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#129530 - 02/17/05 09:18 PM Re: Don't Mind This.
Anonymous
Unregistered


Article #10

Article:
http://story.news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=st...tstoasixthsense

This article talks about scientist are trying to prove the theory of humans having a “sixth” sense. Psychologists at Washington University wonder about this. Why did people in the tsunami, who live in the few islands, go to higher ground just minutes before the tsunami hit. Also what about the animals, they detected the tsunami also and headed for higher ground.

They did some test to find out how this is triggered. They rounded up some volunteers who were young and give them some tricky visual test. That’s where they flash the person a color and they have to press a button. They were hooked up on to a MRI so that they can see there wave patterns.

What they found that some of the volunteers caught on to the patterns. They found a lot of activity in the in the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain area important in processing complex information, located near the back of the brain. They show there findings in the February 18 of science newspaper.

It is somewhat cool to think we have some kind of sixth sense. However, there needs to be more evidence to prove that there is such thing. Maybe one day we might teach kids in pre-school on how to use the force.

Top
#129531 - 03/14/05 05:22 PM Re: Don't Mind This.
Anonymous
Unregistered


Boulevard of Broken Dreams by Green Day:

This song talks about a person who is casted by society and see’s himself alone. He doesn’t have anyone to help him.

This song reminded me of Holden walking back to the Hotel. When Holden didn’t want to take a cab he decided to walk I can imagine him walking right back to the hotel. Thought this song it describes how he feels and the road he is walking.


Sunday Mornings by Maroon 5

This song talks about how everything, does not matter only one special person he can see.

I can see this song being played when Holden talks about his sister because the only girl that loves him and cares for him is his sister. I can imagine him sitting on the bench looking at his sister, in the rain. This part of the novel maybe the only part of the novel that he express happiness.

Nothing to lose by Billy Talent

This song talks about a person who is on the verged on killing himself and how this person is ignore and no one notices.

This song relates to the book because it showes how Holden may feel inside and how he felt whken he was about to commit suicide. This song gives us a vivid imagination on how Holden feel’s about school every single day not giving a care of the world.

Top
#129532 - 03/18/05 11:35 AM Re: Don't Mind This.
Anonymous
Unregistered


Article 11:

In MAHABALIPURAM, India after the water from the boxing tsunami resided on the beach there was a monument that was covered by sand. The fishermen say that there grandfathers said legends of an early port that was on the beach long time ago.

Also they found a temple. One of the fishermen said that they could see the destroyed walls covered in coral and see the broken down temple in the middle. A few hundred yards they found a cluster of buried boulders with carved images of animals, gods and servant girls. In Asian mythology there was a great port city that traded with China and southeast Asia 1,300 years ago.

Well the tsunami wasn’t a good thing , a lot of lives were lost and even though this is a great find for archeologist it still does replace the fact a lot of lives were lost. The find is an amazing discovery. Maybe this find could be the legendary Atlantis that we are trying to find.

Top
#129533 - 04/11/05 09:44 AM Re: Don't Mind This.
Anonymous
Unregistered


Article 11
http://story.news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=st...spaceeuropemars

`The article talks about European space agency wanting to sent a Robot to Mars and be the first to explore the red planet. They are trying to find any signs of life considering that all the water on the planet is under a thick layer of ice. The misters of the ESA board hold a press conference to the media last December.

The rover would be equipped with a suite of scientific instruments designed to search for traces of past and present life on Mars and also identify surface and environmental hazards to future human missions. The ESA will used the US info from their previous mission, they know what they can expect considering that the US had 2 mission on mars before…. The Robot or Rover model will be based on other model that explored the Marian surface. Scientist want to find out one thing……. Where all the water gone? There is proof that there was water on the Marian surface. There theory is that the water is located under the soil layer or under the polar ice caps.

