I just saw a study done on the results of applying chokes. I am not sure when this was done exactly but it was last year sometime. They did a brain wave test on people after they had been choked. they applied the choke for 2 seconds, 4 seconds and 8 seconds. The original hypothesis was that the brain would restore its function once the person was brought back around. They checked 1 minute after the choke, 15 minutes after the choke, 1 hour after the choke, 1 day and finally 2 days after the choke. The choke held for 4 seconds did have the same brain wave activity after 2 days!!! They did not say when the brain wave activity did come back, but noticed a decrease in brain activity for 2 days at least, but they didn't go any further. when you practice applying chokes, care is needed, but at least its in the name of learning. Screwing around and "playing with chokes" is dangerous and stupid. The professor who did the study is continuing the study more in depth, but it gives practioners something to think about.I know Dillman did some studies with a cariologist in reference to his pressure pointing. These techniques need to be fully understood as to what you can do to someone. Look how many police accidentally hurt someone when they perform the choke or the constraint wrong. Its not something to be played with, or toyed with. It can cause some serious harm. Look at 'punch drunk boxers' we don't need to add martial artist to that group.