate from Yip Man are the various other lineages that descended from one of Yip Man's teachers, Chan Wah Shun. These stem from the 11 or so other disciples that Chan Wah Shun had before Yip Man.
Pan Nam Wing Chun (currently discussed here and in the martial arts magazines) is currently up for debate, with some saying a totally separate lineage, and others saying he's from Chan Wah Shun's lineage.
Red Boat Wing Chun is a form dating back from when the art resided on the infamous Red Boat Opera Troup boat. Little is known about the history of this art or its validity.
At the time of Yip Man's death in 1972, his lineage splintered in to many sub-styles and lineages. Politics played into this splintering a great deal, and provided much news in the martial arts community throughout the 70's and 80's. By the time the late 80's/early 90's rolled around, there were several main families in Yip Man's lineage. To differentiate each lineage's unique style of the art, various spellings or wordings of the art were copyrighted and trademarked (phonetically, Wing Chun can be spelled either as Wing Chun, Wing Tsun, Ving Tsun, or Ving Chun). These main families and spellings are:
Wing Tsun -- Copyrighted and Trademarked by Grandmaster Leung Ting. Used to describe the system he learned as Grandmaster Yip Man's last direct student before his death. Governing body is the International Wing Tsun Martial Arts Association, and the American Wing Tsun Organization in the U.S.
Traditional Wing Chun -- Copyrighted and Trademarked by Grandmaster William Cheung. Used to describe a very different version of Wing Chun he learned while living with Yip Man in the 1950's. Includes different history of lineage as well. Governing body is the World Wing Chun Kung Fu Association.
Ving Tsun - Used by other students of Yip Man, such as Moy Yat. This spelling was considered the main one used by Grandmaster Yip Man as well. It is also used by many of the other students, and was adopted for use in one of the main Wing Chun associations in Hong Kong - The Ving Tsun Athletic Organization.
Wing Chun - General spelling used by just about all practitioners of the art.
The Woodland Indians also used wrestling as a way of settling personal disputes, especially those involving women or goods. Woodland Indian wrestling had no recorded rules except prohibitions against hair-pulling, and it was left to Protestant missionaries to introduce prohibitions against choking and bone-breaking during the 1840s. Victory in Woodland Indian wrestling consisted of using upper body strength to throw the opponent to the ground
As the name implies, American folkstyle - also referred to as "Scholastic" or "Collegiate" - is a style that is unique to the United States (although mud wrestling is also popular). Both Freestyle and Greco can be found in just about any country in the world. Those two styles are the only styles of wrestling found on the international level. For that reason, you often hear of them referred to as "the international styles." On a philosophical level, the primary difference between Folkstyle and the "International Styles" (I'll lump them together for the time being) is evident in the scoring systems. Folkstyle is primarily concerned with the issue of DOMINANCE. The International Styles are primarily concerned with the issue of RISK.
A scoring philosophy based on dominance is primarily concerned with who is controlling who, who is maintaining dominant position on who, etc. You score points by DOMINATING your opponent. The international concept of "risk" is defined as turning your opponent's back toward the mat ("exposing" his back to the mat, or simply referred to as "exposure") and by how you take him down. For example, you get more points in International styles for throwing your opponent than for simply getting a "normal" takedown.
In freestyle, for example, takedowns are scored like this:
1 point - taking opponent down from feet or knees to the ground
2 points - taking opponent from knees to his back or across his back (i.e. - "exposing" his back to the mat on the way down)
3 points - taking opponent from his feet to his back or across his back
5 points - "high amplitude throw" - throwing opponent so that his entire body comes higher than your hips and taking him to his back, with his feet or head - whichever end is up - making an arcing motion through the air (such as a back arch, or a nice throw from a back step).
As you can see, how you take your opponent down is very important in freestyle (and in greco as well). Let's contrast this with how takedowns are scored in folkstyle:
2 points - taking opponent down from feet or knees
2 points - taking opponent from feet to back
2 points - high amplitude throw
2 points - spinning opponent on your finger like a basketball, then taking him to his back.
So in folkstyle, a takedown is 2 points, PERIOD. In folkstyle, only the 'ends' are relevant; which 'means' you choose is your affair. Folkstyle tells you, "We don't care how you dominate him, just dominate him! Take him down and pummel him, control him, dominate him!" In the international styles, the 'means' is just as important as the 'ends.' The international styles tell you, "Take him down and dominate him, BUT if you can pull off some impressive, risky technique while you do it, we'll reward you for it!"
For the reasons above, Folkstyle tends to be much more "no-nonsense" - since you are not rewarded for trying "fancy" moves, guys tend to stick with more high-percentage, low-risk types of attacks (e.g. - singles, doubles, front head locks, etc). International styles reward you for trying moves that might be a little riskier (e.g. - upper body work, throws, trips, etc.) so people tend to wrestle less conservatively in international styles.
Perhaps the biggest difference between the two styles is the mat work (i.e. - ground work). Since folkstyle is primarily concerned with the issue of dominance (who is controlling who) the bottom guy keeps fighting and scrambling to get off the bottom. The top man is trying to turn him toward his back, of course, but he has the added effort of keeping him down before he can turn him. The bottom man has incentives to fight off the bottom and escape - he will be rewarded with 1 point for escape (because he broke his opponent's dominance over him).
Mat wrestling in the International styles is very different. If I get taken down in International style competition, I don't have much incentive to escape - I don't get any points for breaking his dominance on me. So I just flatten out to avoid getting turned toward my back.
If the top guy fails in turning me over after about 10 or 15 seconds, the ref blows the whistle and brings us back to our feet again. In folkstyle, the top man is free to beat on me until I get out.
Another thing that helps illustrate the "dominance" vs. "risk" philosophy is how back points are scored ("back points" are scored by exposing your opponent's back to the mat). In International Styles, all I need to do is expose his back to the mat for a split second. I don't even have to have a takedown yet to score the back points! His back must turn more than 90 degrees toward the mat, and only for a short period of time, and I've got 2 points. I have succeeded in putting him at risk.
In folkstyle, I must expose him to this risk, but I must control him while doing it. First of all, I need to have established control (gotten the takedown). Then, I need to bring his back down to a 45 degree angle (not just a 90 degree angle) toward the mat. Also, I can't score back points with a split second exposure. I must hold him there for at least 2 seconds to get 2 back points; if I hold him there for 5 seconds or more, I get 3 back points (because I demonstrated a greater degree of dominance over him).
This also makes me a little less concerned about where my own back is in folkstyle. Since he can't score back points on me nearly as easily, I will be a little more relaxed in a scramble situation about where my back is. This is one aspect where freestyle or Greco is a little more conservative than folkstyle. In the international styles, you must constantly be aware of where your back is!
In Greco, you can't use legs. That's basically it. Greco is scored identically to freestyle, however, leg attacks are barred. You can't shoot to his legs or do any trips or anything. Down on the mat, you can't try to turn him with something like a leg lace, or spur him into a
Wu Chien Pai, meaning "spaceless style," is a system which promotes an awareness that there is no separateness. The Wu Chien Pai martial arts develop a sense of harmony with nature and the self. The guiding principle of our system is Chi Tao, the Ultimate Way. Chi Tao is built on six principles: peace, love, freedom, happiness, health, and progress. These principles, when present in one's inner state, will be manifested externally
The 'strong warrior' art of Shaolin and others. It conditions the body to war and privation, the mind to stress and the spirit to the power that war requires of the participant.
A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.


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