What I think is that they should make a mission to mars with people on board. I always thought when I was a kid that we will be able the visit Mars at the year 2001 or something like that. Now the mission will take place at the year 2011!?!? That kind of sucks.
Remember the mission is going to be with robots. No humans included. Were kind of slow when it comes to technology and really by like 2020 we should be like “I robot”. With the technology and robots and weird cars. I wouldn’t mind to have the audi that Will Smith was driving……

Top
#129534 - 04/11/05 09:51 AM Re: Don't Mind This.
Anonymous
Unregistered


Article 12
http://story.news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=st...spaceeuropemars

`The article talks about European space agency wanting to sent a Robot to Mars and be the first to explore the red planet. They are trying to find any signs of life considering that all the water on the planet is under a thick layer of ice. The misters of the ESA board hold a press conference to the media last December.

The rover would be equipped with a suite of scientific instruments designed to search for traces of past and present life on Mars and also identify surface and environmental hazards to future human missions. The ESA will used the US info from their previous mission, they know what they can expect considering that the US had 2 mission on mars before…. The Robot or Rover model will be based on other model that explored the Marian surface. Scientist want to find out one thing……. Where all the water gone? There is proof that there was water on the Marian surface. There theory is that the water is located under the soil layer or under the polar ice caps.

What I think is that they should make a mission to mars with people on board. I always thought when I was a kid that we will be able the visit Mars at the year 2001 or something like that. Now the mission will take place at the year 2011!?!? That kind of sucks.
Remember the mission is going to be with robots. No humans included. Were kind of slow when it comes to technology and really by like 2020 we should be like “I robot”. With the technology and robots and weird cars. I wouldn’t mind to have the audi that Will Smith was driving……

Top
#129535 - 04/19/05 03:38 PM Re: Don't Mind This.
Anonymous
Unregistered


[QUOTE]Originally posted by Inuyasha:
Meditation:

What is it?: Meditation is a state of relaxation and peace. Makes the body and mind think and concetrates on thoughts. It helps with stress and calms people down. It helps with stress related dieases.

Purpose of Meditation: The Purpose of Meditation is to relax the person and bring them into a peaceful state. Some people use meditation as for stress relive purposes. Others use meditation for training purposes like what I do. (Example: Martial arts )
Others use it through pray or being one with God. (Religon purposes) People say that through meditation they became more aware of there surrondings, self-discipline and concentration. These Two diffrent reason are split up into two major sections. Religous Meditation where a person is trying to connect to a divine or focus meditation which is for health and personal reasons.

Diffrent kinds of meditation:

Samadhi: A meditation technique that makes the person constrates on a certain word, image, person or idea. Use in the hindu and buddhist traditions. Its also use in Christianity (Gregorian chant), and Jewish Kabbalah.

Anapanasati: Meditation that constrates on breathing and focusing on breath.

Vipassana: Focusing not only on breath but also your suroundings. Having insight.

Both Anapanasati and Vipassana meditation are part of Buddhism. These are some of the techniques that they use to progress and ultimately lead to enlightenment ( A high state)

Clinical studies for meditation:
In 1972, transcendental meditation

(Definition of the WIKIPEADIA.COM:technique comprises the silent mental repetition of a simple sound known as a mantra, allowing the repetition to become quieter and quieter, until it disappears and one is left conscious, but without thoughts. This is the goal of the inward stroke of meditation and is called pure consciousness. Together with the mind, the body has come to rest too, and starts to clear out "stress". This means bodily activity, and therefore also mental activity in the form of thoughts...)

affected a patient metabolism by lowering the biochemical of stress, such as lactic acid, and by decreasing heart rate and blood pressure.

Meditation is often used in hospitals for chronic or terminal illness to reduce complications associated with increased stress.

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meditation#Strategies_common_to_many_formsDr.

(Herbert Benson of the Mind-Body Medical Institute, which is affiliated with Harvard and several Boston hospitals, reports that meditation induces a host of biochemical and physical changes in the body collectively referred to as the "relaxation response" (Lazar et.al, 2003). The relaxation response includes changes in metabolism, heart rate, respiration, blood pressure and brain chemistry. Benson and his team have also done clinical studies at Buddhist monasteries in the Himalayan Mountains. Among other well-known studies within this particular field of interest we find the research of Jon Kabat-Zinn and his colleagues at the University of Massachusetts who have done extensive research on the effects of mindfulness meditation on stress (Kabat-Zinn et.al, 1985; Davidson et.al ,2003).

One of the most important invitatons to study the clinical effects of meditation comes from The Dalai Lama, the spiritual leader of Tibet. The Dalai Lama has had many dialogues with Western scientists about this subject and it was at the top of the agenda when he visitied Massachusetts Institute of Technology in September 2003 for the "Investigating the Mind conference".)

Dark side of Meditation: If meditation to done improperly or too intensely can cause psychological and physiological problems. Some side affects are uncomfortable kinaesthetic sensations, mild dissociation and psychosis-like symptoms, depression, relaxation-induced anxiety and panic, paradoxical increases in tension, impaired reality testing, confusion, disorientation and feeling 'spaced out'.

My Procedure: For 10 days Use this meditation before Kung fu training:
Everyday for 30 minutes. To Improve my attentiveness and more focus

{Basic Meditation}
Sit your back against a wall and begin the meditation by closing your eyes and taking in a deep breath through your nose. Let this breath be deep and fill up your belly. When the breath reaches the bottom open your mouth and allow the breath to just fall out without any force. Repeat this several times until your mind and body become more relaxed and integration begins to happen. At this point raise your eyes (still closed) so they are looking up at a 45% angle as if you are looking out the very center of your forehead. Clear all other thoughts from your mind by imagining a 1" shaft of pure white light coming up through the center of your body from the base of your tailbone all the way up to the top crown of your head. Breathe into this shaft of light for a few minutes and then expand the light outward from the shaft core in all directions at the same time by using your breath as the catalyst until the light extends about a foot past your physical body. Take another deep breath, holding the breath for a count of 8. Then release out the mouth any tension or stress in your being. Take a second deep breath holding for the count of 16, releasing it out the mouth with any un-supporting thoughts. Take a third deep breath holding for a count of 32, releasing out the mouth, cleansing the spirit. Now breathe naturally and continue to use light and breath to push out of you any unwanted energy or thoughts mentally, physically, emotionally or spiritually. You can use some relaxing music to enhance your state of meditation. Carry this heart space throughout your day. Claim this (inner) space in the universe as your own, living your vision with good purpose. now this isnt timed so you can do it for as long as you feel,can be from 20 too 3 hours if you wanted.

Day 1:made me calm a bit and made me sleepy during class. Didn't last as long. Got trieder quickly.

Day 2: Feel more calm and not as sleeply. last a 5 minutes longer then usual. Did well
especially in the cardio work.

Day 3: Are teacher try to trick use with hits and I didn't fall for it. More aware of my surrounding and work alittle harder.

Day 4:Fully awake and felt rejuvenated after I did meditation and acually did better and I notice I lasted longer in the cardio workouts and feel more alive.

Day 5: No change but I notice my endurance got better and awareness too.

Day 6: More focus when doing punches and kicks. More focus on plyrometrics exercises.

Day 7: Nothing change just feel a bit better and relax

Day 8: Wasn't that tense doing my kicks and punches. I felt kind of loose after my workout sessions.

Day 9: Begining to breath a little easier and
notice that my endurance is getting better.

Day 10: Last day of meditation. Change my meditation a bit because wanting to see if I get a diffrent reaction. Now focusing on myself looking deep in myself.

Result from my test it show that there was some improvement in my training mainly on focus and power in my hits. Encurance improve.

Conclusion: Meditation is calming thing to do and everybody should do it. It could eliminate road rage. Even though we just found out recently the benifits of meditation we still don't know everything. Who knows. One day the answers for tumors in the brain and cancer might be Meditation.
[/QUOTE]

Holy crap! Inuyasha, I think you should put this post in the MA Talk board. If you don't want to, can I?

Top
#129536 - 04/27/05 01:21 PM Re: Don't Mind This.
Anonymous
Unregistered


NETWORKING 31G & 41G

ELECTRICAL TERMS WORKSHEET ANSWERS
· Define the following using the information in the Courseware
and the Reviews posted on the web:

1. AC - Alternating Current. Alternating current differs from direct current (DC) in that its direction is reversed 60 times per second (50 times per second in some countries). The electricity in ordinary home or office outlets is AC.
2. Ampere - A unit of electric current in the meter-kilogram-second system. It is the steady current that when flowing in straight parallel wires of infinite length and negligible cross section, separated by a distance of one meter in free space, produces a force between the wires of 2 × 10-7 newtons per meter of length.
3. Analog signal - Signal transmission over wires or through the air in which information is conveyed through variation of some combination of signal amplitude, frequency, and phase.

4. Capacitor - Electronic component that stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field; it consists of two conducting metal plates separated by an insulating material.

5. Circuit - 1. The complete path of an electric current including the source of electricity and the conductors through which it flows. 2. A two-way communications path between computers.

6. Conductor - A material through which electrical current can flow.

7. Current - Flow of electrical charge, measured in amperes. An ampere = 6.25 x 1018 electrons per second.

8. DC - Direct current. An electric current flowing in one direction only. Direct current is generally used in electronic circuits.

9. Digital signal - Language of computers comprising only two states, on and off which are indicated by a series of voltage pulses.

10. Diode - Any electronic device that restricts current flow to mainly one direction. Diodes are used to convert AC to DC.

11. Encoding - The process by which bits are represented by voltages; also the conversion of data into digital form; for example, converting an analog sound signal into digital data for storing on a CD.

12. Ohm’s Law - The law stating that the direct current flowing in a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference between its ends. It is usually formulated as V = IR, where V is the potential difference, or voltage, I is the current, and R is the resistance of the conductor.

13. Resistance - The amount of opposition a body or substance offers to the passage of current through it. Resistance is measured in ohms.

14. Resistor - Device made of material that opposes the flow of electric current.

15. Safety ground - Circuit wire that connects to a local earth ground and the chassis of an electrical appliance or device via an electrical outlet and plug. It is used to ensure that no voltage potential exists between the chassis of the electrical device and the earth ground.

16. Sag - A temporary drop in voltage; any decrease of below 80% in the normal voltage carried by a power line. A sag is sometimes referred to as a brownout. It may cause a problem in the computer.

17. Signal Reference Ground - Reference point used by computing devices to measure and compare incoming digital signals to. Reference point used by computing devices to measure and compare incoming digital signals to.

18. Spike - A sudden pulse of extra voltage, lasting a fraction of a second, which can cause the computer to crash and damage files or computer components if there is no surge protector on the line; any power impulse lasting between .5 and 100 microseconds and possessing an amplitude over 100 % of peak power line voltage.

19. Static electricity - An isolated and nonmoving electric charge, such as is produced by friction in a low-humidity environment. The charge may be intentionally generated, as in an electrostatic printer.

20. Surge - A sudden pulse of extra voltage, lasting a second or longer, which can cause the computer to crash and damage files or computer components if there is no surge protector on the line; any voltage increase above 110 % of the normal voltage carried by a power line.

21. Transistor - Device that amplifies a signal or opens and closes a circuit.

22. Voltage - Electromotive force or potential difference, usually expressed in volts.

23. UPS - Uninterruptible Power Supply. Backup device designed to provide an uninterrupted power source in the event of a power failure. They are commonly installed on all file servers and wiring hubs.

24. Surge Suppressor - device that shields computer and other electronic devices from surges in electrical power, or transient voltage, which flow from the power supply. A surge protector works by channeling the extra voltage into the outlet's grounding wire, preventing it from flowing through the electronic devices while at the same time allowing the normal voltage to continue along its path.

25. Decibel
An important way of describing networking signals as a unit that measures the loss or gain of the power of a wave.

NETWORKING 31G & 41G

STRUCTURED CABLING WORKSHEET ANSWERS
· Define the following using the information in the Courseware
and the Reviews posted on the web:

1. Attenuation
Loss of communication signal energy.

2. EMI
Electromagnetic Interference – noise form nearby sources such as motors and lights.

3. RFI
Radio Frequency Interference – noise from other signals beings transmitted neaby.

4. Cancellation
Cancellation provided by two wires in close proximity in an electrical circuit cancel each other’s magnetic field (enhanced by twisting pairs of wires).

5. Cross Talk
Interfering energy transferred from one circuit to another (wires act as antennas).
Causes of crosstalk:
· Most common cause is crossed pairs
· Untwisted pairs at attachment to cross-connect devices, patch panels.
· Cables pulled too tightly around sharp corners.
· Split pairs.

6. Split Pairs
Wires are part of different circuit; current will flow, but no shielding is in effect and near-end crosstalk becomes a problem. Split pairs cannot be detected by a wire map because a circuit is still present; this condition can only be detected by visual inspection or by crosstalk measurements.

7. Crossed Pairs
Wires are connected in reverse order; the connection is poor and the wiring must be redone. A cable tester will find this.

8. Patch Panel
· Where wires are terminated at the wiring closet.
· Includes: ports that allow the interconnection of computers and other network devices such as hubs, repeaters, and routers.
· Horizontal cabling runs terminations.
· Patch cords that connect the horizontal cross-connect directly to the hub.
· Acts as a switchboard.
· Ports are located on the front, pins on the back.
· Mounted on distribution rack – for easy access.
· As with jacks, strip off only about 1 ½” – 2” of the jacket so as not to slow the transmission rate.
· Keep the cable centered over the pin, keep the jacket within ¼” of the pin.
· Don’t untwist the pairs more than ½” – untwisting leads to crosstalk.
· Use the punch down tool so that the blade is away from the pin connection.

9. RJ45 Jack
8 pin jack used for connecting twisted-pair cable at the telecommunications outlet.

10. Time Domain Reflectometer
Times a signal sent towards and reflected back from the end of a cable; used to find an open-ended or shorted cable.

11. Straight-through Cable
For connections between two different types of devices (computer to hub); two ends wired in the same pattern.

12. Cross Connect Cable
For connections between similar devices (two computers, two hubs/switches); one end T568A, the other T568B.

13. Roll Over Cable
For connections between the computer and router or switch (console cables); one end in the straight-through pattern, the other wired in an exactly opposite pattern.

14. Wiring Closet (list three specifications)
Central junction point for wiring and wiring equipment; center of a star topology. Includes patch panels, hubs, bridges, switches, routers.

Wiring Closet Room Specifications
· No fluorescent lights (generate outside electrical interference).
· One wiring closet per floor, plus one for every 1000 m2. Additional wiring closets are required for each area up to 1000 m2 when the floor area served exceeds 1000 m2 or the horizontal cabling distance exceeds 90 m. (For example, a three-floor building in which each floor measures 1500 m2 would have six wiring closets.)
· In a multi-story building, the MDF should be on one of the middle floors to keep the horizontal cable runs no longer than 90 m.
If the distance from the POP to the MDF is greater than 100 m, fiber-optic cable must be used as the backbone connection.
Repeating hubs capable of amplifying and retiming the signals are used to extend the cable if the distance between the MDF and IDF is too great.
· The floor should be tiled or some other finished surface.
· The temperature should be 21° (70° F).
· The humidity should be between 30% and 50%.
· The door should be at least .9m (3’) wide and should swing open out of the room to ensure easy access to the room for workers and equipment.
· The closet should lock from outside access in such a way that exiting from the room is always possible.
· There must be a minimum of 4.6m (15’) of wall space for terminations and related equipment for the POP.
· No dropped or false ceilings (for security).
· Interior walls should be covered with 1.9cm (¾”) plywood that is raised away from the underlying wall a minimum of 4.45cm (1¾”).
· Wiring hubs and patch panels may be wall mounted using hinged wall brackets that are attached to plywood covering underlying the wall surface.
· Patch panels and hubs may be mounted in a distribution rack or a full equipment cabinet.
· Any wall or ceiling openings provided for conduits or sleeved cores must be sealed with smoke and flame retardant materials.

15. Cut Sheet
Rough diagram that shows where cable runs are located.

16. POP
(Point of Presence) – Point where the telephone company’s equipment and the building’s Main Distribution Facility (MDF) connect.

17. MDF
(Main Distribution Facility) - Primary communications room for a building. Central point of a star networking topology where patch panels, hub, and router are located.

18. IDF
(Intermediate Distribution Facility) - Secondary communications room for a building using a star networking topology. The IDF is dependent on the MDF. Backbone Cabling
Cabling that provides interconnections between wiring closets, wiring closets and the POP, and between buildings that are part of the same LAN (also called vertical cabling.) (Also connects IDFs to the MDF in a multi-story building.)

19. Horizontal Cabling
Cabling that runs from the telecommunications outlet (T/O) to the HCC.

20. Backbone Cabling
The part of the network that acts as the primary path for the traffic that is most often sourced from, and destined for, other networks.

21. AUI
Attachment Unit Interface - a connector that interfaces between a computer[s NIC or router interface and and Ethernet cable.

22. GBIC
Gigabit Interface Converter – a hot-swappable input/output device that plugs into a Gigabit Ethernet port. The fiber-optic GBIC is a transceiver that converts serial electric currents to optical signals and that also converts optical signals to digital electric currents.

23. WEP
Wireless Equivalent Privacy – a security mechanism, defined within the 802.11 standard, that is designed to protect the over-the-air-transmission between wireless LAN access points and NICs.

24. IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers – a professional organization whose activities include the development of communications and networking standards.

- 802.2 – LLC sublayer: errors, framing, flow control.
- 802.3 – implementations for Ethernet
- 802.11 – wireless transmissions

25. EIA/TIA
Telecommunications Industry Association/Electronic Industries Association – specifies standards for telecommunications and electrical transmissions.

- 568 – standards for copper cabling
- 569 – building standards for pathways and spaces

FIBER-OPTIC TERMS

26. LED
Light Emitting Diode – produces infrared light with wavelengths of either 850 or 1310 nm. These are used with multimode fiber in LANs. Lenses are used to focus the infrared light on the end of the fiber.

27. Laser
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission Radiation – a light source producing a thin beam of intense infrared light usually with wavelengths of 1310 or 1550 nm. Lasers are used with single-mode fiber over the longer distances involved in WANs or campus backbones.

28. Scattering
Attenuation occurring in fiber-optic cable caused by microscopic not-uniformity (distortions) in the fiber that reflects and scatters some of the light energy.

29. Absorption
Another cause of energy loss – when a light ray strikes some types of chemical impurities in a fiver, the impurities absorb part of the ray’s energy. This light energy is converted to a small amount of heat energy. Absorption makes the light signal a little dimmer.

30. Dispersion
The spreading of pulses of light as they travel down the fiber. Dispersion of a light flash limits transmission distances on a fiber.


NETWORKING 31G & 41G

SWITCHING BASICS
· Define the following using the information in the Courseware
and the Reviews posted on the web:
1. Media Access Control – A standardized data link layer address that is required for every ort of devices that connected to a LAN. Other devices in the network use these addressed to locate specific ports in the network and to create and update routing tables and data structures. MAC addresses are 6 bytes long and are controlled by the IEEEE.

2. Bridge – A layer 2 device designed to create two or more LAN segments, each of which is a separate collision domain. A bridge uses a table of MAC addresses to determine the segment on which a frame needs to be transmitted, and reduces traffic.

3. Switch – A multiport bridge that uses microsegmentation to reduce the number of collisions in a LAN and increase the bandwidth. Switches operate at much higher speeds than bridges, support full-duplex communication and multiple simultaneous conversations.

4. Collision – In Ethernet, the result of two nodes transmitting simultaneously. The frames from each device impact and are damaged when they meet on the physical media.

5. Backoff – The retransmission delay enforced when a collision occurs.

5. Broadcast - A data packet that is sent to all nodes on a network. Broadcasts are identified by a broadcast address.

6. Flooding – A traffic-passing technique used by switches and bridges in which traffic received on an interface is sent out all that device’s interfaces except the interface on which the information was received originally.

7. Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) – Bridge protocol that uses the spanning tree algorithm, enabling a learning bridge dynamically to work around loops in a network topology by creating a spanning tree. Bridges exchange BPDU messages with other bridges to detect loops and then remove the loops by shutting down selected bridge interfaces.

8. Microsegmentation – The division of a network into smaller segments, usually with the intention of increasing aggregate bandwidth to network devices.

9. Latency – Delay between the time when a device receives a frame and the time when that frame is forwarded out the destination port.

10. Store-and-forward switching – A packet-switching technique in which frames are processed completely before being forwarded out the appropriate port. This processing includes calculating the CRC and checking the destination address. In addition, frames must be stored temporarily until network resources (such as an unused link) are available to forward the message.

11. Cut-through switching – A packet-switching approach that streams data through a switch so that the leading edge of a packet exits the switch at the output port before the packet finishes entering the input port. A device using cut-through packet switching reads, processes, and forwards packets as soon as the destination address is looked up and the outgoing port is determined.

12. Fragment-free switching – Switching that filters out collision fragments, which are the majority of packet errors, before forwarding begins.

13. Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) – Spanning tree Protocol hello packet that is sent out at configurable intervals to exchange information among bridges in the network.

14. Collision Domain – In Ethernet, the network area within which frames that have collided are propagated. Repeaters and hubs propagate collisions; LAN switches, bridges, and routers do not.

15. Broadcast Domain – A set of all devices that receive broadcast frames originating from any device within the set. Broadcast domains are typically bounded by routers (or, in a switched network, by VLANs) because routers do not forward broadcast frames.

16. Segment – A section of a network that is bounded by bridges, switches, or routers.

17. VLAN – Virtual LAN; group of devices on a LAN that are configured (using management software) so that they can communicate as if they were attached to the same wire, when is fact they are located on a number of different LAN segments. Because VLANs are based on logical instead of physical connections, they are extremely flexible.

18. Shared-media Environment – Occurs when multiple hosts have access to the same medium. Traditional bus-based (coaxial cable) Ethernet and hub-based (UTP cable) are shard-media environments.

19. Circuit-switched – An indirectly connected network in which actual electrical circuits are maintained for the duration for the communication. Circuit switching sets up a physical, en-to-end connection between the endpoints. The bandwidth is dedicated to this point-to-point connection. Because this is not a shared environment, there are no collisions.

20. Packet-switched – Instead of dedicating a link as an exclusive circuit connection between two communicating hosts, the source sends messages in packets. Each packet contains enough information for it to be routed to the proper destination host. Packet-switched networks frequently share physical media, but because logical point-to-point connections are created, there are no collisions.

21. MTU – Maximum Transmission Unit – the maximum packet size, in bytes, that a particular interface can handle.


NETWORKING 31G & 41G

TOPOLOGY WORKSHEET ANSWERS
· Define the following using the information in the Courseware
and the Reviews posted on the web:
1. Physical Topology – refers to the physical layout of the devices and media.

2. Bus – connects all the devices using a single cable. This cable proceeds from one computer to the next like a bus line going through a city. The main cable segment must end with a terminator that absorbs the signal when it reaches the end of the line. If there is no terminator, the electrical signal representing the data bounces back at the end of the wire, causing errors in the network.

3. Star – made up of a central connection point that is a device such as a bun, switch, or router, where all the cabling segments meet. Each host is connected to the central device with its own cable. If the central device fails, the whole network becomes disconnected.

4. Extended Star – a star network expanded to include an additional networking device that is connected to the main networking device.

5. Ring – hosts are connected in the form of a ring or circle. The ring topology has no beginning or end that needs to be terminated. A frame travels around the ring, stopping at each node. If a node wants to transmit data, it is permitted to add that data as well as the destination address to the frame. The frame then continues around the ring until it finds the destination node, which takes the data out of the frame. There are no collisions of data packets.

6. Hierarchical – similar to an extended star, but uses a trunk node from which it branches to other nodes rather than a central node.

7. Mesh – Connects all devices to each other for redundancy and fault tolerance.

8. VPN – a private network that is constructed within a public network infrastructure or the Internet. Three main types are access, intranet, and extranet.

9. Logical Topology – defines how the medium is accessed by the hosts for sending data.

10. Broadcast Technology – each host addresses its data to a particular NIC, to a multicast address, or to a broadcast address on the network medium. There is no order that the stations must follow to use the network. It is first come, first served, or prohabilistic.

11. CSMA/CD – Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect is a characteristic of Ethernet networks. Devices first check the channel for a carrier. If no carrier is sensed for a specific period of time, a device can transmit. If two devices transmit at once, a collision occurs and is detected by all colliding devices. This collision subsequently delays retransmissions from those devices for some random length of time (backoff).

12. Token Passing Technology – an access method by which network devices access the physical medium in an orderly fashion based on possession of a small frame called a token (deterministic).

13. Four-repeater (5-4-3-2-1) Rule – No more than four repeaters or repeating hubs can be between any two computers on the network.
● Host sections consist of
- 5 sections of network media
- 4 repeaters or hubs
- 3 sections of the network
● 2 sections are link sections (no hosts)
● 1 large collision domain

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#129537 - 04/29/05 09:31 AM Re: Don't Mind This.
Anonymous
Unregistered


Article 14
http://story.news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=st...liquid_surprise

Results from a particle collider ( Device that propel particles to make them into greater energies.) suggest that the universe in the early beginning was like liquid instead of gas.
“Between 2000 and 2003 the lab's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, known as RHIC, repeatedly smashed the nuclei of gold atoms together with such force that their energy briefly generated trillion-degree temperatures. Physicists think of the collider as a time machine, because those extreme temperature conditions last prevailed in the universe less than 100 millionths of a second after the big bang.”
In english it means that the mad a machine that could smash nuclei of gold atoms together that they create temperature in the trillion degree. They say that from there experiments they formed nearly perfect liquid or having no viscosity. honey has a lot of viscosity and water has a less amount of viscosity. Perfect in reality can’t happen or its imposible but useful in theories and equations. Some physicist say that the experiment and black holes have something in common. If they can find the similarities they find unification of nature's forces.

Its cool that universe wasn’t just gases in the beginning but it has also change my view of the big bang theory and the starting of the universe.

Article 13 http://www.livescience.com/humanbiology/050411_aubrey_interview.html

Sound’s ridiculous as it may seem but if you wait for 25 more years humans might be able to live for 1000 years!! De Grey, a Cambridge University researcher, heads the Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence (SENS) project. They recently won a million dollar prize for Extending a mouse’s life beyond its normal years.
De grey timeline on how long it would take and how he would do it.
“I reckon it will be about 10 years before we can achieve the degree of life extension with late onset interventions that will be necessary to prove to society’s satisfaction that this is feasible. It could be longer, but I think that so long as the funding is there, then it should be about 10 years.
Step two will involve translating that technology to humans. And because that’s further in the future, it’s much more speculative about how long that’s going to take. But I think we have a fifty-fifty chance of doing it within about 15 years from the point where we get results with the mice. So 25 years from now.”

Even though it sounds good to live long or nearly forever it could be a bad thing then a good thing. Think about it if people live for 1000 years we would be over populated on earth and are population would use up all of the earth’s resources. We would be like roaches even though that harsh to say. Also I think people would commit suicide more. Just because they can’t died until 700 years. Also what would you do for 1000 years?

People would go crazy!

Personally we would be playing god. Also the moral of the thing. De Grey has extended a mouse’s life but that doesn’t compare to humans. How can you do that kind of procedure without risking human life.

But I would mind living for a milenimum or two………
Article 12
http://story.news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=st...spaceeuropemars

`The article talks about European space agency wanting to sent a Robot to Mars and be the first to explore the red planet. They are trying to find any signs of life considering that all the water on the planet is under a thick layer of ice. The misters of the ESA board hold a press conference to the media last December.

The rover would be equipped with a suite of scientific instruments designed to search for traces of past and present life on Mars and also identify surface and environmental hazards to future human missions. The ESA will used the US info from their previous mission, they know what they can expect considering that the US had 2 mission on mars before…. The Robot or Rover model will be based on other model that explored the Marian surface. Scientist want to find out one thing……. Where all the water gone? There is proof that there was water on the Marian surface. There theory is that the water is located under the soil layer or under the polar ice caps.

What I think is that they should make a mission to mars with people on board. I always thought when I was a kid that we will be able the visit Mars at the year 2001 or something like that. Now the mission will take place at the year 2011!?!? That kind of sucks.
Remember the mission is going to be with robots. No humans included. Were kind of slow when it comes to technology and really by like 2020 we should be like “I robot”. With the technology and robots and weird cars. I wouldn’t mind to have the audi that Will Smith was driving……

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